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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)

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Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

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Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax


Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.


Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.


Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.


If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane 2 mg

Intermittent high-frequency electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus induces contralateralhead-turning in rats. The anti-Parkinson drugs, L-dopa, amantadine and apomorphine, raise the threshold for or completely inhibit head-turning. There was a high correlation between the predicted clinical potency and these drugs based on inhibition of head-turning and their respective clinical anti-Parkinson potency. The centrally acting anticholinergic drugs also antagonized head-turning but there was not a good correlation between the predicted and acutal anti-Parkinson doses used in man. In order to determine if these drugs blocked head-turning by acting on the caudate nucleus, a combination cannula and stimulating electrode was used to administer drugs directly into the same area of the caudate nucleus being stimulated electrically. Dopamine, amantadine and apomorphine each antagonized head-turning when infused into the same site, at doses which did not produce concurrent overt sterotyped behavior. Time- and dose-response data with all three drugs suggest a direct inhibitory action on the caudate nucleus consistent with their proposed mechanism for treatment of Parkinson symptomatology. Head-turning appears to be a useful animal model for the development of new, specific anti-Parkinson drugs and for the study of possible mechanism(s) of action of existing drugs.

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Rats with the Parkinsonian syndrome induced by administration of acetyl choline and proserine into the rostral part of both caudate nuclei manifest an increased electrical activity (EA) in this part. Tremor, oligokinesia and rigidity are characterized by the appearance of paroxysmal EA with high amplitude of slow and rapid waves. The data obtained allow to conclude that neuropathophysiological basis of the Parkinsonian syndrome is the formation of the generator of pathologically enhanced excitation (GPEE) in the caudate nuclei. Some peculiarities of the GPEE activity in tremor and akinetic rigidity syndromes were observed. Intrarostral administration of dopamine or intraperitoneal administration of cyclodol resulted in the inhibition of GPEE and disappearance of clinical manifestations of Parkinsonian syndrome.

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This is a report on a 62-year-old Chinese woman with Parkinson's disease (PD) for 8 years who developed myasthenia gravis (MG) in the last year. In this case, there was no adverse effect of trihexyphenidyl on MG, whereas pyridostigmine worsened the PD.

artane user reviews

The clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and neuroleptic-induced catatonia are discussed. A case is presented in which the catatonic-like behavior and extrapyramidal sequelae of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome responded to combined treatment with anticholinergics and levodopa/carbidopa. Differential diagnosis and theories regarding the development of these neuroleptic-induced disorders are reviewed.

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Drugs that act at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex have the ability to terminate nerve agent-induced seizures and modulate the neuropathologic consequences of agent exposure. Drugs with mixed anticholinergic and anti-NMDA properties potentially provide an ideal class of compounds for development as anticonvulsant treatments for nerve agent casualties. The present experiment evaluated the potential NMDA antagonist activity of 11 anticholinergic drugs by determining whether pretreatment with the compound was capable of protecting mice from the lethal effects of NMDA. The following anticholinergic drugs antagonized NMDA lethality and are ranked according to their potency: mecamylamine > procyclidine = benactyzine > biperiden > trihexyphenidyl. The anticholinergics atropine, aprophen, azaprophen, benztropine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and scopolamine failed to show NMDA antagonist properties. In addition, and unexpectedly, diazepam, ethanol, and pentobarbital were also shown to be capable of antagonizing NMDA lethality over a certain range of doses. The advantages and limitations of using antagonism of NMDA lethality in mice as a bioassay for determining the NMDA antagonist properties of drugs are also discussed.

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A 20-year-old psychiatric patient receiving haloperidol treatment developed acute-onset fever, rigidity, and mental changes. Subcutaneous apomorphine was given alone for treatment. The patient had rapid clinical improvement after the treatment. Serial blood examinations showed decline and subsequent normalization of the creatine phosphokinase levels.

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Drooling is a common dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy and may also affect neurologically unimpaired children. It causes significant social handicap to both children and their families.

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The ultimate goal is to discover new treatments that can lead to measurable improvement in functional outcome for affected children. In order to accomplish this goal, we must have consistent definitions and accurate measurements to determine the diagnosis and severity for each child in a clinic or research trial. Recent progress in defining childhood movement disorders has led to consensus definitions of different types of hypertonia. There has also been progress in the development of outcome measures that relate to meaningful functional performance in a variety of skill areas. Most exciting is the prospect of new treatments, and we survey the current non-medical, medical, and surgical therapies for childhood motor disorders.

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The effects of timiperone, its metabolites and related compounds on specific 3H-spiroperidol binding to dopamine receptors in the rat corpus striatum were studied to clarify the affinity of timiperone, a new butyrophenone, for the receptors and whether timiperone itself was active in vivo. Timiperone had an approx. 0.6, 5 and 30 times greater affinity for the receptors than did spiroperidol, haloperidol and chlorpromazine, respectively. This affinity was observed specifically for antipsychotic drugs but not for diazepam and trihexyphenidyl. Timiperone metabolites had little or no affinity for the receptors. Radioreceptor assay values agreed well with the radiochemical assay for timiperone in the plasma and brain of rats after i.v. injection of the 14C-labeled drug. Thus, it is conceivable that timiperone itself exerts its potent antipsychotic activity by blockade of cerebral dopamine receptors.

