Points of agreement and majority opinions among 28 international experts in the field were identified by questionnaire. Agreement was defined as >80% concurrence, clear majority as >60% concurrence, and a majority or trend as >50% concurrence.
Sulphasalazine (SSA) is a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) that is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Plasma levels of SSA and its metabolite sulphapyridine are influenced by common polymorphisms in genes that encode N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT2) and ATP-binding cassette protein G2 (ABCG2). Study participants had early RA that was treated with a combination DMARD regimen that included SSA. Toxicity was defined by cessation of SSA due to adverse effects and response as remission after 12 months of treatment. The effect of variables on toxicity was assessed by a Cox-proportional Hazard model and response by logistic regression. After correction for conventional variables, toxicity in 229 participants was influenced by NAT2 phenotype (hazard ratio=1.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-3.21), P=0.044) and remission in 141 participants was associated with ABCG2 genotype (odds ratio=3.34 (95% CI 1.18-9.50), P=0.024). In our sample of early RA patients who were primarily treated with a combination of DMARDs, common variants in genes that encode NAT2 and ABCG2 were associated respectively with toxicity and response to SSA.
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Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalamine) is effective in inducing and maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). The relative benefits and costs of maintenance 5-ASA therapy are uncertain. Our aims were to evaluate this strategy's potential cost-effectiveness.
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mCRAMP-transformed L. lactis has been shown to produce mCRAMP, effectively preventing murine UC. Oral administration of this biological preparation is better than sulfasalazine for the treatment of UC.
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The triple DMARD combination therapy provided a new treatment option for those patients for whom treatment with biologics is difficult.
Seven patients were protocol violators. Of 43 patients who received curcumin, 2 relapsed during 6 months of therapy (4.65%), whereas 8 of 39 patients (20.51%) in the placebo group relapsed (P=.040). Recurrence rates evaluated on the basis of intention to treat showed significant difference between curcumin and placebo (P=.049). Furthermore, curcumin improved both CAI (P=.038) and EI (P=.0001), thus suppressing the morbidity associated with UC. A 6-month follow-up was done during which patients in both groups were on SZ or mesalamine. Eight additional patients in the curcumin group and 6 patients in the placebo group relapsed.
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In five patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in two healthy control subjects retrograde spread and colonic distribution of rectally introduced sulphasalazine (SASP) enema were investigated. The SASP enema was labeled with 99mTc and imaged by a gamma camera. In all patients the SASP enema reached the inflamed portion of the colon. From 73% to 84% of the total SASP enema were fairly homogeneously distributed beyond the patients' rectum. The results suggest that patients with inflammatory bowel disease may benefit from SASP enemas even if the total colon is involved.
A multicenter double-blind study of the effectiveness of sulfasalazine and 6-methylprednisolone, alone and in combination, was conducted on 452 patients with Crohn's disease. One hundred sixty patients were previously untreated; 292 patients were previously treated. The Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) was used to determine whether a patient had active (CDAI greater than or equal to 150, n = 215) or quiescent disease (CDAI less than 150, n = 237). Treatment of active disease consisted of high-dose 6-methylprednisolone, 6-methylprednisolone combined with 3 g of sulfasalazine, 3 g of sulfasalazine alone, or placebo, and lasted 6 wk. Patients in remission received maintenance doses of one of these drug regimens for periods of up to 2 yr. One hundred ninety-two patients completed the 2-yr study period. Results were evaluated using life-table analysis and outcome ranking. These methods showed 6-methylprednisolone to be the most effective drug in overall comparison of all patients (p less than 0.001); in previously treated patients (p less than 0.001); and in subgroups: active disease (p less than 0.001), only small bowel disease (p less than 0.05), and both small bowel and colon disease (p less than 0.05). Combination of 6-methylprednisolone and sulfasalazine was the most effective regimen in previously untreated patients (p less than 0.05) and when disease was localized in the colon (p less than 0.001). Sulfasalazine alone was least effective in overall comparison of all patients (p less than 0.05) and in all strata. Drug treatment was of no significant benefit to patients with quiescent disease. Continuous administration of low doses of 6-methylprednisolone, or the combination regimen, was beneficial in patients who responded initially to treatment of active disease. The addition of sulfasalazine, however, offered no advantage.
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We reviewed the medical records of all the patients with intestinal BD, who received 5-ASA/sulfasalazine therapy in a single tertiary academic medical center between March 1986 and January 2011. The cumulative probabilities of clinical relapse after remission were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Predictors of clinical relapse were identified by univariate analysis using the log-rank test and by multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression models.
