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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
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Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

calan generic name

The baseline electrocardiogram showed nearly incessant runs of atrial tachycardia in all patients. The mean atrial ectopic cycle length ranged from 376 to 502 ms. In seven patients a progressive prolongation of the cycle length from the beginning to the end of the salvos was documented. The arrhythmia was suppressed by increments of sinus node rate and by atrial pacing at cycle lengths longer than that of the atrial tachycardia. In all patients the arrhythmia was abolished by intravenous lidocaine, whereas intravenous verapamil was ineffective. Four symptomatic patients were successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation of the ectopic focus, and two patients were treated with oral mexiletine.

calan 80 mg

Pharmacological treatment of hypertension is effective in preventing cardiovascular and renal complications. Calcium antagonists (CAs) and blockers of the renin-angiotensin system [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists (ARBs)] are widely used today to initiate antihypertensive treatment but, when given as monotherapy, do not suffice in most patients to normalise blood pressure (BP). Combining a CA and either an ACE-inhibitor or an ARB considerably increases the antihypertensive efficacy, but not at the expense of a deterioration of tolerability. Several fixed-dose combinations are available (CA + ACE-inhibitors: amlodipine + benazepril, felodipine + ramipril, verapamil + trandolapril; CA + ARB: amlodipine + valsartan). They are expected not only to improve BP control, but also to facilitate long-term adherence with antihypertensive therapy, thereby providing maximal protection against the cardiovascular and renal damage caused by high BP.

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Despite the availability of many newer antihypertensive agents, hypertensive patients remain at a higher risk of premature death than the general population. This persistence of elevated morbidity and mortality may be accounted for by the frequent failure to achieve adequate blood pressure reduction despite an extensive range of available antihypertensive agents. Such considerations have led to the reassessment of the potential role of fixed-dose combination agents. The antihypertensive efficacy may be enhanced when two classes of agents are combined. In addition, combination therapy enhances tolerability because one drug of fixed combination can antagonize some of the adverse effects of the second drug. Fixed-dose combination therapy simplifies the treatment regimen, preventing treatment failures that might result from missed doses.

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The human multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) contributes to the poor bioavailability of many anticancer and antimicrobial agents as well as to drug resistance at the cellular level. For rational design of effective Pgp inhibitors, a clear understanding of its mechanism of action and functional regulation is essential. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of Pgp-mediated drug transport by cis-(Z)-flupentixol, a thioxanthene derivative, occurs through an allosteric mechanism. Unlike competitive inhibitors, such as cyclosporin A and verapamil, cis-(Z)-flupentixol does not interfere with substrate ([(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin) recognition by Pgp, instead it prevents substrate translocation and dissociation, resulting in a stable but reversible Pgp-substrate complex. cis-(Z)-Flupentixol-induced complex formation requires involvement of the Pgp substrate site, because agents that either physically compete (cyclosporin A) for or indirectly occlude (vanadate) the substrate-binding site prevent formation of the complex. Allosteric modulation by cis-(Z)-flupentixol involves a conformational change in Pgp detectable by monoclonal antibody UIC2 binding to a conformation-sensitive external epitope of Pgp. The conformational change observed is distinct from that induced by Pgp substrates or competitive inhibitors. A single amino acid substitution (F983A) in TM12 of Pgp that impairs inhibition by cis-(Z)-flupentixol of Pgp-mediated drug transport also affects stabilization of the Pgp-substrate complex as well as the characteristic conformational change. Taken together, our results describe the molecular mechanism by which the Pgp modulator cis-(Z)-flupentixol allosterically inhibits drug transport.