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Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) with high mortality and have a significant public health impact because of high mortality and morbidity.

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Extracellular single-cell recording techniques were employed to study the mechanism of action of repeated oral clozapine administration on the in vivo spontaneous activity of substantia nigra (A9) and ventral tegmental area (A10) dopamine (DA)-containing neurons in the rat. Clozapine was observed to affect DA neurons differentially within these two regions when compared to haloperidol. Acute treatment (1 hr) with both drugs increased the number of spontaneously firing neurons in both A9 and A10. Chronic (21 day) treatment with haloperidol decreased the number of cells encountered in both regions, whereas repeated treatment with clozapine reduced the number of DA cells per track only in A10. In all cases, the silent DA neurons were inferred to be in a state of depolarization inactivation since they could be induced to discharge normally by the microiontophoretic application of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. These effects were not due to an effect of chloral hydrate anesthesia since they were also observed in gallamine-paralyzed, artificially respired animals. Chronic co-administration with haloperidol of either an anticholinergic (trihexyphenidyl) or the alpha 1-norepinephrine (NE) receptor antagonist, prazosin, but not an alpha 2-NE antagonist, RX781094, resulted in a differential effect on A9 and A10 DA neurons identical to that observed with repeated clozapine administration alone. Thus, chronic treatment with these combinations of drugs resulted in the depolarization inactivation of only A10 cells. These data suggest that anticholinergic and/or alpha 1-NE-blocking properties of clozapine may, in part, mediate its differential effects on A9 and A10 midbrain DA neurons.

artane pediatric dosing

We studied the effect of anti-cholinergic therapy on axial symptoms that show a tendency to worsen over time after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

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We present a 20-year-old woman with previous treatment of risperidone 6-7 mg daily for approximately 4 years. She developed TD 2 years later after switching to paliperidone 9 mg daily. To the best of our knowledge, she is the first case report of having direct paliperidone-induced TD. Immediate treatments including paliperidone dose reduction to 6 mg daily, clonazepam 1.5 mg daily and trihexyphenidyl 2 mg daily were performed for 1 month, and her symptoms were relieved eventually after switching to clozapine 75 mg daily.

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The phenomenon of delayed-onset dystonia following presumed "static" brain injuries was described after stroke and head trauma. Burke et al. described a different category of secondary dystonia, where perinatal injury (asphyxia) caused minimal or no immediate neurological deficit, with the delay of years before dystonia emerged. This type of dystonia following perinatal injury has been termed "delayed onset dystonia due to static encephalopathy of childhood". According to the definition of dystonia, we were able to select 5 patients with the aetiologic diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia from the group of 347 out- and inpatients (1.4%) treated for various types of dystonia at the Movement Disorders Department (Institute of Neurology, CCS, Belgrade) from November 1986 to November 1994. At onset of dystonia the mean age of patients was 13.2 years (range from 10 to 17), with combined initial involvement of the arm and neck in 3 patients. The period from the onset of the disease to the maximum severity lasted 8.2 years (range from 4 to 14), resulting in segmental brachial dystonia in 3, hemidystonia and generalized dystonia in one patient each (Table 1). The adverse perinatal events are described in Table 2. Three of our patients had delayed achievements of developmental milestones. All patients were regularly schooled and had preserved intellectual capacities, except the patient 3 whose achievements were below average (IQ = 86). Different drugs were administered (Table 3), but moderate effects were achieved only with trihexyphenidyl in two patients (daily doses of 24 mg and 30 mg, respectively), and baclofen (80 mg p.d.) in one patient. In this study we describe 5 new patients who fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of delayed-onset dystonia due to perinatal asphyxia (Tables 1 and 2). We accepted the approach of Saint-Hilaire et al. to suggest a relationship between perinatal asphyxia and later occurrence of dystonia in our 5 patients. However, coincident occurrence of a primary dystonia with a static encephalopathy of childhood due to perinatal asphyxia cannot be excluded. This phenomenon of delayed appearance of dystonia was also described in other forms of static cerebral injury; i.e. stroke, head trauma or anoxic brain damage. Interestingly enough, age at the time of anoxia or brain insults seemed to be crucial for the development of dystonia: those who suffer acute brain insults during childhood or early life are more likely to develop dystonia than the older patients. Therefore, the "static" nature of encephalopathy induced by perinatal asphyxia is questionable. Finally, this study strengthens the suggestion that perinatal asphyxia can lead to delayed-onset dystonia, and, since "some of these patients closely resemble cases of idiopathic torsion dystonia, the prior occurrence of asphyxia should be used as a criterion of exclusion for that diagnosis".

