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Four hundred and forty-nine hypertensives and 486 normotensives were treated with placebo, 980 and 786 with zofenopril 30-60 mg daily, 252 and 259 with lisinopril 5-10 mg daily, 199 and 131 with ramipril 10 mg daily, for 6 to 48 weeks.
Sprague-Dawley diabetic and non-diabetic rats were randomized to receive intervention therapy with apocynin (15 mg/kg/day, weeks 16-32), apocynin + the ACEi ramipril (1 mg/kg/day, weeks 16-32), or ramipril alone (1 mg/kg).
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The primary outcome measure was the combined incidence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure leading to hospital admission, and end stage renal failure.
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Markov-model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, informed by systematic reviews, which identified efficacy, utilities and adherence data inputs.
The effects of a nonpeptide, orally active mixed endothelin (ET) ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, SB 217242, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, were evaluated after inter-renal aortic banding in the rat. Separate sham, vehicle, and treatment groups were compared in each study. In vehicle-treated animals in the ramipril group, aortic banding for 4 weeks produced significant cardiac hypertrophy (247 +/- 5 mg/100 g bw vs. 305 +/- 11 mg/100 g bw; p < 0.001), right (upstream) renal hypertrophy (380 +/- 6 mg/100 g bw vs. 559 +/- 28 mg/100 g bw; p < 0.001), and significant left (downstream) renal atrophy (405 +/- 4 mg/100 g bw vs. 192 +/- 25 mg/100 g bw; p < 0.001). Continuous ramipril treatment (1 mg/kg p.o. once daily), begun 3 days before aortic banding, inhibited cardiac hypertrophy (305 +/- 11 mg/100 g bw vs. 266 +/- 7 mg/100 g bw; p < 0.05) but did not alter renal hypertrophy or atrophy. In a similarly designed study, SB 217242 (30 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) had no effect on the development of cardiac hypertrophy (298 +/- 7 mg/100 g bw vs. 310 +/- 12 mg/100 g bw) or renal hypertrophy (561 +/- 15 mg/100 g bw vs. 575 +/- 19 mg/100 g bw), but abolished the development of renal atrophy (158 +/- 16 mg/100 g bw vs. 395 +/- 19 mg/100 g bw; p < 0.001). [125I]ET-1 radioligand binding experiments indicated that the density of both ETA and ETB receptors was increased dramatically (three- to fourfold) in the atrophic kidney cortex compared to sham or hypertrophic kidneys. In situ hybridization studies indicate an upregulation of ETB receptor mRNA in the glomeruli of atrophic kidneys within 5 days of aortic banding. In conclusion, an angiotensin-dependent mechanism may mediate cardiac hypertrophy associated with aortic banding, whereas ET-dependent mechanisms may mediate an atrophic response in the hypoperfused kidney, perhaps through an interaction with upregulated ETA and/or ETB receptors.
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Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in Western nations, although improved possibilities regarding diagnosis and therapy now exist. Endothelial dysfunction is triggered by cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, adiposity and smoking, contributing to the common endpoint of atherosclerosis. This study examined the pharmacological effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and combined ACE-neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (vasopeptidase) inhibitors on endothelial dysfunction in the model of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. The focus of the study was to assess endothelial function after treatment with the ACE-NEP inhibitor AVE 7688 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison to the ACE inhibitor (ACE-I) ramipril (1 mg/kg/day). Different parameters, such as endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), expansion of plaques, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2-) release and plasma levels of various lipidaemic parameters were analysed. Control groups consisted of one group fed only with normal diet, one group fed only with atherogenic diet and the direct control group fed with varied diets (six weeks atherogenic diet followed by 12 weeks normal diet). Since for the treatment of atherosclerosis, a change in feeding is absolutely necessary, in the present study, at the start of the treatments with AVE 7688 and ramipril, the rabbits food was changed to a normal diet. At the end of the study, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was measured in the anaesthetised animals. The values in standard, atherogenic and varied diet-fed rabbits were around 73 2 mmHg. Angiotensin I (Ang I) given intravenous (i.v.) induced a strong increase in MAP of about 20%. In both the treated groups Ang I-induced BP increase was inhibited. In contrast, i.v. bradykinin led to a strong reduction in MAP in both the treated groups of around 50%. Six weeks feeding with an atherogenic diet in the rabbits induced an enduring endothelial dysfunction despite the food subsequently being changed to a normal chow. All measured parameters indicated a significant favourable effect on endothelial dysfunction as a result of the two treatment regimens. Endothelial function measured in the organ chamber showed somewhat greater improvement in the ACE-NEP treated group than in the ACE-I treated group. The treatment with ramipril, as well as with AVE 7688, restored endothelial function by increasing the ratio of NO to O2- concentration and bioavailability of NO. In this study, a similar protective effect on endothelial function was shown by ACE-NEP inhibition as already seen with ACE inhibitors in an animal model of atherosclerosis.
