Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature.
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This study was conducted to analyze the resistance pattern of MRSA to mupirocin among the patients admitted following trauma to an apex trauma care center of India and to compare the efficacy between two methods of antimicrobial sensitivity testing.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates that were collected from 44 consecutive patients during 1 year in a community hospital were tested for susceptibility to five commonly used topical antibacterial agents. Agar-well susceptibility testing, which was based on zones of inhibition, was used to compare the effectiveness of the antibacterials against MRSA. Nitrofurazone was effective in inhibition of bacterial growth and was relatively inexpensive. Mupirocin was found to be effective but more costly for treatment of MRSA. Varying degrees of susceptibility to silver sulfadiazine, mafenide acetate, and bacitracin were noted in the cultures that were obtained at this medical center. On the basis of our findings from susceptibility tests compared with those of another center, we recommend that all hospitals undertake topical sensitivity testing of their MRSA isolates. Appropriate and effective topical antibacterial therapy can then be planned within each center.
The Staphylococcus aureus ileS gene, encoding isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS), contains a long mRNA leader region. This region exhibits many of the features of the gram-positive synthetase gene family, including the T box and leader region terminator and antiterminator. The terminator was shown to be functional in vivo, and readthrough increased during growth in the presence of mupirocin, an inhibitor of IleRS activity. The S. aureus ileS leader structure includes several critical differences from the other members of the T-box family, suggesting that regulation of this gene in S. aureus may exhibit unique features.
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There is evidence that MRSA ST398 of animal origin is only capable of temporarily occupying the human nose, and it is therefore, often considered a poor human colonizer.We inoculated 16 healthy human volunteers with a mixture of the human MSSA strain 1036 (ST931, CC8) and the bovine MSSA strain 5062 (ST398, CC398), 7 weeks after a treatment with mupirocin and chlorhexidine-containing soap. Bacterial survival was studied by follow-up cultures over 21 days. The human strain 1036 was eliminated faster (median 14 days; range 2-21 days) than the bovine strain 5062 (median 21 days; range 7-21 days) but this difference was not significant (p = 0.065). The bacterial loads were significantly higher for the bovine strain on day 7 and day 21. 4/14 volunteers (28.6%) showed elimination of both strains within 21 days. Of the 10 remaining volunteers, 5 showed no differences in bacterial counts between both strains, and in the other 5 the ST398 strain far outnumbered the human S. aureus strain. Within the 21 days of follow-up, neither human strain 1036 nor bovine strain 5062 appeared to acquire or lose any mobile genetic elements. In conclusion, S. aureus ST398 strain 5062 is capable of adequately competing for a niche with a human strain and survives in the human nose for at least 21 days.
A total of 299 nares and 194 blood isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), each recovered from a unique patient, were collected from 23 U.S. hospitals from May 2009 to March 2010. All isolates underwent spa and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing; a subset of 84 isolates was typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI. Seventy-six spa types were observed among the isolates. Overall, for nasal isolates, spa type t002-SCCmec type II (USA100) was the most common strain type (37% of isolates), while among blood isolates, spa type t008-SCCmec type IV (USA300) was the most common (39%). However, the proportion of all USA100 and USA300 isolates varied by United States census region. Nasal isolates were more resistant to tobramycin and clindamycin than blood isolates (55.9% and 48.8% of isolates versus 36.6% and 39.7%, respectively; for both, P < 0.05). The USA300 isolates were largely resistant to fluoroquinolones. High-level mupirocin resistance was low among all spa types (<5%). SCCmec types III and VIII, which are rare in the United States, were observed along with several unusual PFGE types, including CMRSA9, EMRSA15, and the PFGE profile associated with sequence type 239 (ST239) isolates. Typing data from this convenience sample suggest that in U.S. hospitalized patients, USA100 isolates of multiple spa types, while still common in the nares, have been replaced by USA300 isolates as the predominant MRSA strain type in positive blood cultures.
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A total of 740 incident PD patients were studied. Patients were divided into two groups based on year of entry into PD (Group 1 from January 1998-December 1999 without topical mupirocin and Group 2 from January 2000-March 2004 with topical mupirocin). Variables studied included gender, age, diabetic status, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and serum albumin.