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In Rett syndrome (RS), acute life-threatening episodes (ALTEs) are usually attributed to epilepsy or autonomic dysfunction but they can represent a movement disorder (MD). We describe three girls with RS who experienced ALTEs from an early age. These were long considered epileptic until video-EEG in Patients 1 and 3 revealed their non-epileptic nature. A primary dystonic mechanism was suspected and Patients 1 and 2 were treated with Trihexyphenidyl with significantly reduced frequency of the ALTEs. Patient 3 died before Trihexyphenidyl was tried. Trihexyphenidyl in RS patients with similar presentations can modify the dystonia and prevent ALTEs.

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The mainstay of the pharmacologic management of delirium remains typical antipsychotics, primarily haloperidol. Typical antipsychotics are associated with significant side effects, particularly in the elderly. This article reviews the literature on the use of both typical and atypical antipsychotics in the management of acute delirium, with a focus on the elderly. In this population, typical antipsychotics are associated with substantially more drug induce side effects--either extrapyramidal side effects or anticholinergic effects from the antipsychotics alone or in combination with benztropine or trihexyphenidyl. Anticholinergic toxicity is especially problematic in delirious, demented patients, because most dementias are associated with pre-existing deficiencies in cholinergic neurotransmission. These issues will be reviewed for typical antipsychotics as well as the emerging literature on the use of atypical antipsychotics-- risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine--for pharmacologic management of acute delirium. Data from two studies conducted at the Wesley Woods Center at Emory University will be briefly reviewed as they constitute the largest series to date investigating the pharmacologic management of delirious demented patients.

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In patients with cranial dystonia, we compared the effects of central anticholinergic, peripheral anticholinergic, and placebo treatments in a double-blind crossover study. One of the nine patients who completed the study improved markedly with central anticholinergic therapy. The three treatments were indistinguishable in the other eight patients except for the higher incidence of central and peripheral anticholinergic side effects with trihexyphenidyl.

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A total of 250 patients were enrolled with mean age 40.36 ± 12.3 years. Most common diagnosis was major depressive disorder 101 (40.4%). A total of 980 drugs (mean 3.68 ± 1.42) were prescribed out of which 387 (39.5%) were off-label. Of 250 patients, 198 (79.2%) received at least one off-label drug. Psychopharmacological agents most frequently used in off-label manner were clonazepam 31 (12.4%), lorazepam 30 (12%), and trihexyphenidyl HCl 25 (10%). Prevalence of off-label use of these three drugs was significantly higher than other off-label drugs (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Inappropriate indication was the most common category of off-label use. There was positive and significant correlation between off-label prescribing and number of drugs (r = 0.722, P ≤ 0.000). Off-label prescribing was statistically significantly higher in 21-40 year age group, but no difference was seen in any co-morbid condition or in between any psychiatric disorder.

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Amantadine and biperiden have similar effects on neuroleptic-induced EPS and TD and may ameliorate mild TD.

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Paradigms of isometric force control allow study of the generation and release of movement in the absence of complications due to disordered visuomotor coordination. The onset and release of isometric force in Parkinson's disease (PD) was studied, using computerised determinants of latency of response and rate of force generation and release. Components of isometric force control were related to measures of cognitive, affective and clinical motor disability. The effects of treatment were determined by longitudinal study of de novo patients. Patients with PD showed impairment in latency and rate of force change for movement release as well as onset. Rate of force change correlated with depression, clinical motor disability and memory quotient but latency showed no correlation with any of these measures. Treatment improved rate of force release, in concert with clinical motor disability, but not latency. These results suggest dissociations between latency and rate of force change that may be linked to different neurochemical deficits. Further, they demonstrate akinetic deficits in force release that argue against the "neural energy hypothesis" of akinesia.

artane drug classification

We have previously proposed that the reciprocal hindlimb scratching (RHS) of mice elicited by intrathecal injection of muscarinic agents is mediated by M1 muscarinic receptors. In this study, benzhexol potently inhibited pilocarpine-induced RHS (ID50 = 0.5 ng), methoctramine did not fully block RHS and RS 86 neither produced nor blocked RHS. These data (1) differentiate the three muscarinic agents using this in vivo endpoint, (2) substantiate binding studies characterizing benzhexol and methoctramine as putative M2 and M2 antagonists, respectively, and (3) further support using RHS for studying muscarinic agents.

artane drug class

Segmental craniocervical dystonia is characterized by blephalospasm and oromandibular dystonia and is also called Meige syndrome. The current treatment strategy including botulinum toxin (BTX) injections has not yet attained an acceptable level. We describe a long-term favorable response of a novel combination therapy with aripiprazole (ARP), trihexyphenidyl (THP), and BTX in three patients with segmental craniocervical dystonia. The symptoms of three patients responded promptly to the combination therapy with ARP 3-6 mg daily, THP 2-8 mg daily, and BTX. Although the patients were required to receive a BTX 50-100 IU injection every 3-6 months, their symptoms were kept in a satisfactory condition for up to 2 years without any adverse effects. ARP possesses the potential for dramatically improving dystonia. THP has the possibility to enhance the efficacy of ARP and prolong the effective period of BTX. It may be an important requisite to give all three agents together for a successful treatment. The combination therapy with ARP, THP, and BTX was well-tolerated and useful in controlling the symptoms of segmental craniocervical dystonia, however, the reason why this combination therapy succeeded is unknown. A further long-term follow-up is required to monitor the delayed neurological adverse effects.