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P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the MDR-encoded membrane transporter, is physiologically expressed in normal tissues with excretory functions, including kidney proximal tubules. In a preliminary report we have shown that HK-2, an immortalized cell line from normal human proximal tubule, expresses a functional Pgp and may be considered a valuable model for in vitro investigations on the Pgp role(s) in human renal pathophysiology. The present investigation was designed to further characterize the properties of HK-2 Pgp by exploring its responsiveness to a variety of exogenous or endogenous modulators. HK-2 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's F-12 supplemented with 5% FCS in the absence or in the presence of modulators. Pgp mRNA expression was studied by RT-PCR and the amount of Pgp was determined by Western blotting. Pgp activity was assessed by intracellular rhodamine-123 (R-123) accumulation. RT-PCR showed that HK-2 cells express MDR-1, but not MDR-3. Both MDR-1 Pgp and MDR-1 mRNA were significantly increased in cells cultured in the presence of cyclosporin A (CsA), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), platelet activating factor, dexamethasone (Dex), or aldosterone. Verapamil (Vp), cimetidine, and trimethoprim did not affect HK-2 Pgp expression. Conversely, 2-acetylaminofluorene strongly downregulated Pgp expression. Vp, CsA, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and Dex significantly increased R-123 intracellular retention, indicating the inhibition of Pgp-mediated transport. Drug-pretreated, Pgp-overexpressing cells showed increased Pgp activity and were less susceptible to toxic concentrations of CsA. MDR-1 Pgp in HK-2 appears to be responsive to many compounds, including classical Pgp inhibitors and putative physiological substrates, but some of its pharmacological properties are different from those described in other experimental, in particular nonhuman, cell models.

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Coronary and systemic hemodynamic effects of verapamil have been investigated previously in detail. The acute impact of intracoronary verapamil on coronary hemodynamics has, however, not been correlated to simultaneously changes in myocardial metabolism or norepinephrine levels in humans. After bolus application of 1 mg verapamil into the left coronary artery of 52 patients scheduled for routine coronary angiography, heart rate (HR) remained unchanged, whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decreased (93.8 +/- 14.9 mmHg to 85.1 +/- 13.7 mmHg, p = 0.001). Coronary blood flow (CBF), calculated from intracoronary Doppler measurements and quantitative coronary angiography, increased after verapamil administration (28.5 +/- 16.7 ml/min to 66.2 +/- 41.8 ml/min, p < 0.001), whereas coronary vascular resistance index (CVRI) decreased (1.43 +/- 0.92 to 0.46 +/- 0.23, p < 0.001). Blood samples, taken simultaneously from the aorta (Ao) and coronary sinus (CS) at baseline and at maximal flow velocity, showed an increase in norepinephrine concentrations in Ao (209 +/- 151 ng/l to 283 +/- 195 ng/l, p < 0.001) and CS (233 +/- 162 ng/l to 323 +/- 248 ng/l, p = 0.004). Myocardial metabolism of pyruvate and free fatty acids were not affected. Glucose release was augmented and initial lactate consumption changed to a net lactate release into the CS (Ao to CS differences: glucose: -1.92 +/- 9.9 mg/dl to -12.8 +/- 22.8 mg/dl, p < 0.001; lactate: 0.07 +/- 0.2 mmol/l to -0.08 +/- 0.3 mmol/l, p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained for the extraction ratios and flux of these metabolites. There was a weak correlation between the increase in CBF and lactate release into the CS. This is the first report of unexpected myocardial lactate release following intracoronary verapamil administration in humans. This lactate release was paralleled by an increased glucose release into the CS at an unchanged metabolism of free fatty acids and pyruvate. One explanation for this unexplained lactate release during increased coronary blood flow might be a wash out phenomenon of lactate from previous ischemic areas, other explanations might be the induction of paradox myocardial ischemia and/or a steal effect. Further studies are necessary to explain these unexpected findings of increased coronary flow and myocardial lactate release. Until reliable explanations are pending, studies using only lactate release as a marker of myocardial ischemia, without taken coronary and systemic hemodynamic parameters into account, should be interpreted with caution.