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To evaluate whether topical mupirocin treatment can effectively decolonize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage and reduce subsequent MRSA infection in neonates.
17 patients with 25 catheters participated in our study from March 2004 - February 2005. The catheter lock comprised of mixed cefazolin (5 mg/dl) with heparin (2,500 IU/ml) and mupirocin was topically applied to the area (2 x 2 cm) surrounding the catheter exit site.
S. aureus nasal carriage was prospectively sought in 70 consecutive liver transplant candidates. Mupirocin two times per day for 5 days was administered to the carriers. Follow-up nasal cultures to document decolonization were performed 5 days after the final application of mupirocin. The primary endpoint was the development of S. aureus infections.
To test the hypothesis that treatment of atopic eczema for 2 weeks with topical fusidic acid/steroid combination can increase carriage of FusRS. aureus.
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Over the last five years, hospitals in Wales have experienced difficulties with increasing numbers of isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Continuous total population surveillance of MRSA was introduced with the objectives of gaining an understanding of the extent and variation in time and place of its occurrence, the burden of disease and possible risk factors associated with its isolation and resistance to other antibiotics. All first isolates of MRSA from both hospital and community settings and all isolates of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) associated with bacteraemia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates detected in medical microbiology laboratories in Wales were collected via CoSurv, a set of interconnected data-base modules for communicable disease control. A data set was collected on each isolate and the patient associated with that isolate and compiled centrally at CDSC (Wales) for all-Wales analysis of the MRSA situation. Surveillance started in January 1996 and at the end of the first year, 2700 new isolates of MRSA had been reported from hospital and community settings, giving a rate of 92.43/100,000 population. The incidence of MRSA from bacteraemias and CSF was 5.20/100,000 compared with 12.70/100,000 for MSSA. MRSA from bacteraemia and CSF was significantly more commonly associated with male patients than MSSA. MRSA patients were significantly older. For all MRSA isolates, the highest reporting rate was in men aged 75+ (647.21/100,000). The highest incidence of invasive disease was also in men aged 75+ (45.69/100,000). Isolates from post-surgical patients were more likely to be involved in invasive disease (OR = 2.59), P < 0.001) than strains from other sources. The majority of isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics in addition to methicillin, most frequently erythromycin and the fluoroquinolones. Very little resistance to fusidic acid, mupirocin or rifampicin was reported. Continuous total population surveillance has provided a minimum incidence of MRSA in Wales and has allowed a simple and intelligible picture of the problem to be determined, which has been fed back to hospitals to assist decisions on control.
Mupirocin is widely used to decolonize patients carrying Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of high-level mupirocin resistance by a new commercially available mupA genotypic diagnostic product, mupA EVIGENE assay (AdvanDx).
Eighty-three HO-MRSA isolates (70.3%) were resistant to any antibiotic included in the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B group. Among these isolates, the M phenotype was the most frequent (73.5%). One hundred and seven of HO-MRSA isolates (90.7%) showed aminoglycoside resistance. The combination aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia+ant(4')-Ia genes was the most frequent (22.4%). Tetracycline resistance rates in HO-MRSA isolates were low (3.4%), although a high level of mupirocin resistance was observed (25.4%). Most of the HO-MRSA isolates (approximately 90%) showed SCCmec type IVc and agr type II. Fifteen unrelated pulsotypes were identified. CC5 was the most prevalent (88.1%), followed by CC8 (5.9%), CC22 (2.5%), CC398 (2.5%) and CC1 (0.8%).
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The patients were examined by dermatologists. A bacteriological sample was taken and sent to a central laboratory for identification of the germ and antibiograms were performed and the minimal inhibiting concentrations (MIC) determined.
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For the update of this review we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 24/09/09); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) - The Cochrane Library 2009 Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE - 1950 to September Week 3 2009; Ovid EMBASE - 1980 to 2009 Week 38; and EBSCO CINAHL - 1982 to September Week 3 2009. No language or publication date restrictions were applied.
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Charts of patients who received mupirocin nasal irrigations for MRSA exacerbations of CRS between January 2000 and October 2003 were reviewed.
