In 10 periodontitis subjects with no subgingival detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, the predominant subgingival organisms were identified using the identification system Rapid ID 32 A as well as antibiotic susceptibility was tested utilizing the E test.
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Despite the efficacy of ceftriaxone (CTX) in animal models of CNS diseases, including drug addiction, its utility as a CNS-active therapeutic may be limited by poor brain penetrability and cumbersome parenteral administration. An alternative is the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid (CA), a constituent of Augmentin that prevents antibiotic degradation. CA possesses the β-lactam core necessary for CNS activity but, relative to CTX, possesses: (1) oral activity; (2) 2.5-fold greater brain penetrability; and (3) negligible antibiotic activity.
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This study demonstrated that A-CA exhibited the lowest bacterial resistance for clinical isolates in primary dentition infections.
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In most cases of DILI, withdrawing the toxic drug is sufficient treatment, but we must be aware of a possible fatal outcome in case of progressive cholestasis. Corticosteroids may have beneficial effects in these patients.
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50 AS patients were given a single 500 mg daily dose of axitromycin for 3 days and 50 such patients received co-amoxiclav 625 mg 3 times a day for 10 days. The examination performed before the treatment, 72 hours, 10-12 and 26-30 days after its beginning assessed the presence of fever, head ache, pain at palpation at the site of the sinuses projection, nasal breathing and discharge. X-ray examination and microbiological analysis of the puncture biopsy from the nasal sinuses were conducted before treatment and on its day 10-12.
A 9-year-old female, presented with recurrent bilaterally symmetrically distributed flesh colored vegetative plaques, papules and nodules on trunk and upper and lower extremities since 15 days. Investigations revealed anemia, hypoproteinemia, decreased albumin and positive D-xylose test. Pus swab and biopsy for culture sensitivity showed Enterococci species. Biopsy showed spongiotic psoriasiform dermatitis with subcorneal pustule. She fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of blastomycosis-like pyoderma viz. presentation of large verrucous plaques with pustules and elevated border, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with abscess histologically and growth of one pathogenic bacterium on culture or tissue biopsy. She responded to long-term amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy.
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This study recommends piv-mecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanate as empirical treatment of first time pyelonephritis in Danish children from 6 months of age. Age and gender of patients should be taken into consideration when initiating empirical treatment.
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Step-by-step therapy of patients with pneumonia and exacerbated chronic bronchitis with amoxyclav (amoxycillin/potassium clavulanate) in a dose of 1.2 g administered intravenously dropwise every 8 hours for the first 2 days of the treatment with subsequent oral use of the drug in a dose of 625 mg thrice a day for 5 days proved to be highly efficient. The recovery and improvement were stated in 19 (95 per cent) out of 20 patients. The adverse reaction (urticaria) was observed in 1 patient. Identical results were recorded in a comparative randomized trial with the use of cefotaxime in a dose of 1.0 g intramuscularly every 8 hours for 7 days. The pharmacoeconomic estimate showed the expediency of the step-by-step therapy with the use of amoxycillin/potassium clavulanate.
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An effort should be made in our teaching hospital to optimize antibiotic prescriptions.
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Patients hospitalized in the authors' institution for erysipelas or cellulitis between January 1995 and December 2002 were included in this retrospective review. Two hundred cases of soft tissue infections were hospitalized during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 58 years. The most commonly involved site was the leg (66%), followed by the arm (24%) and face (6%). Most patients (71%) had a recognized risk factor for soft tissue infection. Fever was present in 71% of cases, with a mean duration of 3 days. Blood cultures were positive in 3 out of 141 (2%) cases, whereas cutaneous swabs were positive in 73 out of 92 (79%) cases. On admission, white blood cells counts (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated above normal levels in 100 out of 191 (50%) cases, 151 out of 176 (85%) cases, and 150 out of 154 (97%) cases, respectively. Patients with a hospital stay of more than 10 days had significantly higher CRP and ESR values than patients hospitalized for 10 days or less (P<0.01). A single antibiotic was used as treatment in 115 cases, whereas in the remaining 85 cases a combination of two antibiotics was administered. The most commonly used antibiotics were amoxicillin-clavulanic acid as single agent and penicillin with clindamycin as combination therapy. The mean duration of hospitalization was 7 days for patients treated with a single antibiotic and 11 days for patients treated with an antibiotic combination. A recurrence of infection occurred in 34 (17%) patients. Soft tissue infections are common and have a high degree of morbidity and require prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic treatment. Microbiological diagnosis is difficult and treatment is based on empiric evidence. ESR and CPR levels on admission may predict the severity of the disease and duration of hospitalization.
A consecutive series of 509 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were entered into a randomized, observer and patient blind, controlled, prospective, study to evaluate the efficiency of co-amoxiclav ('Augmentin', SmithKline Beecham, UK) compared with cefuroxime ('Zinacef', Glaxo, UK) plus metronidazole (Flagyl, M&B, UK) for the prevention of postoperative wound infections. One or three doses of antibiotics were given depending on the type of surgery and operative factors. Co-amoxiclav was given to 230 patients with a total wound infection rate of 5.6% and cefuroxime plus metronidazole were given to 225 patients with a total wound infection rate of 3%. The difference between infection rates was not significant. Both groups were comparable in terms of demographic details, type and duration of surgery, risk factors associated with surgical procedures and postoperative management. Although not statistically significant, a difference in the wound infection rate for those patients undergoing colorectal surgery was seen: 8/69 for the co-amoxiclav group and 2/79 for the cefuroxime/metronidazole group. The estimated cost to our hospital (October, 1993) of one dose of co-amoxiclav was less that half the cost of cefuroxime and metronidazole. This study demonstrates that co-amoxiclav is an effective prophylactic antibiotic for abdominal surgery.