calan 5 mg

The classical localisation of chromaffin cell tumours is intra-adrenal. Ectopic or multiple tumours are not rare and are commonly observed in children. The authors report a case of ectopic pheochromocytoma with a double localisation in a 14 year old child (renal pedicle and right retropleural space), in which surgical ablation resulted in an immediate and sustained correction of the hypertension. Hypertension recurred 24 years later and a classical right adrenal pheochromocytoma was demonstrated by methyl-iodo-benzylguanidine (M.I.B.G.) scintigraphy and abdominal CT scan. Right adrenalectomy resulted in normalisation of the hypertension once again without antihypertensive therapy with a follow-up of three years. Regular follow-up is necessary after ablation of a pheochromocytoma, especially in children, even in the absence of a phacomatosis or multiple endocrine neoplastic syndromes.

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TAX-2'-Et transport was characterized in a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) and paclitaxel (TAX)-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3/TAX60). Expression of P-gp, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 and Ra-CES was detected by Western blotting. Cytotoxicity against Ra-CES-expressing cells and cellular amount of TAX produced were determined by MTT assay and using HPLC, respectively.

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A verapamil-sensitive side population (SP) can be isolated from primary prostate tissue accounting for 1.38% +/- 0.07% of prostate epithelial cells. Cell cycle analysis of this SP population revealed that the majority of SP cells are in either G0 (12.38 +/- 0.31%) or G1 (63.19 +/- 2.13%).

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Candida albicans morphogenesis and gastrointestinal colonization are closely associated with the pathogenicity of this pathogen. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, on these processes. Exposure to ≥ 10 μg mL(-1) verapamil led to a significant decrease of C. albicans hyphal cells. The ability to adhere to a polystyrene surface and buccal epithelial cells was inhibited by exposure to ≥ 20 μg mL(-1) verapamil. Detection of the Hwp1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that verapamil inhibited expression and transport of Hwp1, indicating its activity against both the regulation network of morphogenesis-associated proteins and the secretory pathway in C. albicans. Moreover, treatment with verapamil at 10 mg (kg day)(-1) led to a remarkable decrease in gastrointestinal-colonizing fungal cells. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of verapamil on C. albicans hyphal development, adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization, which is relevant to decreased expression and abnormal transport of the proteins required for morphogenesis. Therefore, verapamil may be taken into account when choosing an antifungal therapy against C. albicans colonization and infection.

calan dosage forms

For many years ECG disturbances caused by cardiologic drugs are in the spot of our interests. In the Poisoning Centers patients who ingested large amounts of these drugs are treated so there are possibilities to investigate such kind of ECG changes. For the demonstration we present ECG-s illustrating disturbances in the course of intoxication with calcium channel blockers, beta antagonists and digoxin.

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The intrinsic nature of rthymic release of luteinizing hormone (LH) of isolated human and rat anterior pituitary gland reported independently by Macro Gambacciani and Xie in 1987 can be more directly demonstrated by a computer programme of Time Series-HSY Hidden Periodic Analytic Approach for continuous monitoring the LH output of the perfusate from a perfusion system with in vitro anterior pituitary of SD female rat. The results are as follows: (1) Under various reproductive conditions the average frequency (min/cycle) and amplitude (ng/ml) of the intrinsic rhythm of LH release were quite different: In proestrous group the frequency and amplitude were the highest, being intermediate in the ovariectomized group and lowest in the lactation group. (2) The intrinsic rhythm of LH release could be changed by either peptide or steroid hormones. In proestrous group with 30 min of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), stimulation would reduce both frequency and amplitude. In case of lactation, the frequency was unchanged, but amplitude lowered, while in the ovariectomized rat pituitary, the 30 min GnRH stimulation decreased the frequency of release only. The intrinsic rhythm of the LH release could also be influenced by steriod hormones (Ru486 and Anordrin). With 120 min before removal of the anterior pituitary gland the rats receiving i.m. injection of Ru486 (2 mg/kg bw) or Anordrin (2 mg/kg), the results showed that Ru486 decreased frequency, while Anordrin decreased only the frequency to a less extent, both without amplitude affected. (3) Verapamil and EGTA added to the perfusion system did not abolish but only decreased the rhythmic phenomenon by using proestrous pitutary. This suggests that participation of Ca2+ may take place in the intrinsic release of LH. The above results indicated that the intrinsic rhythm of LH release of isolated anterior pituitary gland is different from various reproductive hormonal conditions and capable of being modified by exogenous hormones. The physiological function of the intrinsic rhythm of LH release of anterior pituitary gland remains to be elucidated.

