The specific role of sulfhydryl groups in cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, when incubated with phenylarsine oxide (PAO), an organoarsenic compound showed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of CMC and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). PAO interacted directly with the effector cells (EC) without affecting the target cells (TC) or EC:TC conjugate formation. The loss of cytotoxicity was not due to lack of degranulation or to inhibition of serine esterases in PAO-treated cells. However, PAO inhibited the target-induced down regulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) level in NK cells indicating that PAO blocked the cytolytic cascade at an early stage, upstream of PI. In addition, PAO also did not affect the disulfide link of the zeta-chain dimers, implicated in signal transduction in cytotoxic lymphocytes but did cause the rapid phosphorylation of the zeta chain. Finally, the effect of PAO on CMC was competitively blocked by dithiothreitol, a dithiol, but not by beta-mercaptoethanol, a mono-thiol. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time how sulfyhydryl groups may regulate CMC and ADCC.
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Since 2002, library faculty at the Indiana University School of Medicine have taught third-year medical students how to retrieve the best evidence from MEDLINE to address their clinical questions. In preparation for their Neurology, Medicine, and Psychiatry clerkships, students attended a review of evidence-based medicine principles and techniques for searching the literature. The session was team-taught by two faculty members, one from the Internal Medicine department and the other from the Library. The librarian reviewed important MEDLINE principles for constructing a good subject search and applying appropriate evidence-based filters. During the clerkships, students were asked to generate clinical questions arising from their patient encounters, searched MEDLINE for the best evidence, critiqued the results, and then applied them back to their patients' care. Library faculty provided individualized feedback on the student searches. A follow-up session two months later reinforced MEDLINE principles, used student searches as examples, and extended the discussion to other evidence-based, point-of-care resources. To add to the interactivity of the follow-up sessions, librarians used an audience response system to measure students' understanding of literature retrieval techniques and to gauge student preferences for information seeking on clinical topics. Overall, the sessions have been well-received by the students.
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Compact Disc Read-Only-Memory, CD-ROM, is a powerful resource which combines the best features of both online and print access to the literature: multiple access points and leisurely browsing (online accessibility without a modem or without its cost). Applied to the MEDLINE database, this technology has created a brand new market, one which is increasingly competitive and therefore evolving rapidly. Five MEDLINE and two non-MEDLINE products are reviewed. The MEDLINE products include: BRS/COLLEAGUE DISC, Compact Cambridge, Ebsco's Core MEDLINE, Online Research System's Compact Med-Base, and SilverPlatter's MEDLINE on CD-ROM. The two other products include: Institute for Scientific Information's SCI CD Edition and SilverPlatter's CANCER-CD. The market is still wide open and the buyer is wise to try before he buys. However, there are great differences between the various packagings of a rather familiar product. In our view, in terms of ease of use, SilverPlatter was the clear winner. Ebsco's product is attractive because of its containment on one CD. Med-Base is the most original and offers special features not found elsewhere. Finally, personal preference is a strong consideration and should not be overlooked.
In this study, PHA- and ConA-activated cells (PAC and CAC) were used as stimulators in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) using autologous (auto) and allogeneic (allo) peripheral mononuclear cells as responders. PAC, but not CAC, were stimulatory in allo- and auto-MLR, and this stimulation was not due to residual PHA. In PAC which have been activated for 96 h, auto-MLR was due to determinants present on low density T-cell blasts, while with PAC which had been stimulated for more than 192 h, the determinants seemed to be associated with high density T cells. Anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies and certain anti-DR suppressed auto- and allo-MLR mediated by PAC when present throughout the entire MLR assays. CAC suppressed PAC-mediated auto-MLR in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition was not DR-restricted and was reversed by the addition of exogenous IL-2. Our results indicate that: depending upon the length of activation, both low density and high density PHA-activated T cells exhibited strong stimulatory capacity in auto-MLR; ConA-activated T cells failed to stimulate auto- or allo-MLR and suppressed MLR mediated by PAC; this suppression was due to suppressor cells, not to suppressor factors, and was readily reversed by exogenous IL-2; pretreatment of CAC with anti-TAC did not reverse the inhibition.
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Most of the studies in this evidence base relied on surrogate measures of pregnancy risk and ranged in quality. For studies providing indirect evidence on the effects of missed CHCs, it is unclear how differences in surrogate measures correspond to pregnancy risk. Fewer studies examined the transdermal patch and vaginal ring than combined oral contraceptives.
To assess the effect of herbal antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans count in biofilm formations during orthodontic treatment.
Serie de casos.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is now widely accepted as a source of stem cells in patients with malignant hematologic and genetic disorders. We have recently reported that in a series of 30 pediatric UCB transplant recipients comparable outcome to that anticipated with other unrelated stem cell sources. In our series, however, the probability of GVHD for grade III-IV was 9% and no UCB recipient developed chronic GVHD. The reason for the low incidence of GVHD after UCB transplantation is not fully understood. Because functional NK cells are among the first population of lymphocytes to be detected in UCB transplant recipients, 2 months post-transplant on average, we wanted to establish whether NK cells could be implicated in reducing the risk of GVHD. Here, we confirm that early NK cells detected in UCB transplant recipients activate the granzyme/perforin lytic pathway and, in addition, they can mediate Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) activity, a finding not previously reported. Both pathways develop simultaneously and are detectable months before the other lymphocytes, notably CD8 are fully functional. Our contention, therefore, is that the low GVHD observed in UCB recipients may be partially due to early NK cells.
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is commonly associated wich the over-expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the product of the MDR1 gene. In this study, we investigated whether over-expression of Pgp in natural killer (NK) cells would influence their granule- as well as fas-mediated cytolytic activities. YT-INDY, a human NK-like cell line, was transfected with the MDR 1 gene, then tested for Pgp activity the presence of various concentrations of R-verapamil, a potent Pgp inhibitor. We showed that, unlike control YT-INDY, the Pgp activity of the transfectants (YT-mdr(+)) was only partially inhibited by R-verapamil. We also showed that Fas lytic activity was unaltered and that the loss of granule-mediated cytotoxicity was not due to reduced LFA-1 expression or to a decrease in target cell (TC) binding. Our data indicate that Pgp may be involved in the release of cytotoxic molecules.
Metallodrugs (organometallic complexes) bearing at least one metal-carbon bond - represent original and powerful tools for diverse therapeutic applications based on the development of "bioorganometallic chemistry". To date, various metallodrugs were described with very interesting biological activities as antimalarials, antibacterials, neuroprotectors, against arthritis, for chemotherapy etc. Anticancer Pt-based drugs are the main complexes used in the treatment of several cancers, but unfortunately these complexes show elicit and severe toxicities and resistance effects. The remarkably unique and tunable properties of dendrimers have made them promising tools for diverse biomedical applications such as diagnostics, gene therapy and drug delivery including in oncology. Recent studies have shown that well designed dendritic carriers overcome such as poor solubility, permeability, biocompatibility, bioavailability and toxicity of the native drug. This review reports on the recent advances for the use of metallodrugs and dendritic based carriers (drug-dendrimer conjugates and drug encapsulation) in oncology. Advantages, limitations and opportunities in oncology of such materials are discussed and compared.
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Studies on the toxicity of Mediterranean jellyfish have gained attention owing to their weak toxic properties. Our research has been mainly performed on the Scyphomedusae. Pelagia noctiluca is a scyphozoan jellyfish which causes a danger to sea bathers and fishery damages in the Mediterranean Sea. To check whether the cytotoxicity of Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts was associated to DNA lesions, we have looked for DNA fragmentation by means of the Comet and chromosome aberration assays. To specify cell death pathway, we have investigated caspase-3 activation. Our results have shown that nematocysts reduced cell viability and induced DNA fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum effect at 150 000 nematocysts mL(-1). The high percentage of chromosome aberrations also emphasized the genotoxic character of Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts in Vero cells. This fragmentation was correlated to apoptosis induction which was confirmed by caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, the present report has suggested that Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts were able to promote apoptosis in Vero cells and therefore may be useful in cancer therapy.
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Sera from normal human subjects are pooled and fractions are isolated by salt precipitation. The fraction responsible for agglutinating histamine bound latex particles is further purified by column chromatography. The histaminopectic activity can thus be traced to a single protein present in the IgG fraction of normal human serum. Its absence or the presence of an inhibitor in serum from allergic subjects is also sought as well as correlations between plasma concentrations of known immunoglobulins and specific histaminopectic activity. Some of its physical-chemical properties are explored. Evidence was also presented pointing to the possible presence of an inhibitor of the histaminopectic factor in human atopic serum.
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A number of recent studies have shown that mouse target cells (TC) of hematopoietic origin, when exposed to cytotoxic lymphocytes, undergo double-stranded DNA fragmentation. The cause and relevance of the fragmentation remain controversial. In this study we generated a number of mouse (M-LAK) and human LAK (H-LAK) cells and exposed them to a variety of mouse and human TC. YAC and SP/2, 2 mouse TC underwent rapid and extensive fragmentation when lysed by either human or mouse LAK whereas K562 and Daudi, 2 human TC, under the same conditions did not. All 4 TC, however, were killed quite efficiently. Next we labeled TC with 125I-deoxyuridine, exposed them to LAK cells for up to 18 h and loaded the LAK:TC mixtures over an alkaline linear sucrose gradient. After lysing the cells with a lysis buffer containing Triton X-100 we showed that K562 that had been in contact with LAK cells for more than 1 h exhibited single-strand nicks. However, whereas double-strand fragmentation preceded chromium release (lytic activity), the appearance of single-strand nicks did not. Finally, protein synthesis was not required for either type of fragmentation. In summary, we have demonstrated that: (1) the ability to undergo DNA fragmentation is a property of the TC rather than the effector cells that mediated their death, and (2) K562 and Daudi, 2 human TC, undergo single-strand nicks when lysed by LAK cells whereas SP/2 and YAC, 2 mouse TC undergo double-strand fragmentation when exposed to the same syngeneic or xenogeneic effector cells.