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To better evaluate the non-medical use of anticholinergic substances in Brazil, a review of the local literature was performed. Synthetic compounds such as triexyphenidyl (Artane), benactizine (Asmosterona), dicyclomine (Bentyl) as well as Datura sp. tea were reported as being used by first and second grade students and by street children of several Brazilian cities. In several cases the percentage of youngsters indulging in such use was higher than the percentage found for cocaine, barbiturates, cough syrups and amphetamine-related drugs. Several cases of patients seeking treatment for dependence or for acute psychotic symptoms were also described.

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Patients in selegiline group had less severe disease (UPDRS score 24.11 +/- 14.07) as compared to controls (UPDRS score 40.53 +/- 18.52). There was significant improvement in UPDRS score (p < 0.05), WAIS (p < 0.001) and memory (p < 0.001) in selegiline group. In the control group there was a significant prolongation of P300 latency (p < 0.05).

artane pediatric dose

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, or NBIA (formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). PKAN is characterized by progressive dystonia and basal ganglia iron deposition with onset that usually occurs before age ten years. Commonly associated features include dysarthria, rigidity, and pigmentary retinopathy. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have an 'atypical' presentation with later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.

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artane drug wikipedia 2017-09-27

Patients on psychotropic medications have been clinically observed to have higher rates of abnormal buy artane colonic architecture resulting in difficult colonoscopies. This study aims to determine if a correlation between use of psychotropic medications and colonic architectural change seen on colonoscopy exists.

artane overdose symptoms 2015-07-04

Functional digestive complaints are frequent in psychiatri patients: simple constipation, which cannot be explained solely by the loss of the sensation of rectal fullness; occlusions, occasionally buy artane hemorragies; the late complication of dolichomegacolon (Bourgeois, 1973). In 160 subjects, an attempt to understand the physio-pathology were made by recording diurnal digestive motor activity using skin electrodes placed on the abdomen and extremities (electrogastroenterography or E.G.E.G.). A hypoactive E.G.E.G. was observed in 2/3 of 18 psychotic depressive patients, in 3/4 of 36 schizophrenies. The nocive effect of giving sedative phenothiazine and antiparkinsonian drugs (trihexyphenidyl or ethybenzatropine) during long periods is clear. Whereas non sedative phenothiazine and clotiapine gicen in small doses, do not have an undesirable effect. Sulpiride has been used in gastroduodenal dyskinesia. The dyskinesia noted by the E.G.E.G., sometimes found in the large intestin, were found in 55% of 30 patients with caracter disorders; they coincide with the high frequency of electro-encephalogram dysrythmies. Finally, in hysterical patients, one usually observes normal E.G.E.G., tracings which confirms the clinical observation that hysterical and psychosomatic symptoms, may succeed each other, but do not appear at the same time. In the same categories of patients, no longer treated in a classical psychiatric environment but in a group with institutional objectives, the same clinic results were obtained with fewer digestive disturbances. This tends to show the inutility and nocivity of excessive doses of psychotropic drugs given alone or in complexe association.

artane dosage 2015-02-25

We present a 20-year-old woman with previous treatment of risperidone 6-7 mg daily for approximately 4 years. She developed TD 2 years later after switching to paliperidone 9 mg daily. To the best of our knowledge, she is the buy artane first case report of having direct paliperidone-induced TD. Immediate treatments including paliperidone dose reduction to 6 mg daily, clonazepam 1.5 mg daily and trihexyphenidyl 2 mg daily were performed for 1 month, and her symptoms were relieved eventually after switching to clozapine 75 mg daily.

artane 20 mg 2016-02-13

A low frequency stimulation of the head of the caudate nucleus in freely moving cats leads to an arrest of reactions with an increased muscular tone and tremor. This reaction may serve as an experimental model of one of the expressions of parkinsonism, inasmuch as its accomplishment depends upon the central dopaminergic mechanisms (confirmed buy artane on experiments with disulfiram and alpha-methyltyrosine). The similarity is also supplemented by the fact that the arrested reaction is weakened by antiparkinson drugs (d, 1-amphetamine, DOPA, artane) and is increased by neuroeptical preparation (aminazine, haloperidol, reserpine).

artane overdose 2015-07-07

Abuse of the antiparkinsonian agents for their hallucinogenic and euphoriant effects is likely more prevalent than reported. Two clinical cases are presented, with discussion of symptoms and response to buy artane a diagnostic trial of physostigmine.

