Endothelium-derived factors such as NO and prostaglandin I2 are known to elevate both cGMP and cAMP levels with concomitant platelet inhibition and VASP phosphorylation. In our in vitro experiments, therapeutically relevant concentrations (3.5 micromol/L) of dipyridamole amplified only cGMP-mediated VASP phosphorylation due to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside, but not cAMP-mediated effects. Furthermore, thromboxane synthase activity and serotonin secretion, events important for initial platelet activation, were inhibited by sodium nitroprusside, an effect also enhanced by dipyridamole, demonstrating the functional relevance of these observations. Finally, the ex vivo enhancement of NO/cGMP effects was also observed with platelets obtained from healthy volunteers treated with extended-release dipyridamole.
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Our results suggest that any of the single antiplatelet agents compared with placebo in the included trials is adequate for secondary stroke prevention after lacunar stroke. Dual antiplatelet therapy should not be used for long-term stroke prevention in this stroke subtype.
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The aim of secondary prevention in stroke is to avoid restrokes. The current standard treatment in Germany is a lifelong therapy with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). As the incidence of restrokes remains relatively high from a health-care payer's perspective, the question arises, whether the combination of dipyridamole + acetylsalicylic acid (Dip + ASA) is cost-effective in comparison with a therapy based on ASA only.
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Eighty-three patients (90 endarterectomies) were randomly assigned to receive oral aspirin, 325 mg, plus dipyridamole, 75 mg, beginning 12 hours preoperatively, followed by a second dose administered within 8 hours after the operation, and given three times daily thereafter for 1 year. Eighty patients (85 endarterectomies) received placebo medication that was identical in appearance to the study drugs.
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The study group of 102 CEA patients (76 men, mean age 66.8 years) was randomised to routine Asasantin (Dipyridamole 200mg/Aspirin 25mg) twice daily (group I; n=39), Asasantin plus 75 mg Clopidogrel once daily (group II; n=33), or Asasantin plus Rheomacrodex (Dextran 40) 100g/L iv; 500 ml (group III; n=30). TCD monitoring of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery for the occurrence of MES was performed intra-operatively and during the second postoperative hour following CEA. Primary endpoints were the rate of postoperative emboli and the occurrence of cerebrovascular complications. Secondary endpoint was any adverse bleeding.
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Twenty-four children (ages 1 to 18 years, mean 12.2 years) underwent 27 operations for aortic, mitral, or combined aortic and mitral valve replacement. There was 1 operative death. Of the 23 operative survivors (12 aortic, 8 mitral, 3 combined valve replacement), only 5 were given warfarin for long-term anticoagulation. The remaining 18 (10 aortic, 8 mitral valve replacement) were given aspirin (plus dipyridamole in 5). Twelve of the 18 had at least one mechanical valve (11 Björk-Shiley and Beall valves; 1 Björk-Shiley valve was replaced with a Beall disc valve as the child grew). These 18 patients were followed for 1 to 59 months (mean, 20.4 months). There was no thrombotic, embolic, or bleeding complications. There were 2 late deaths (one cardiac). Review of the available literature indicates that in children with prosthetic cardiac valves, aspirin (with or without dipyridamole) provides adequate protection against thromboemboli and avoids the hemorrhagic complications associated with warfarin.
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We found a significant difference in myocardial infarction and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage recurrence among different race-ethnic groups. The risk of recurrent ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke was greater in Asians with high blood pressure.
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Various pharmacological approaches have been advocated, but the relative efficacy and safety of these regimens has remained the subject of much debate. The results of recent clinical trials on the use of antiplatelet therapy suggest that patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack may constitute a population distinct from patients with coronary or peripheral vascular disease. This may be caused, in part, by the differing etiologies of stroke and the increased vulnerability of cerebral vessels to bleeding. Indeed, dual antiplatelet therapy, which has been found to be beneficial for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions, does not confer secondary stroke protection. The emerging paradigm is that some level of platelet inhibition is required for secondary stroke protection; a level beyond which increased risk of bleeding arises.
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The article describes the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of aspirin, dipyridamole, cilostazol, the thienopyridines, and the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists. The relationships among dose, efficacy, and safety are discussed along with a mechanistic overview of results of randomized clinical trials. The article does not provide specific management recommendations but highlights important practical aspects of antiplatelet therapy, including optimal dosing, the variable balance between benefits and risks when antiplatelet therapies are used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs in different clinical settings, and the implications of persistently high platelet reactivity despite such treatment.