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A retrospective cohort study in a 'real-world' setting.
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A statistical experimental design was used to optimise a capillary electrophoretic separation method for eight inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme: enalapril, lisinopril, quinapril, fosinopril, perindopril, ramipril, benazepril, and cilazapril. Because a free solution capillary electrophoresis system did not achieve a complete separation of these eight compounds in one run, the usefulness of alkylsulphonates as ion-pairing agents was investigated. After preliminary investigations to determine the experimental domain and the most important factors, a three-level full-factorial design was applied to study the impact of the pH and the molarity of the ion-pairing agent on the separation. Improved separations were obtained suggesting a favourable effect of ion-pairing interactions between analytes and the additive; however, it remained impossible to separate them all in one run. A combination of two systems was still necessary for the selective identification of these structurally-related substances.
Hypertrophied and failing myocardium has been shown to undergo creatine kinase (CK) isoform switching, resulting in increased MB and BB components. We tested the hypothesis that chronic volume overload hypertrophy due to mitral regurgitation in the dog causes CK isoenzyme switching and that this could be reversed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Thirteen adult mongrel dogs had mitral regurgitation induced by mitral valvular chordal rupture: six were treated with ramipril for 4 months and seven were untreated for 4 months. Twelve dogs were sham-operated: six received ramipril for 3 months and six were untreated. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from 58+/-4 to 104+/-10 ml in untreated (P<0.001) and from 55+/-3 to 91+/-6 ml in treated dogs (P<0.01) as LV mass/volume ratio decreased in both untreated (1. 60+/-0.07 to 1.13+/-0.08 g/ml, P<0.001) and treated dogs (1.44+/-0.06 to 1.20+/-0.08 g/ml, P<0.01). CK-MB isoform was 7.4+/-1.1% in normal shams and increased to 13.5+/-1.9% and 18.1+/-3.0% in both treated and untreated mitral regurgitation dogs; respectively (P<0. 05). Steady state CK-B mRNA increased three-fold in treated and untreated dogs with mitral regurgitation (P<0.003) compared to normals, while CK-M mRNA expression did not differ in all groups. Thus, chronic volume overload hypertrophy of mitral regurgitation induces CK isoform switching by selective induction of the CK-B gene, and ramipril therapy does not affect this isoform switch. This may reflect a response to increased diastolic stress and more efficient energy utilization in the volume overloaded myocardium.
Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) exerts a renoprotective effect in adult patients with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated prospectively changes in blood pressure (BP), protein excretion and renal function after administration of the long-acting ACE inhibitor ramipril as monotherapy during 6 months in 14 moderately hypertensive children aged 5-18 years with various nephropathies. Four patients initially had a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). BP was evaluated by ambulatory 24-h monitoring. After 2 weeks of treatment by oral ramipril (1.5 mg/m2 once daily), mean values of systolic and diastolic 24-h ambulatory BP fell by more than 5 mmHg in nine patients. In eight patients the dose was doubled. At the end of the study systolic BP was below the 95th percentile in 9 and diastolic BP in 13 patients. The initially reduced nocturnal dip increased significantly. Of 11 patients with an increased albumin excretion (median 1.3 g/g creatinine), 6 responded to ramipril by a median reduction of 78% (range 24-83%), whilst in 5 albuminuria increased (median +19%). GFR was well preserved and no other adverse effects from the drug were noted. The study demonstrates that ramipril is an efficacious antihypertensive agent in children with renal hypertension. It is well tolerated, even in mild renal insufficiency. In addition, the drug has a persistent antiproteinuric action in about half of the patients contributing to conserve renal function.