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A low risk of bacteraemia exists for both open and laparoscopic appendectomy. This risk did not appear to increase for laparoscopy. Conventional and laparoscopic surgical procedures led to positive peritoneal bacterial cultures after appendectomy in 33% of cases.
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Amoxicillin or amoxicillin + clavulanic acid in 10- to 14-day courses are advisable, in addition to the antirheumatic treatment, for children in the early stage of ReA when the arthritis-triggering microorganism is not identified.
All clinical isolates from UTIs collected in the Hospital Basico Villa Montes between June 2010 and January 2014 were analyzed (N=213). Characterization included susceptibility testing, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) detection, identification of relevant resistance determinants (e.g., CTX-M-type ESBLs, 16S rRNA methyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases), and genotyping of CTX-M producers.
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Treatment with a 30-day course of AMOX/CLAV significantly reduced the need for surgery in the short term compared with PLAC (37.5% vs 62.7%) at 1-month follow-up). The reduced need for surgery in the AMOX/CLAV-treated group persisted at 3 months (AMOX/CLAV 54.5% vs PLAC 85.7%) and 24 months (AMOX/CLAV 83.3% vs PLAC 98.0%).
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The major problems encountered in the antibiotic therapy of acute otitis media (AOM) are the tremendous increase in the resistance to antibiotics of its main pathogens and the lack of tight criteria (taking into consideration, as a major determinant, the eradication of the pathogens from the middle ear fluid) in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic drugs for the treatment of this disease. Future drugs for the treatment of AOM will have to be approved only after their in vivo microbiological efficacy for each major pathogen is documented. This documentation will be provided by more antibiotic studies with bacteriological outcome using the double-tympanocentesis method and stratifying the AOM patients by age and initial clinical severity. Judicious use of antibiotics for the treatment of AOM will have a major impact on society, leading to a less frequent but more skilled administration of the most effective drugs.
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Safety data from all 13 clinical trials of cefditoren on community acquired respiratory infections were reviewed. Safety population was defined as all randomized patients with at least one dose intake. Adverse events considered by investigators as related during antibiotic exposure were considered.
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Two women were lost to follow-up, and there were 15 protocol violations. Among all 2415 infants born to women allocated erythromycin only or placebo, fewer had the primary composite outcome in the erythromycin group (151 of 1190 [12.7%] vs 186 of 1225 [15.2%], p=0.08) than in the placebo group. Among the 2260 singletons in this comparison, significantly fewer had the composite primary outcome in the erythromycin group (125 of 1111 [11.2%] vs 166 of 1149 [14.4%], p=0.02). Co-amoxiclav only and co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin had no benefit over placebo with regard to this outcome in all infants or in singletons only. Use of erythromycin was also associated with prolongation of pregnancy, reductions in neonatal treatment with surfactant, decreases in oxygen dependence at 28 days of age and older, fewer major cerebral abnormalities on ultrasonography before discharge, and fewer positive blood cultures. Although co-amoxiclav only and co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin were associated with prolongation of pregnancy, they were also associated with a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.
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Prophylaxis seems to be indicated only for dermal infections, and for infections of the urinary and respiratory tract in patients with increased susceptibility to bacterial arthritis. Prophylaxis for invasive medical procedures, such as dental treatment, may only be indicated for patients with joint disease who are highly susceptible.
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Augmentin was used in treatment of mild forms of postnatal endometritis and serous mastitis. Augmentin tablets proved to be efficient in endometritis due to enterobacteria and obligate nonsporulating anaerobes and mastitis due to Staphylococcus aureus strains sensitive to the preparation. No adverse events were recorded. It was shown that in the treatment of mild postnatal infections the augmentin tablets were not inferior by their activity of combinations of antibiotics against aerobic and anaerobic microflora.
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Treatment failure occurred in 18.6% of the children who received amoxicillin-clavulanate, as compared with 44.9% of the children who received placebo (P<0.001). The difference between the groups was already apparent at the first scheduled visit (day 3), at which time 13.7% of the children who received amoxicillin-clavulanate, as compared with 25.3% of those who received placebo, had treatment failure. Overall, amoxicillin-clavulanate reduced the progression to treatment failure by 62% (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.59; P<0.001) and the need for rescue treatment by 81% (6.8% vs. 33.5%; hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.36; P<0.001). Analgesic or antipyretic agents were given to 84.2% and 85.9% of the children in the amoxicillin-clavulanate and placebo groups, respectively. Adverse events were significantly more common in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group than in the placebo group. A total of 47.8% of the children in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group had diarrhea, as compared with 26.6% in the placebo group (P<0.001); 8.7% and 3.2% of the children in the respective groups had eczema (P=0.04).
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A questionnaire was posted to BAES members inquiring about experience of major wound infection following cervicotomy, incidence of minor wound infection, and prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotic usage.
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To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried in the nose among children in Beijing and the distribution of serotypes, and to analyze the risk factors for nasal carriage of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae.