Benicar is used for treating high blood pressure, alone or with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Olmesartan.
Benicar is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by inhibiting the action of a chemical transmitter (angiotensin II) and allowing the blood vessels to dilate (widen) and the kidneys to eliminate extra sodium and fluids. These actions combine to help lower blood pressure.
Generic name of Benicar is Olmesartan.
Benicar is also known as Olmesartan, Olmetec, Olmezest, Olmecip.
Brand name of Benicar is Benicar.
Take Benicar orally with or without food.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.
If you overdose Benicar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store your medicine at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children and in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Benicar are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Benicar if you are allergic to Benicar components.
Do not take Benicar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Avoid machine driving.
Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment.
Be careful if you use salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.
Do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.
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Prevention or retardation of diabetic nephropathy (DN) includes anti-hypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) on the premises that these drugs have an added protective effect beyond their influence on BP. The present study used a strain of spontaneously hypertensive/NIH-corpulent rats [SHR/NDmc-cp (fat/fat)] as a model of type II DN to unravel the renoprotective effects of anti-hypertensive drugs. Olmesartan (1 or 5 mg/kg per d), an ARB, and hydralazine (5mg/kg per d), an anti-hypertensive drug without effect on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), were given for 20 wk. BP, renal function, glucose and insulin levels, and proteinuria were monitored. Glomerular lesions and kidney pentosidine content were assessed at the end of the study. Olmesartan (1 and 5 mg) significantly reduced BP and kidney pentosidine content and improved histologic renal damage and proteinuria. The changes were dose-dependent. The effect of hydralazine (5 mg) was similar to that of olmesartan (1 mg) but reached statistical significance only for kidney pentosidine content. The similarity of both drugs' effects on kidney damage and proteinuria suggest that renoprotection does not hinge on manipulation of RAS in these rats. By contrast, the inhibition of renal pentosidine formation assessed both by immunohistochemistry and HPLC suggests a critical role of advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation together with hypertension in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy. This view is supported by the correlation found between renal pentosidine content and proteinuria. The unsuspected AGE-lowering effect of hydralazine was further confirmed in vitro and elucidated; it is due to both reactive carbonyl compounds trapping and modifications of the oxidative metabolism. It is concluded that AGE inhibition should be included in the therapeutic strategy of DN.
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Plasma renin activity (PRA), measured under controlled conditions, is a marker of the degree and persistence of renin-angiotensin system blockade.
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This study in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension assessed the efficacy and safety of adding hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg and 25 mg to a range of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM)/amlodipine (AML) doses.
NCT00441350 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier)].
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After 8 weeks of olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg, mean reduction from baseline in sDBP was 11.8 mmHg and in sSBP was 17.1 mmHg. In controlled patients continuing open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg, mean reduction from baseline at 12 weeks in sDBP was 14.9 mmHg and in sSBP was 20.1 mmHg. At Week 8, the response rate was 76% and the control rate was 70%. Olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day was well tolerated; 30.9% of patients experienced an adverse event, and the majority of these events were judged by the investigators to be mild.
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The study describes the development and validation of a new microwell-based spectrophotometric assay for determination of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) in tablets. The formation of a colored charge-transfer (CT) complex between OLM as an n-electron donor and 2,3-dichloro- -5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as a p-electron acceptor was investigated, and employed as the basis for the development of the new assay. The proposed assay was conducted in 96-microwell plates. The absorbance of the colored-CT complex was measured at 460 nm with a microplate reader. Optimum conditions of the reaction and the analytical procedures of the assay were established. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relationship with a good correlation coefficient was found between the absorbance and the concentration of OLM in the range of 2-200 μg per well. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.53 and 1.61 μg per well, respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients present in OLM tablets or from hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine besylate that were co-formulated with OLM in some of its formulations. The assay was successfully applied to the analysis of OLM in tablets with good accuracy and precision. The assay described herein has a great practical value in the routine analysis of OLM in quality control laboratories, since it has a high throughput property and consumes low volumes of organic solvent. It thus offers a reduction in the exposure of analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, as well as a reduction in the cost of analysis.
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Temocapril significantly prevented aortic dissection (P <.05), CMD (P <.01), and VSMC apoptosis (P <.01) compared with vehicle control in BAPN-fed rats. However, CS-866 did not show any preventive effect. Reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that expression of both AT1R and AT2R was detected in control rat aortas, and that AT2R expression was significantly upregulated in the aortas of BAPN-fed rats (P <.01). Blood pressure was significantly and equally lowered in both temocapril and CS-866 groups compared with control.
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Olmesartan-associated enteropathy shares many features with coeliac disease, including symptoms and immunopathogenic pathways, such as increased numbers of CD8+ cells and corresponding overexpression of IL15 by epithelial cells. Taken together, the treatment of epithelial cells with olmesartan medoxomil induces a response by intestinal epithelial cells that is similar to the innate effects of gluten upon the epithelium of coeliac patients.
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Based on comparative antihypertensive efficacy data, treatment of hypertensive patients with olmesartan medoxomil instead of the other leading ARBs has the potential to reduce overall cost of medical care in a US managed care setting.
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After switching the patients to olmesartan, their plasma level of Ang-(1-7) as a vasoprotective indicator and adiponectin regulating metabolic syndrome was increased, and peroxiredoxin and the oxLDL/β2GPI complex indicating its antioxidative stress and its proatherogenicity were lower than their baseline. This suggests that olmesartan may be more effective than other ARBs to improve these conditions. Neither HMGB1 nor TNFα reflecting an inflammatory response was affected, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of olmesartan are similar to those of other ARBs. The recommended BP (<140/90) was obtained in 10 of the 25 patients after switching to olmesartan. No adverse events occurred.
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After placebo run-in, 192 patients received OM 20 mg/day for 3 weeks. If blood pressure (BP) remained ≥120/70 mmHg, patients were uptitrated every 3 weeks to OM 40 mg/day, OM/HCTZ 40/12.5 mg/day, and OM/HCTZ 40/25 mg/day. Efficacy was evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Secondary endpoints included changes in ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during daytime (08:00 to 16:00) and nighttime (22:00 to 06:00), as well as achievement of prespecified ambulatory BP targets in the total cohort and subgroups based on gender, race, hypertension severity, and age (≥65 or <65 years). Dipper status (nocturnal decrease in BP ≥10% of mean daytime BP) was assessed.
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The efficacy of olmesartan on fibrinolytic capacity has not been studied yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of olmesartan on hemostatic/fibrinolytic status by measuring plasma level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and soluble thrombomodulin levels in patients with hypertension. Forty-two consecutive, newly diagnosed (25 women and 17 men with a mean age of 48 ± 8 years) patients with untreated essential hypertension were included in the study. Olmesartan medoxomil (20 mg/day) was started and the patients were followed up for 6 months. Baseline biochemical variables, thrombomodulin, and PAI-1 levels were compared with the levels of these variables measured at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. After 6 months of treatment with olmesartan medoxomil, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (from 159.5 ± 10.9 to 134.6 ± 12.7 mmHg and from 98.0 ± 6.3 to 83.9 ± 7.0 mmHg, respectively). Mean plasma PAI-1 and thrombomodulin levels were also significantly decreased (59.73 ± 41.91 vs. 48.60 ± 33.65 ng/ml, P = 0.001 and 8.09 ± 2.29 vs. 6.92 ± 1.42 μg/l, P < 0.001, respectively). Olmesartan medoxomil decreased plasma PAI-1 and thrombomodulin levels after 6 months of therapy, indicating a favorable effect on fibrinolytic capacity in patients with essential hypertension.
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Olmesartan provides better antihypertensive efficacy than losartan and valsartan and has no association with an increased risk of adverse events in comparison with losartan, valsartan, candesartan, and irbesartan.
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Following a 4-week placebo run-in, 440 study participants aged >or=18 years were randomized to olmesartan medoxomil (20 mg/day), amlodipine besylate (5 mg/day), or placebo for 8 weeks. The proportion of participants achieving specific systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressure goal levels was calculated by dividing the number of participants who had achieved a particular blood pressure goal by the total number of patients in the intent-to-treat population.
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Differential expression of angiotensin II receptors and AT2R signaling are involved in the pathogenesis of CMD and aortic dissection in BAPN-fed rats. ACEIs might be of clinical value for the prevention and treatment of aortic diseases related to CMD.
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The study revealed that long-term AT-1 blockade corrects proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and nephropathy in this model of spontaneous glomerulosclerosis.
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Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio significantly decreased by about 40% at 16 weeks from baseline (P = 0.0002), although estimated glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure did not change throughout the study period. Plasma renin activity also decreased significantly from baseline (P = 0.019), although plasma aldosterone concentration did not change.
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In a subgroup analysis based upon age, sex and race in patients aged ≥65 years with hypertension, an OM/HCTZ-based algorithm was efficacious and well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00412932.
In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, Korean patients aged 20 to 75 years with stage 2 hypertension who had a mean seated diastolic blood pressure (msDBP) ≥100 mmHg were enrolled when their BP was uncontrolled [mean seated systolic BP (msSBP)/msDBP >140/90 mmHg or msSBP/msDBP >130/80 mmHg with diabetes or chronic kidney disease] with 4-week dual FDC therapy (OM/HCTZ 20/12.5). The patients were randomized to receive either OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 or OM/HCTZ 20/12.5 once daily for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, patients with uncontrolled BP were assigned to receive either OM/AML/HCTZ 40/5/12.5 or OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 in an additional 8-week open-label extension period.
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Adding hydrochlorothiazide to olmesartan provides more effective 24-hour blood pressure control versus olmesartan monotherapy in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension.
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