Many stroke survivors have severe dysphagia and are unable to take antithrombotic medications orally.
To compare the effects of indobufen (INB) with those of ASA+dipyridamole (DP) on graft patency, 113 patients undergoing femoropopliteal bypass surgery were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment with INB 400 mg daily or with ASA 900 mg daily plus DP 225 mg daily. Treatment started 2 days before surgery and lasted for 12 months. All patients underwent two angiographic examinations: the first early after surgery (mean 6 days) and the second at the end of the study (mean 368 days). The 1 year cumulative patency rate for INB was 60% higher but not statistically different from the ASA-DP group (53.2%). The relative risk (INB/ASA+DP) calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel test was 0.86 (confidence limits 0.54-1.35). Only the site of operation (above-knee or below-knee) has a significant prognostic value on the fate of the graft.
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Patients are randomised to antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, dipyridamole or clopidogrel alone or in dual combination) or anticoagulation therapy [heparin followed by warfarin aiming for an International Normalised Ratio (INR) in the range 2-3] for at least 3 months. Treatment is open-label.
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Recent (1995-2003) published scientific literature, as identified by the authors through Medline searches, using the terms stroke, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular disease, atherothrombosis, risk factors, pharmacotherapy, prevention, and reviews on treatment.
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According to meta-analyses aspirin provides a relative reduction in the rate of major vascular events of 19% in patients with arterial disease in general, whereas for patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease this reduction is only 13%. The discrepancy may well result from pathophysiological differences and not from a play of chance. There is no proven difference in efficacy according to dose. The evidence for this equivalence is most compelling in the range between 75 and 1300 mg daily, but still fairly convincing for doses between 30 and 50 mg. In contrast, side effects are clearly more frequent as the dose is higher. Other antiplatelet agents (sulfinpyrazone, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, orally administered IIb/IIIa inhibitors) have no clear advantages over aspirin and in some cases definite disadvantages; the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole may be more efficacious than aspirin alone, but the evidence hinges on a single trial. If recurrent TIAs occur under treatment with aspirin, the rational response is not to change to a different antiplatelet agent, but to review the diagnosis and consider causes other than artery-to-artery embolism. Platelet aggregation can probably still occur despite complete acetylation of platelets, via pathways other than COX-1 inhibition, but in vitro aggregation tests are an unreliable measure.
Long-term monotherapy was a better choice than long-term dual therapy, and cilostazol had the best risk-benefit profile for long-term secondary prevention after stroke or transient ischemic attack. More randomized controlled trials in non-East Asian patients are needed to determine whether long-term use of cilostazol is the best option for the prevention of recurrent stroke.
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After cardiac valve replacement patients were blindly randomized into two groups, both receiving aspirin (330 mg) and dipyridamole (75 mg) twice daily and the oral anticoagulant acenocoumarol (Sintrom). An international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 2.99 was assigned to group A and 3.0 to 4.5 to group B; both groups were subsequently analyzed for thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. Final evaluation included 51 and 48 patients, respectively. The follow-up was 626 months for group A (12.3 months/patient) and 486 months for group B (10.1 months/patient). The frequency of thromboembolism was equal in both groups: one transient ischemic attack in group A (a rate of 1.92/100 patient-years) and two transient ischemic attacks in group B (a rate of 4.94/100 patient-years). There was, however, a statistical difference in bleeding complications between the two groups (p less than 0.02). Two patients bled in group A, a rate of 3.9% (3.8/100 patient-years), which represents an incidence of one episode each 25.6 years of treatment; 10 patients bled in group B, a rate of 20.8% (24.7/100 patient-years) representing an incidence of one episode each 4 years of treatment. We conclude that an international normalized ratio of 2 to 3 is safer than a ratio of 3 to 4.5 and confers good protection from thromboembolism when oral anticoagulant therapy is used conjointly with platelet function-inhibiting drugs in patients with mechanical substitute heart valves.
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Although patients treated with regimens 2 and 4 were more ill at presentation than those treated with regimens 1 and 3, respectively, the duration of fever was shorter in the former patient groups (P =.0013). Coronary aneurysms developed least frequently in patients treated with regimen 4 and less frequently with regimen 2 than with regimen 1 (P =.0730). Multiple regression analysis showed significant reductions of fever and coronary aneurysm incidence with prednisolone (P <.0001 and P =.0307, respectively).