artane medication trihexyphenidyl 2015-10-13

The peripheral administration of the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine (1-(phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine hydrochloride) (PCP) induces a dose-related ipsilateral rotation in unilateral substantia nigra electrolytically-lesioned rats. The intensity of this rotation can be modulated by administration of various dopaminergic and cholinergic agents. Injection of alpha-methylparatyrosine methylester (125 mg/kg) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg) inhibited the ipsilateral circling behavior. Pimozide (1 mg/kg) also inhibitied the rotation, but to a lesser extent. The injection of the anticholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl (5 mg/kg) potentiated, and the cholinomimetic drug arecoline (5 mg/kg), depressed the rotation induced by PCP (7.5 mg/kg), It buy artane is probable that PCP possesses significant dopaminergic and anticholinergic properties. The capacity of PCP to induce rotation in this model may be related to its effects on dopaminergic and cholingergic neurons in the rat striatum. Thus, PCP may induce rotational behavior by potentiating dopaminergic transmission, by blocking cholinergic activity, or both; both of these effects have been demonstrated to be important in the generation of circling behavior in rats with nigrostriatal lesions.

artane 6 mg 2016-06-17

Two cases of normal dose dependence on Trihexyphenidyl are reported. The literature on anti parkinsonian drug abuse and dependence is briefly buy artane reviewed.

artane 4 mg 2015-12-27

Trihexyphenidyl (THP) is a drug commonly used to reduce parkinsonian symptoms. An important side effect of this agent is memory impairment. Since caffeine enhances the potency of THP to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy, caffeine may be used as an adjuvant of lower doses of THP, in order to improve its antiparkinsonian effects without causing memory disruption. To further assess the synergism between caffeine and THP, both drugs were tested in reserpinized rats, another preclinical model of Parkinson's disease. Four groups of rats (n = 7) were treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.p.). A control group (n = 7) was treated only with the vehicle for reserpine (dimethylsulphoxide). The spontaneous locomotor behavior was tested 24 h later in a box with infrared sensors, 30 min after receiving one of the following treatments: distilled water (1 ml/kg), caffeine (1 mg/kg), THP (0.1 mg/kg) or caffeine plus THP. The levels of horizontal locomotion (14 +/- 5%) and vertical exploration (15 +/- 10%) were significantly lower in reserpinized rats treated with distilled water, compared with the mean activity values (100%) recorded in animals pretreated only buy artane with the vehicle for reserpine. The reserpine-induced hypokinesia was neither reversed by caffeine alone nor by THP alone. However, the combination of caffeine plus THP restored locomotion (141 +/- 19%) and vertical exploration (82 +/- 17%) to levels not significantly different to those of non-reserpinized rats. Moreover, the time-course of locomotion and exploration displayed the characteristic habituation over time, in which short-term memory processes are involved. Also, the thigmotaxis index indicated that the combined treatment did not induce anxiety-like behavior. Hence, these results support the proposal that low, subthreshold doses of caffeine plus THP have the potential to alleviate the motor disabilities in parkinsonian patients, with a low risk of causing anxiety or memory impairment.