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One hundred and eighty cases with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly divided into the control group (60 cases) with leflunomide, sulfasalazine, and celecoxib; the treatment group (120 cases) given compound Xiatianwu tablets on the basis of the control group, 2 tablets each time, 3 times/day, with the course of treatment of 3 month. Patients of the two groups were observed for clinical symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and immunoglobulin changes before and after the treatment.
Our findings suggested that the hematological adverse effects of mesalazine treatment might be greater than those of sulfasalazine treatment.
Pharmacologic testing in anti-tumor necrosis factor-treated patients is clinically useful even in the absence of trough levels. At 3 months, antidrug antibodies and low adalimumab levels are significant predictors of no response according to the EULAR criteria at 12 months.
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Inflammatory arthritis of the hands is a frequent clinical presentation with a variable outcome. Patients not satisfying the classification criteria for recognized arthritides are described as having undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis, for which there are no accepted therapeutic algorithms. This study assessed the clinical outcome of patients with undifferentiated arthritis of the hands after use of a treatment algorithm, and evaluated the prognostic features in these patients.
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Patients taking 4 g/day mesalamine experienced a decrease of 72 CDAI points compared with 21 points in the placebo group (P < 0.01). Remission occurred in 43% of the 4-g group and 18% of the placebo group. Patients with ileum-only disease showed a 93-point improvement on 4 g mesalamine, compared with a 2-point improvement in similar patients on placebo. Mesalamine in this trial was not associated with clinically significant toxicity.
Patients affected by uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD) suffer from colicky, unexplained, recurrent, and short-lived but often debilitating abdominal pain and alteration in bowel habit. Although the goals of therapy, such as to improve symptoms and to prevent both recurrent attacks and complications, are clearly established, the standard approach remains still debated. We examined the current scientific evidence supporting the different treatment options for uncomplicated DD. An internet-based search strategy of the Medline and Science Citation Index was performed using the keywords: diverticulosis, DD, fiber, bran, diet, antibiotics, rifaximin, probiotics, prebiotics, bacteria, lactobacillus, bifidobacteria, 5-aminosalicylic acid, sulfasalazine, mesalazine, balsalazide in various combinations to select randomized trials published in the English language between January 1966 and March 2009. The use of fiber and nonabsorbable antibiotics is supported by the existence of randomized controlled studies. More recently, alternative treatments, such as probiotics and mesalazine have been proposed even if no definite data are available. Although the preliminary results seem to be promising, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed before new therapies can be recommended in the management of uncomplicated DD.
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Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare skin disease caused by immune dysfunction. The systemic diseases are often associated. The aim of the study was to report necrotic scleritis which developed after scleral buckling procedure in the case of the 64 years old patient suffered from primary retinal detachment and idiopathic PG. The retinal reattachment was achieved. The conjunctival wound dehiscence, necrotising scleritis and marginal keratitis as a manifestation of the patergic reaction were diagnosed. The treatment with corticosteroids locally (Dexamethason) and systematically (Prednison and Sulfasalazine), was administrated. The improvement and stabilisation of the local condition of ocular surface were observed. After reduction of systemic drugs, the exacerbation of local inflammation and vitritis was observed. The prolonged therapy was necessary. The risk of wound healing disturbances of an ocular surface with aggravated necrotic reaction must be expected after ocular surgery of the patient with PG. The adequate immunosupressive prolonged treatment with proper collaboration with the dermatologist is necessary.
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Inhibition of TNFalpha expression in macrophages by SSZ is due to the induction of apoptosis and involves the activation of caspase 8.
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The therapeutic effect of acupoint catgut embedding combined with vessel pricking therapy for AS is preferable without any adverse effects, which is superior to that of oral administration of SASP.
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Given the similarity in clinical presentation and CT imaging in patients with neutropenic and non-neutropenic appendicitis, accurate recognition of neutropenic appendicitis rests on a thorough patient history and a high index of suspicion in febrile neutropenic patients.
Among 9460 individuals (6841 with RA and 2788 with IBD), the incidence rate of a second NMSC per 1000 person-years was 58.2 (95% CI, 54.5-62.1) and 58.9 (95% CI, 53.2-65.2) in patients with RA and IBD, respectively. Among patients with RA, methotrexate used in conjunction with other medications was associated with an increased risk of a second NMSC (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.08-2.37). Adjusted for other medications, the risk of NMSC increased with 1 year or more of methotrexate use (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48). Compared with methotrexate alone, the addition of anti-TNF drugs was significantly associated with risk of NMSC (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.03-2.16). Abatacept and rituximab were not associated with increased NMSC risk. The nonsignificant HRs for 1 year or more of thiopurine and anti-TNF use for IBD were 1.49 (95% CI, 0.98-2.27) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.76-2.44), respectively.