We studied a retrospective cohort of adult patients with a diagnosis of IE who presented to the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) during 1980-1998. The cohort was divided into 2 groups on the basis of whether they had received continuous daily antiplatelet therapy for at least 6 months prior to the time of hospitalization for IE. Antiplatelet therapy included aspirin, dipyridamole, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, or any of combination of these agents. The primary end point was a symptomatic embolic event that occurred prior to or during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the impact of continuous daily antiplatelet therapy on risk of symptomatic emboli associated with IE.
A cardioembolic etiology of the index event and atrial fibrillation were independently associated with the use of OAC. Age was inversely associated with the use of OAC. Different estimations of contraindications to OAC were the main reason for the considerable variability among the participating centers. The most important factor promoting the use of clopidogrel was therapy with aspirin before the index event. Patients with large- or small-vessel disease received clopidogrel more often than those with an event of undetermined etiology. We found an extremely high interhospital variability for the use of the combination of aspirin with extended-release dipyridamole.
Five trials involving the use of aspirin and dipyridamole were included, 4318 allocated to A+D and 4304 to A alone. Meta-analysis of trials showed a significant protective effect of reducing or preventing recurrence of stroke (P=0.01), and ischemic event (P=0.003). The statistics showed no significant difference in vascular event, death from all cause and myocardial infarction (P>0.05). There were similarities with all bleeding events, major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage was significant (P>0.05) between two groups.
The authors are solely responsible for the content of this article. No statement on this article should be construed as an official position of ASIPP. The guidelines do not represent "standard of care."
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Erosive oesophagitis is common in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding taking low-dose aspirin or antithrombotic agents, and could potentially be confused with the coexisting heart disease.
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Thirty-eight dogs were randomized to the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor CGS12790 (3 mg/kg), aspirin 150 mg and dipyridamole 50 mg (ASA + DPM) or placebo (PLA), all twice daily. Two days later, animals underwent bilateral superficial femoral artery replacement with knitted Dacron. Grafts were removed at two months and subjected to macroscopic and histological examination. Thirty dogs survived to two months. Percentage thrombus free area (TFA) was increased from 15.1 +/- 2.2 with PLA to 46.6 +/- 5.2 with CGS12970 (P < 0.001) and to 32.9 +/- 5.0 with ASA + DPM (P < 0.01). At the anastomoses, only CGS12970 significantly reduced neointimal thickness, promoted pannus ingrowth and improved endothelialization. Percentage luminal occlusion at the midgraft was reduced from 48.2 +/- 5.9 with PLA to 33.9 +/- 2.7 with CGS12970 (P < 0.05). These results provide further evidence that platelet inhibitory therapy reduces thrombosis but also that the platelet is involved in anastomotic maturation. Therapy directed against thromboxane synthesis has potential that may be useful in clinical practice.
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A repeated cross-sectional analysis was conducted on pharmaceutical dispensing data for all individuals' ≥ 65 years. Variable medication possession ratio (VMPR) was used to measure adherence. Prescribing of low-dose aspirin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, warfarin, dabigatran, statins and bisphosphonates with a VMPR≥0.8 were examined.
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All other aspirin preparations tested were inferior to dispersible aspirin (P<0.001) in their effect on serum TXB(2) level. Treatment failure (<95% inhibition serum TXB2 formation) occurred in 14 subjects, none of whom were taking dispersible aspirin. Mean weight for those demonstrating treatment failure was greater than those with complete TXB2 (>99%) inhibition (P<0.001). Using logistic regression analysis an 80-kg subject had a 20% probability of treatment failure. Asasantin was the most potent preparation in terms of inhibition of platelet aggregation.
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In a series of articles the authors consider clinical pharmacology and experience of clinical application of blockers of platelet P2Y12 receptors, most well known representatives of which ticlopidine and clopidogrel according to chemical structure belong to thienopyridine derivatives. In the third communication we consider data of randomized studies in which efficacy and safety of clopidogrel monotherapy has been assessed in comparison with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), ticlopidine, warfarin, as well as ASA in combination with extended release form of dipyridamole in various cardio-vascular diseases. Results of these studies indicate that efficacy of monotherapy with clopidogrel is comparable with that of ASA, ticlopidine, warfarin, and ASA in combination with extended release form of dipyridamole. Clopidogrel significantly more rarely causes ulcerogenic and other hemorrhagic complications than ticlopidine, but is substantially more expensive. Therefore prescribing of clopidogrel as monotherapy is justified only in those cases when ASA and ticlopidine are contraindicated or induce pronounced side effects.
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The aim of this study was to apply the findings of the European Stroke Prevention Study 2 (ESPS-2) to a paper that quantified and described the annual cost of ischaemic stroke in New Zealand, and to compare the cost of alternative drug regimens in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. Comparisons were made between the costs of low-dosage aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) monotherapy and a combination of modified-release dipyridamole and low-dosage aspirin. Differences in undiscounted costs were calculated over a 2-year period. The New Zealand cost per stroke event was multiplied by the ESPS-2 incremental reduction in stroke events to derive the cost of strokes avoided. As the focus of the paper was on direct medical costs, the primary perspective adopted was that of a healthcare provider or funder, but a societal perspective was also considered by evaluation of direct nonmedical and indirect costs. Compared with aspirin monotherapy, combination therapy generated incremental net direct costs of 18.22 New Zealand dollars ($NZ) per patient or $NZ18,223 per 1000 patients. However, individually, each treatment regimen resulted in direct cost savings when compared with placebo: combination therapy $NZ905.16 per patient; aspirin monotherapy $NZ923.39 per patient (a difference between the 2 regimens of $NZ18.22 per patient). Total direct and indirect incremental cost savings were $NZ40.96 per patient, and $NZ40,963 per 1000 patients, for the combination therapy. The analysis demonstrates that changing patients from low-dosage aspirin to a combination therapy of modified-release dipyridamole plus low-dosage aspirin would result in a small rise in incremental direct costs (using our conservative assumptions relating to hospital and continuing institutional care costs). If less conservative unit cost assumptions were adopted, a more likely outcome would be a saving in direct incremental costs of up to $NZ400 per patient treated.
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A total of 6602 patients were recruited to the ESPS2 and there were 4 treatment groups: ASA (25 mg twice daily), DP (200 mg twice daily), ASA and DP in a combined formulation, or placebo. Primary endpoints were stroke, death, and stroke or death together. The endpoints evaluated in the present study were stroke, stroke and/or death, and vascular events. Stroke was the qualifying event in 76% of the patients, while 24% had a transient ischaemic attack. Patients were reviewed at 3-month intervals for 2 years. The study population consisted of 2565 (39%) patients aged less than 65 years, 2240 (34%) patients aged between 65 and 74 years, and 1797 (27%) patients aged 75 years and over. Advancing age was associated with an increased incidence of endpoints in all 4 treatment groups. The combination of ASA and DP significantly reduced the incidence of all endpoints, compared with placebo, in each age group. There was no influence of age on the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for any of the evaluated endpoints. Relative risk reductions of treatment compared with placebo were 11.1-27.6% in the ASA group, 8.0-18.7% in the DP group, and 20.3-45.2% in patients receiving combination therapy.
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In the present study, we could not show a significant influence of different antiplatelet regimens on TCD detected postoperative embolization following CEA.
Aspirin is of proven value as an antithrombotic drug. In unstable angina it reduces the risk of death and myocardial infarction by half. After a myocardial infarction it reduces the risk of death by about 10% and of coronary incidence (coronary death or definite myocardial infarction) by about 25%. These effects appear to be additive with those of beta-blocking drugs. Aspirin also reduces the risk of occlusion of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts by about half. In transient cerebral ischaemia, aspirin may reduce the risk of stroke and death by 50%. In most clinical trials to date the daily dose of aspirin ranges from 325 mg to 1400 mg. Interest in very low doses of aspirin (less than 60 mg daily) is considerable but has yet to be translated into proven clinical benefit. Dipyridamole has not been shown to be effective as an antithrombotic when used alone. Its antiplatelet action ex vivo may be enhanced by combination with aspirin but clinical trials have shown relatively little advantage of the combination over aspirin alone. Sulphinpyrazone has not become established as a first line antithrombotic drug. Epoprostenol is useful in extracorporeal circulations to prevent platelet consumption and possibly in severe inoperable peripheral vascular disease.