calan 240 mg

Twelve landrace-pigs were intoxicated with intravenous verapamil at escalating infusion rates. The infusion containing 2.5 mg/ml verapamil was used aiming to a reduction of cardiac output by 40% from the baseline value. Intoxicated pigs were randomized into two groups: control (saline) and levosimendan (intravenous bolus). Inotropic effect was measured as a change in a maximum of the positive slope of the left ventricular pressure (LV dP/dt). The survival and hemodynamics of the animals were followed for 120 min after the targeted reduction of cardiac output.

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The intestinal absorption characteristics of anthraquinones emodin and chrysophanol were observed by measuring the intracellular accumulation across Caco-2 cells by the reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The intracellular accumulation of chrysophanol was much greater than that of emodin, the maximum absorption of emodin and chrysophanol being 414.02+/-15.28 and 105.56+/-11.57 nmol/l x mg x protein, respectively. The absorption of each anthraquinone was significantly lower at 4 degrees C than that of 37 degrees C. The effects of the transport inhibitors, verapamil, cyclosporine and phloridzin, on the intracellular accumulation were also examined. Verapamil and cyclosporine increased the absorption of emodin and chrysophanol, while phloridzin inhibited their absorption, all in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the absorption characteristics of emodin and chrysophanol were closely related to their special structure with the hydroxy groups. It is also likely that a specific transport system mediated the intracellular accumulation of emodin and chrysophanol across the Caco-2 cells.

calan 180 mg

(18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used to detect arterial atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. However, avid myocardial glucose uptake may preclude its use for visualizing coronary plaques. Fatty acid loading or calcium channel blockers could decrease myocardial (18)F-FDG uptake, thus assisting coronary plaque inflammation identification. The present prospective randomized trial compared the efficacies of different interventions for suppressing myocardial (18)F-FDG uptake. We also investigated whether circulating free fatty acid (cFFA) levels predicted the magnitude of myocardial (18)F-FDG uptake.

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Fourteen patients (7 males and 7 females) with the diagnosis of acromegaly and diastolic dysfunction confirmed by echocardiogram were studied. After six months of treatment with verapamil (240 mg/day) the echo-cardiographic parameters and the functional class (NYHA) of patients were reevaluated.

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5-FU based treatments proved to be more ef cacious than the other modalities. 5-FU + TMC demonstrated the largest reduc- tion in keloid height and rmness. The greatest degree of scar softening and average size reduction was achieved with 5-FU/ TMC (80% and 70% reduction, respectively), followed by 5-FU/verapamil (50% and 33% reduction, respectively). The same combinations led to the greatest reduction in scar height (70% and 33%, respectively). All treatments led to resolution of pain and itching in the keloid.

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The present study demonstrated that P-gp inhibition enhanced the intracerebral concentration of imipramine , thus supporting the hypothesis that P-gp activity restricts brain levels of certain antidepressants, including imipramine. These findings may help to explain reports of a beneficial response to adjunctive therapy with verapamil in TRD.