The objective of the present-study was to determine whether acute inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), normalizes intrarenal sodium handling, renal haemodynamics and renal dopamine output in response to an i.v. NaCl infusion in type 1 diabetic patients with early nephropathy. Nine diabetic patients (aged 28 +/- 3 years) with elevated urinary albumin excretion (173 +/- 39 mg.min-1) were studied. The effects of a 2-hour NaCl infusion (12.5 ml.kg-1-h-1) on para-amino hippuric acid (PAH), insulin, lithium and sodium clearances as well as the urinary dopamine excretion were studied before and after 2 days of acute ACE inhibition. Fifteen healthy subjects (aged 34 +/- 1 years) served as controls. The results showed that 2 days of ACE inhibition improved the natriuretic response significantly (P < 0.05) within the first 2 h following an i.v. NaCl load due to a normalization of the proximal tubular sodium handling. In control subjects urinary dopamine output increased by 14% (P < 0.01) following i.v. NaCl infusion, whereas a blunted increase was seen in the diabetic patients, which tended to normalize following inhibition of ACE. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that patients with type 1 diabetes and early nephropathy display abnormalities in renal haemodynamics, natriuresis and urinary dopamine mobilization in response to a sodium load, which can be reversed by short-term inhibition of ACE.
A number of protected learning time schemes have been set up in primary care across the United Kingdom but there has been little published evidence of their impact on processes of care. We undertook a qualitative study to investigate the perceptions of practitioners involved in a specific educational intervention in diabetes as part of a protected learning time scheme for primary health care teams, relating to changing processes of diabetes care in general practice.
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From May 2002 to September 2014 we included in this observational, longitudinal, cohort study 20 consecutive children with chronic nephropathies and 24-h proteinuria of >200 mg who had received ramipril and losartan up-titrated to the respective maximum approved and tolerated doses [mean (standard deviation) dose:2.48 (1.37) mg/m(2) and 0.61 (0.46) mg/kg daily, respectively]. The primary efficacy endpoint was a >50 % reduction in 24-h proteinuria to <200 mg (remission). Secondary outcomes included changes in proteinuria, serum albumin, BP, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
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We believe that C1 inhibitor was effective in reversing the ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema in our patient.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic kidney disease. However, tubulointerstitial pathology may also be an important determinant of progressive renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated tubulointerstitial injury, TGF-beta1 expression, and the effect of blocking the RAS by inhibition of ACE. We randomized 36 male SD rats to control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in 24 rats by administration of streptozotocin; 12 diabetic rats were further randomized to receive the ACE inhibitor ramipril (3 mg/l drinking water). At 6 months, experimental diabetes was associated with tubulointerstitial damage, a 70% increase in expression of TGF-beta1 (P < 0.05 vs. control), and a 120% increase in alpha1 (IV) collagen gene expression (P < 0.01 vs. control). In situ hybridization demonstrated a diffuse increase in both TGF-beta1 and alpha1 (IV) collagen mRNA in renal tubules. In addition, intense expression of both transcripts was noted in regions of focal tubular dilatation. Administration of the ACE inhibitor ramipril prevented tubulointerstitial injury and the overexpression of TGF-beta1 and alpha1 (IV) collagen mRNA. Changes in gene expression were accompanied by parallel changes in immunostaining for TGF-beta1 and type IV collagen. The observed beneficial effects of ramipril on the tubulointerstitium in experimental diabetes suggest that this mechanism may contribute to the therapeutic effect of ACE inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy.