artane drug interactions 2017-06-18

We report a 56-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance. Her mother had Parkinson's disease with onset at age 70. She died at age 74 and the post-mortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of Lewy body positive Parkinson's disease. The patient was well until the age of 50(1995) when she noted an onset of resting tremor and difficulty of gait. She also developed delusional ideation and was admitted to a psychiatric service of another hospital, where a major tranquilizer was given. The delusion disappeared but she developed marked rigidity. The major tranquilizer was discontinued and an anticholinergic and amantadine HCl were given. She showed marked improvement to Hoehn and Yahr stage II and was discharged. In 1995, when she was 52 years of the age, she developed delusion again and a major tranquilizer was given. She developed marked parkinsonism again and became Hoehn and Yahr stage V. The major tranquilizer was discontinued and she was treated with levodopa/carbidopa, trihexyphenidyl, bromocriptine, and dops. She improved remarkably to stage II. She was admitted to our service on October 8, 1996 for drug adjustment. She was alert and not demented. She was anxious but delusion or hallucination was noted. Higher cerebral functions were intact. Cranial nerve functions were also intact except for masked face and small voice. Her posture was stooped and steps were small. She showed retropulsion and moderate bradykinesia. Resting tremor was noted in her left hand. Rigidity was noted in both legs. No cerebellar ataxia or weakness was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were within normal range and sensation was intact. Her cranial MRI revealed some atrophic changes in the putamen, in which a T 2-high signal linear lesion was seen along the lateral border of the putamen bilaterally. In addition, posterior part of the putamen showed T 2-low signal intensity change. She was treated with 1.6 mg of talipexole, 6 mg of trihexyphenidyl, and 100 mg of L-dops. She was in stage III of Hoehn and Yahr. She developed neurogenic bladder with a large amount of residual urine for which she required catheterization. She was transferred to another hospital. Despite drug adjustment, she lost response to levodopa and her parkinsonism deteriorated gradually. She also developed syncope orthostatic hypotension. In April of 1998, she developed intracerebral hemorrhage and was admitted again on April 19, 1998. She was unable to stand and showed marked akinesia and rigidity. She was in stage V of Hoehn and Yahr. Her cranial CT scan revealed bilateral high-density lesions in the posterior parietal lobes. She developed dysphagia for which she required gastrostomy. She was transferred to another hospital but her clinical condition deteriorated further. On December 22, 1999, she developed fever and dyspnea and was admitted to our service again. She developed cardial arrest at the emergency room from hypoxia. She was resuscitated; however, she was comatose with loss of brain stem reflexes. Later on she developed generalized myoclonus. She developed cardiac arrest and pronounced dead on December 28, 1999. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC. The chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had striatonigral degeneration because of poor response to levodopa in the later course, autonomic failures, and MRI changes. Some other participants thought that the patient had a form of familial Parkinson's disease. Opinions were divided into these two possibilities. Post-mortem examination revealed that the substantia nigra showed intense neuronal loss and gliosis, however, no Lewy bodies were seen. In addition, intracytoplasmic inclusions were seen in oligodendrocytes. The putamen was markedly atrophic in its posterior part with marked gliosis and neuronal loss. The ventromedial part of the pontine nucleus also showed neuronal loss and intracytoplasmic glial inclusions. Pathologic diagnosis was multiple buy artane system atrophy. In the parietal lobe, an arteriovenous malformation with bleeding was noted. This is very unique case. Although her mother had Lewy body-positive Parkinson's disease, the patient had Lewy body-negative multiple system atrophy with a-synuclein-positive glial inclusions. Whether this is just a coincidental occurrence or the presence of a genetic load for Parkinson's disease might triggered her multiple system atrophy is an interesting question to be answered in future.

artane and alcohol 2017-01-25

The data in this article are supported by a Medline search (November 2008) utilising the keywords drooling, sialorrhea, botulinum toxin, salivary duct ligation and also by the use buy artane of the personal bibliographies of the senior authors.

artane generic name 2016-06-10

DYTI dystonia (DYT1-D, early-onset torsion dystonia) is caused by a GAG deletion in the DYTI gene. Here we report a girl with child-onset familial DYT1-D showing localized arm involvement. The patient developed postural and action dystonia in the right and left arms at 7 and buy artane 9 years, respectively. She was misdiagnosed as hysteria due to lack of abnormalities on laboratory tests. At 11 years of age she was introduced to our clinic. Increased muscle tonus and dystonic discharges seen on surface electromyogram in the right arm and the sternocleidomastoid muscle led to the diagnosis of dystonia. A GAG deletion in the DYTI gene was confirmed in the patient, her healthy father and paternal grandfather with torsion dystonia. Titration of levodopa resulted in the fluctuation of her arm dystonia. Combined therapy by levodopa and trihexyphenidyl relieved postural dystonia in the right arm but not action dystonia in the left. Both types of dystonia in the right and left arms were well ameliorated by the additional increase of levodopa. Somatosensory evoked potentials demonstrated abnormal premovement gating. The latency and accuracy of the amplitude were disturbed in visually guided saccadic eye movement. Now at more than 11 years after onset, the patient has not shown torsion or involvement of the lower extremities. Most DYT1-D patients are refractory to medication and early surgical intervention is recommended. However, the presence of DYT1-D patients showing a milder disease course should also be considered.

artane drug action 2016-09-15

The effects of haloperidol (1 mg), benzhexol (5 mg), diazepam (10 mg) and caffeine (400 mg) on subjective and objective measures of cognitive and psychomotor function were compared with placebo in 20 healthy volunteers. While both diazepam and benzhexol were associated with highly significant impairments in subjective altertness, critical flicker fusion threshold and choice reaction time (CRT), haloperidol could not be distinguished from placebo in most tests but was actually associated with an apparent improvement in CRT (in males) and simple visual reaction time. The perceptual maze test detected impairment by benzhexol on processing speed but was not sensitive to any other drug effects. Multiple-dose studies are required to establish if there buy artane is a true activating effect of haloperidol using a test of sustained attention. No effect of Eysenck personality subtype or life events on baseline or drug response data was detected.