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The analysis and plotting of graphs were carried out using Sigma Plot 12 (Systat Software Inc., USA). Values are expressed as Mean ± SEM (n = 6). One way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keul's multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant.
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A variety of primary and secondary malignant tumours may present in the liver. In clinical practice the most commonly encountered hepatic tumours are primary hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic carcinoma and primary cholangiocarcinoma, each with its separate prognostic and management implications. When these tumours are poorly differentiated and the biopsy size is limited to a needle core, the distinction can be extremely difficult.
A versatile new method for the preparation of NHC boranes starting from two stable, readily available reactants-an heterocyclic salt and an amine or phosphine-borane-is reported. It uses a Lewis base exchange at boron and provides easy access to new NHC boranes, in particular B-substituted borane ones.
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A retrospective study (35 months), including all adult patients admitted for an isolated intoxication by a TCA or a related drug. The statistical analysis of clinical signs and history as well as ECG abnormalities included parameters recorded in emergency rooms.
Drug-induced liver injury is a major challenge in treating tuberculosis with isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). This study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of Bacopamonnieri (Brahmi) against INH and RIF-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model and also to study the patterns of interaction between pregnane X receptor (PXR) and chosen active compounds of B. monnieri. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the experimental animals by the oral administration of INH and RIF (50 mg/kg b.w. each/day) for 28 days. The effects of co-administration of B. monnieri (500 mg/kg b.w./day) in INH- and RIF-induced rats were studied by the estimation of biochemical analyses. The standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w./day) was used for the purpose of comparison. In silico docking experiments were carried out using the PatchDock server and the results were analysed on the PyMol molecular viewer. There was significant reduction in the antioxidant status of INH and RIF-induced rats. Also, there was significant elevation in the levels of serum liver function markers in the INH- and RIF-induced rats. B. monnieri was able to normalise the tested parameters. In silico studies reveal significant interaction between PXR and bacopaside I. B. monnieri exerts significant protective effects against INH and RIF-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated cytotoxicity is initiated in natural killer (NK) cells through ligation of their activating receptors. The CD16 receptor has been shown to induce FasL expression and cytotoxicity in NK cells. In this study, we made the novel observation that FasL expression was upregulated in NKL cells stimulated through 2B4 and LFA-1 activating receptors, implying a role for FasL-mediated cytotoxicity early in the immune response. Coligation with CD94/NKG2A human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I inhibitory receptor did not block the induced FasL expression; therefore, these opposing pathways appear to function independently. We also showed, however, that FasL-mediated cytotoxicity was downregulated in CD94/NKG2A-expressing LAK cells in response to the HLA-E ligand, suggesting a mechanism by which aberrant cells expressing class I may evade FasL-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus we show for the first time that 2B4, LFA-1, and CD94/NKG2A receptors are involved in modulating FasL expression and, therefore, cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells.
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To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining participants in a clinical trial on shirodhara, Ayurvedic oil dripping therapy, for insomnia in the United States and also to investigate the therapeutic usefulness of Shirodhara for insomnia using standardized outcome measures.
It seems that medical doctors should ask patients about their use of complementary medicine when they obtain medical history and they need to know more about complementary medicine to offer better consultation. Complementary medicine must benefit, as well as conventional medicine, from scientific studies to evaluate potential benefits, toxicity and interactions with the conventional treatment to enable the oncologist better inform his patients.
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The indazole system in each of the two independent mol-ecules of the title compound, C(10)H(8)ClN(3)O(2), is planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.005 and 0.005 Å). The nitro group is coplanar with the fused-ring system [dihedral angles = 1.3 (3) and 4.8 (3) Å].
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Bacopa monnieri is an outstanding nervine tonic used for raising the mental performance. It helps in concentration, comprehension, recall and alertness, Brahmi is particularly beneficial as it aids in categorizing information in brain and its subsequent expression. Bacopa is also called as a natural antioxidant which may give details its neuroprotective role seen in the memory centers of the brain. Epilepsy is neuronal disorder characterized by learning, cognitive and memory impairments. The present review summarizes information concerning botany, chemistry and beneficial effect of Bacopa monnieri on epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.
We searched MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases from inception through April 2011 for peer-reviewed articles containing evidence related to pregnancy outcomes among women who conceived while using copper (Cu) and levonorgestrel-releasing (LNG) IUDs.
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Después del dolor, el insomnio es una de las quejas más habituales a las que se enfrentan los médicos de atención primaria. El tratamiento no farmacológico y no invasivo del insomnio está ganando interés entre los pacientes con insomnio.