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Ramipril increased antioxidative protein expression and enzyme activity, which could partly explain the role of ramipril in attenuating LV remodelling. In addition, the present study identifies several potential protein targets which may help to explain the mechanism by which ramipril exerts its effect in post-infarction LV remodelling in the rabbit.
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Based on the results of large clinical trials, ACE inhibitors are established as routine treatment after acute myocardial infarction accompanied by heart failure. Pathophysiologically, the benefit of ACE inhibitors has been attributed to an effect on remodelling of the left ventricle. In the past decade, it has been suggested that ACE inhibitors might have other important mechanisms of action and accordingly be useful for other conditions than those they have been used for until now.
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These results suggest that AGTM235T gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension. However, none of the AGTM235T, AGTT174M and ACEI/D gene polymorphisms influenced ramipril effectiveness.
Cardiovascular disease represents a continuum that starts with risk factors, such as hypertension, and progresses to atherosclerosis, target organ damage, and ultimately leads to heart failure or stroke. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been shown to be beneficial at all stages of this continuum. Both classes of agent can prevent or reverse endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, thereby potentially reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. Such a reduction has been shown with ACE inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease, but no such data are currently available for ARBs. Both ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been shown to reduce damage in target organs, such as the heart and kidney, and to decrease cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure. Trials, such as the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE-Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND), that compare telmisartan, ramipril, and their combination in high-risk patients with vascular end-organ damage, should provide important new insights into the benefits of intervention with RAS blockade along the cardiorenovascular continuum.
In the patients with grades 1-2 AH, the treatment regimens using basic therapy with ramipril or losartan proved to be highly effective and allowed target BP to be achieved in 94% of cases. Both treatment regimens were comparable in view of safety; slight side effects occurred rarely (in less than 2.5% of the patients) and required that the treatment should not be discontinued.
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The modulation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important pathway in managing high blood pressure, and its overexpression plays a key role in target end-organ damage. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) with unique pharmacologic properties, including the longest half-life among all ARBs; this leads to a significant and 24-h sustained reduction of blood pressure. Telmisartan has well-known antihypertensive properties, but there is also strong clinical evidence that it reduces left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness and the recurrence of atrial fibrillation, and confers renoprotection.
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We report the case of a 46-yr-old male who developed severe lactic acidosis, cardiorespiratory arrest, and rhabdomyolysis following an overdose of metformin and ramipril. The lactic acidosis was successfully treated with early high-volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. Rhabdomyolysis and lower limb compartment syndrome developed later. The patient otherwise made a good recovery. We discuss the management of severe lactic acidosis secondary to metformin overdose and the association with rhabdomyolysis.
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ACE-inhibitors are known to have special renal effects, i.e. they increase ERPF, decrease the filtration fraction and lower proteinuria. These effects can be due to a decrease in angiotensin II (AII) levels as well as an increase in bradykinin. New and more specific AII-receptor antagonists may help to distinguish between effects exerted by angiotensin II and those exerted by bradykinin. We investigated the effects of losartan in 9 patients with essential hypertension (sitting mean diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mmHg). Renal hemodynamics were measured by continuous inulin-and PAH-clearance (GFR and RPF) after stopping antihypertensive therapy for 1 week, followed by a 2-week placebo period and after a 4-week treatment phase with losartan (50 mg/die) followed by a therapy with an ACE-inhibitor (ramipril 5mg/die). Additionally, urine albumin excretion (UAE) was measured. Treatment of patients with essential hypertension with losartan resulted in a significant decrease of MAP after three weeks of treatment (121 +/- 8 mmHg under placebo and 114 +/- 10 mmHg under losartan; * = p < 0.05). MAP after four weeks of losartan treatment was 115 +/- 11 mmHg. Regarding changes in renal hemodynamics we could not demonstrate a significant change for neither losartan nor the ACE-inhibitor. Urine albumin excretion was reduced by both treatment regimens in correlation to the magnitude of blood pressure reduction. Our data indicate that losartan induced a significant reduction in MAP in patients with essential arterial hypertension with only moderate effects on renal hemodynamics.