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We quantified surgical site infections (SSIs) after preoperative screening/selective decolonization before elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) with 2-year follow-up and 2 controls. Concurrent controls (n = 2284) were patients of surgeons not participating in screening/decolonization. Preintervention controls (n = 741) were patients of participating surgeons who underwent TJA the previous year. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers (321/1285 [25%]) used intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine baths as outpatients. Staphylococcal SSIs occurred in no intervention patients (0/321) and 19 concurrent controls. If all SSIs occurred in carriers and 25% of controls were carriers, staphylococcal SSI rate would have been 3.3% in controls (19/571; P = .001). Overall SSI rate decreased from 2.7% (20/741) in preintervention controls to 1.2% (17/1440) in intervention patients (P = .009). Preoperative screening/selective decolonization was associated with fewer SSIs after elective TJA.
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The HONEYPOT study recently reported that daily exit-site application of antibacterial honey was not superior to nasal mupirocin prophylaxis for preventing overall peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infection. This paper reports a secondary outcome analysis of the HONEYPOT study with respect to exit-site infection (ESI) and peritonitis microbiology, infectious hospitalization and technique failure. ♦
Two hundred twenty-two nonduplicate S. aureus strains consecutively isolated in four university hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were tested for mupirocin susceptibility by disc diffusion agar method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination by the E-test. Susceptibility to 16 other antimicrobial agents was also determined.
Control of MSSA represents unique challenges as colonization is expected, endemic infections are tolerated, and surveillance efforts generally focus on multidrug-resistant pathogens. Future studies should address cost-effective surveillance strategies for endemic infections.
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Although guidelines suggest the routine use of mupirocin or gentamicin at the exit site of PD catheter, our PD unit has been using chlorhexidine gluconate 0.5 % as exit-site care protocol. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether mupirocin application is superior to the traditionally applied chlorhexidine-regarding prevention of exit-site infections and peritonitis in our unit.
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Although there is extensive literature on the control of MRSA, when that concerning epidemics is excluded, only a limited amount remains regarding the control of endemic MRSA. Several guidelines have been recently published recommending stringent control measures, which are often suggested based on their success in controlling MRSA outbreaks in hospitals with few MRSA or in containing MRSA cases introduced into a hospital with no MRSA. In these settings, multiple measures are usually introduced with apparently successful results. However, results may not be generalizable to other settings and we do not know the minimum effective measures required for MRSA containment. This paper aims critically to review the literature to determine whether evidence exists for the value of the infection control measures that are widely recommended in the endemic setting. Much of this literature is based on observational studies, with few randomized, controlled trials having been conducted. More well-designed studies are required before many of the principles on which we build infection control programmes can be regarded as evidence based.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization is a widely established, though controversial part of many MRSA controlling strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate our decolonization success rate, identify the risk factors for decolonization failure and determine the optimal duration of follow-up in our low MRSA prevalence setting (2.6 % of isolates).
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Modified TPY agar (MTPY; with addition of glacial acetic acid and mupirocin) was used in the enumeration of bifidobacteria from hen crop and faeces. The colonies on MTPY medium inoculated with crop and faeces samples were Gram-stained, screened for presence of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity and tested for fermentation patterns using ANAEROtest kits. It was revealed that bifidobacteria are obligate inhabitants of the hen crop, reaching counts of 10(7)/g of crop content. The occurrence of bifidobacteria in the hen crop was evidently not the consequence of ingestion of faeces as all the bifidobacteria strains isolated from the hen crop fermented glucose and fructose, while most strains isolated from hen faeces did not ferment either glucose or fructose. The results suggest that bifidobacteria are common and may even be one of the predominant parts of the hen crop flora.
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MRSA causing serious nosocomial infections has become a major problem in hospitals worldwide, with a higher incidence in the southern part of Europe than in Denmark. The initial nasal screening revealed no MRSA positive cultures. During the course of the subsequent 14 months, we found eight Kosovar-Albanian refugees infected with/colonised by MRSA (Table 1). We observed no spread of MRSA to other patient groups.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections are the major cause of technique failure. Exit-site infections (ESI) can be prevented by local application of antibiotics. Mupirocin (M) is the most extensively studied drug for this application. Long-term use can result in the development of resistance. Gentamicin (G) is an attractive alternative, with both gram-positive and gram-negative activities. We studied the comparative efficacy of G cream versus M ointment in the prevention of PD-related infections in a Chinese cohort.
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