artane drug information 2017-01-31

The natural history and response to different treatments were assessed in 31 consecutive patients with blepharospasm (BS) and/or oromandibular dystonia (OMD). The mean age at onset was 52.4 years and there was a female preponderance of 2.5 to 1. Ocular symptoms preceded the onset of blepharospasm in more than 50% of the affected patients, whereas psychiatric and dental problems prior to the onset of focal dystonia were found in 10% and 13% of the cases respectively. Dystonia elsewhere, mainly in the craniocervical area, was found in 23% of patients and appeared to follow a somatotopic progression. The first 2-3 years of history were crucial for the spread of dystonia to other face and body parts. When OMD was the first symptom, a lower tendency of dystonia to progress elsewhere was observed. A putative cause was found in 14% of patients who showed clinical and radiographic evidence of basal ganglia or rostral brainstem-diencephalon lesions. The response to different drugs was inconsistent although transient improvement was induced by haloperidol in 6 patients, by L-Dopa plus deprenyl in 3 patients, buy artane by trihexyphenidyl in 2 patients and by clonazepam in 2 patients. One, apparently spontaneous, remission was observed. Botulinum A toxin was injected in the orbicularis oculi of 8 patients affected by BS: moderate to marked improvement lasting 5 to 30 weeks (mean 14.5 weeks) was achieved in all cases; transient ptosis, lasting 1 to 3 weeks, occurred in 3 cases.

artane drug classification 2016-09-05

A total of 250 patients were enrolled with mean age 40.36 ± 12.3 years. Most common diagnosis was major depressive disorder 101 (40.4%). A total of 980 drugs (mean 3.68 ± 1.42) were prescribed out of which 387 (39.5%) were off-label. Of 250 patients, 198 (79.2%) received at least one off-label drug. Psychopharmacological agents most frequently used in off-label manner were clonazepam 31 (12.4%), lorazepam 30 (12%), and trihexyphenidyl HCl 25 (10%). Prevalence of off-label use of these buy artane three drugs was significantly higher than other off-label drugs (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Inappropriate indication was the most common category of off-label use. There was positive and significant correlation between off-label prescribing and number of drugs (r = 0.722, P ≤ 0.000). Off-label prescribing was statistically significantly higher in 21-40 year age group, but no difference was seen in any co-morbid condition or in between any psychiatric disorder.

artane pediatric dose 2016-05-28

A 20-year-old psychiatric patient receiving haloperidol treatment developed acute-onset fever, rigidity, and mental changes. Subcutaneous apomorphine was given alone for treatment. The Detrol Mg patient had rapid clinical improvement after the treatment. Serial blood examinations showed decline and subsequent normalization of the creatine phosphokinase levels.

artane medication class 2015-03-31

The present study sought to determine if NDMC has discriminative stimulus properties similar to that of its parent drug CLZ. Plavix Mg

artane 2 mg 2016-12-29

Twenty-four male subjects were randomized to receive two oral dosage forms of trihexyphenidyl HCl (alpha-cyclohexyl-alpha-phenyl-1-piperidinepropanol HCl). The dosage regimens were (1) a 5-mg immediate release (IR) tablet given twice daily at time zero and 12 h later, and (2) two 5-mg sustained-release (SR) capsule formulations Singulair Max Dose given daily. The number of adverse experiences following the SR formulation were approximately 50% of those for the IR formulation, the peak concentration (Cmax) after the SR formulation was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than that after the first dose of the IR formulation, and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) was significantly longer after the SR formulation (p less than 0.05). The SR formulation maintained serum concentrations above 50, 60, and 70% of Cmax values for average time periods of 11.7, 9.4, and 5.9 h, respectively, compared with values of 1.8, 1.2, and 0.9 h after the IR formulation; the differences were all significant (p less than 0.05). The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was similar (p greater than 0.05) after the SR (10.1 h) and IR (8.7 h) formulations. The statistical power of the study was 98.1% to detect a 20% difference in the area under the curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC0----infinity) between formulations. Although the AUC0----infinity after the SR formulation was statistically smaller (p less than 0.05) than after the IR tablet, the difference was less than 20%. Therefore, the SR formulation was bioequivalent to the IR tablet formulation of trihexyphenidyl.

artane pill sizes 2015-02-05

The total effective rate was 100% in the TCM group and 60% in the Western medicine group with statistical Cleocin Gel significance in difference (P < 0.05). All the scores in the TCM group were better than those in the Western medicine group (P < 0.05).

artane reviews 2015-10-13

Although trihexyphenidyl is used clinically to treat both primary and secondary dystonia in children, limited evidence exists to support its effectiveness, particularly in dystonia secondary to disorders such as cerebral palsy. A prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot trial of high-dose trihexyphenidyl was conducted in 23 children aged 4 to 15 years with cerebral palsy judged to have secondary dystonia impairing function in the dominant upper extremity. All children were given trihexyphenidyl at increasing doses over a 9-week period up to a maximum of 0.75 mg/kg/d. Trihexyphenidyl was subsequently tapered off over the next 5 weeks. Objective motor assessments were performed at baseline, 9 weeks, and 15 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, tested in the dominant arm. Tolerability and safety were monitored closely throughout the trial. Of the 31 children who agreed to participate in the study, 5 failed to meet entry criteria and 3 withdrew due to nonserious adverse events (chorea, drug rash, and hyperactivity). Three children required a dosage reduction because of nonserious adverse events but continued to participate. The 23 children who completed the study showed a significant improvement in arm function at 15 weeks (P = .045) but not at 9 weeks (P = .985). Post hoc analysis showed that a subgroup (n = 10) with hyperkinetic dystonia (excess involuntary movements) worsened at 9 weeks (P = .04) but subsequently returned to baseline following taper of the medicine. The authors conclude that scientific evidence for the clinical use of trihexyphenidyl in cerebral palsy remains equivocal. Trihexyphenidyl may be a safe and effective for treatment for arm dystonia in some children with cerebral palsy if given sufficient time to respond to the medication. Post hoc analyses based on the type of movement disorder suggested that children with hyperkinetic forms Lanoxin 60 Mg of dystonia may worsen. A larger, randomized prospective trial stratified by the presence or absence of hyperkinetic movements is needed to confirm these results.

artane max dose 2017-12-28

We reported a 25-year-old woman with postural and kinetic tremor caused by diffuse axonal injury. The patient demonstrated consciousness disturbance, left oculomotor palsy and tetraparesis because of an automobile accident. T2-weighted and FLAIR MRI showed features of diffuse axonal injury. Hyperintense lesions appeared in the corpus callosum, fornix, dorsal portion of midbrain, right cerebral peduncle, and bilateral internal capsules. About 3 weeks later, head tremor Eldepryl Syrup and left hemiparesis appeared with improvement of consciousness. Administration of trihexyphenidyl decreased the tremor. Ten weeks after the accident, a coarse tremor in the head and right upper extremity developed after withdrawal of trihexyphenidyl. Tremor in the right upper limb predominantly occurred while maintaining an upright posture and with intended movements. Re-administration of trihexyphenidyl decreased the tremors. The dentatothalamic pathway is one of the lesions responsible for posttraumatic tremor. Our patient demonstrated lesions of diffuse axonal injury involving the dentatothalamic pathway. We considered that these lesions were associated with postural and kinetic tremor in our case. The tremor occurred at least 3 weeks after the accident. This finding suggested that the tremor was caused by transsynaptic alternations of thalamus or the extrapyramidal system secondary to involvement of the dentatothalamic pathway.

artane medication uses 2016-08-22

Three novel GCH1 mutations were identified in two patients. One patient was a compound heterozygote with asymptomatic carrier parents. The clinical phenotype of patients with Coumadin Dosing Schedule and without GCH1 mutations was similar.

artane 5 mg 2015-11-27

Using a complex of physiological methods developed by the author the initial state of bilateral permeability of the capillaries, the supply of tissues with blood through the capillaries, and the character of Claritin 45 Tablets changes of those parameters in the conditions of the adaptational activity of microcirculation in schizophrenic patients were studied. It has been found that three types of microcirculation disturbances leading to tissue hypoxia can be distinguished in schizophrenia depending on the process type and stage. The types of the capillary permeability disturbances in various forms of the schizophrenic process are described.

artane medication 2016-10-24

To describe data the epidemiological features, etiology, and treatment of retrospectively reviewed data of all patients with SJS and TEN.

artane pediatric dosing 2016-07-12

A sensitive (50-100 pg/ml) method is described for the analysis of the anticholinergic drugs cycrimine, procyclidine and trihexyphenidyl by capillary gas chromatography with flame thermionic detection. Since these anticholinergic drugs are frequently administered in combination with antipsychotic medication for the treatment of mental illness, the potential interference by antipsychotic drugs in this assay was examined. No interference was observed from a series of antipsychotic drugs in the quantitation of cycrimine, procyclidine or trihexyphenidyl. The use of this technique to study trihexyphenidyl pharmacokinetics in man is described.

artane drug class 2017-03-17

Antimuscarinic drugs possessing antiparkinson activity that were effective in preventing convulsions induced by the organophosphorus cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor soman were studied for their effects on spinal cord ChE activity and striatal levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and catecholamines in soman-intoxicated rats. Either biperiden (BPR) or trihexyphenidyl (THP) was administered to rats at an anticonvulsant dose (0.125 mg/kg, IM) in the presence or absence of soman (100 micrograms/kg, SC). The time course (up to 2 h) for ChE activity and levels of ACh and catecholamines were measured after soman, BPR, THP, soman and BPR, or soman and THP treatment. Soman rapidly inhibited ChE activity (65-75%; 15-120 min) and increased ACh levels (35%; at 30 min). It did not affect norepinephrine or dopamine (DA), but elevated at later time points (60-120 min) levels of the DA metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), thus indicating increased DA turnover. BPR and THP alone reduced striatal ACh level from control, but did not affect any other neurochemical parameters studied. THP and BPR each reversed the effects of soman on DOPAC and HVA levels, but neither affected ChE activity nor ACh level induced by soman. Thus, our findings suggest that the anticonvulsant effects of BPR and THP in soman poisoning may be attributed to their earlier reported muscarinic receptor blocking properties.

artane drug 2015-01-20

Both patients were homozygous for inactive CYP2D6 alleles (CYP2D6*4/*4 and CYP2D6*4/*5), which are associated with slow drug metabolism.