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trans-Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, has been described as a nutraceutic compound with important beneficial effects on health, but its low oral bioavailability hinders its therapeutic activity. Here, we studied the mechanisms of apical transport of trans-resveratrol in enterocytes and the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the secretion of resveratrol glucuronide and sulfate resulting from the rapid intracellular metabolism. An intestinal perfusion method with recirculation in vivo was used in rats. Jejunal loops were perfused with increasing concentrations of trans-resveratrol and results showed that its uptake occurs by simple diffusion without the participation of a mediated transport. The apparent diffusion constant was 8.1 +/- 0.3 microL/(5 min.mg dry weight). The glycoprotein-P (Pgp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) located in the apical membrane of enterocytes were investigated using specific inhibitors. The Pgp inhibitors verapamil (5 micromol/L) and cyclosporin A (5 micromol/L) did not affect the efflux of trans-resveratrol and its conjugates. The MRP2 inhibitors probenecid (2 mmol/L) and MK571 (10 micromol/L) reduced the efflux of glucuronide by 61 and 55%, respectively, and of sulfate by 43 and 28%, respectively. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 (0.5 micromol/L) decreased the secretion of glucuronide by 64% and of sulfate by 46%. Our experiments identify MRP2 and BCRP as the 2 apical transporters involved in the efflux of resveratrol conjugates.

calan eeze review

Cross-sectional analysis of nationwide dispensing data. Odds ratios of interacting erythromycin, verapamil/diltiazem versus respective prevalence of comparator drugs doxycycline, amlodipine/felodipine in patients co-dispensed interacting statins simvastatin/atorvastatin versus patients unexposed (pravastatin/fluvastatin/rosuvastatin) was calculated. For fibrates, OR of gemfibrozil versus fenofibrate/bezafibrate in patients co-dispensed any statin was assessed.

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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a pleiotropic resistance against several unrelated drugs. It may be induced by prolonged exposure of cells to drugs such as doxorubicin, etoposide and vinca alkaloids. Once MDR develops in clinical tumors, it is a major obstacle for the improvement of treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Several specific mechanisms have been identified in clinical refractory MM patients including typical MDR, which is associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and Lung Resistance Protein (LRP). The expression of the proteins associated with these genes seems to depend on exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, reversal of MDR by non-cytotoxic agents such as verapamil, cyclosporin A and PSC 833 (Valdospar) was explored in acute leukemia and multiple myeloma. Preliminary results from clinical phase I/II trials indicate that reversal of MDR is possible and that it may lead to alterations of the plasma pharmacokinetics of the cytostatic agents, in addition to P-glycoprotein inhibition in tumor cells. The potential implications of P-glycoprotein reversal are discussed.

calan 80 mg

We evaluated the frequency of second- and third-degree AV block in patients with baseline first-degree AV block during adenosine stress testing, in the presence and absence of AV blocking medications (digitalis, beta-blockers, diltiazem, verapamil). Six hundred consecutive patients underwent pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging with adenosine infusion at 140 microg/kg/min for 6 minutes. A total of 43 patients (7.16%) had baseline first-degree AV block (PR interval > 200 msec), and 557 patients had a baseline PR interval < 200 msec. Twenty-one of the 43 patients (48.8 %) had further prolongation of PR interval > 240 msec, compared with 58 of 557 patients (10.4%) in the control group (P < .0001). In 16 of the 43 patients (37.3 %), second-degree AV block developed, compared with 45 of 557 patients (8.0 %) in the control group (P < .0001). In 6 of the 43 patients (13.9%), third-degree AV block developed, compared with 6 of 557 patients (1.0%) in the control group (P < .0001). All types of AV block were short duration and were not associated with any specific symptoms. None of these episodes required specific treatment. The presence of AV blocking medications (digitalis, beta-blockers, diltiazem, verapamil) did not increase the incidence of AV block during adenosine infusion.

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calan drug 2017-03-10

At present, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function can be studied using positron emission tomography (PET) together with a labelled P-gp substrate such as R-[11C]verapamil. Such a tracer is, however, less suitable for investigating P-gp (over)expression. Laniquidar is a third-generation P-gp inhibitor, which has been used in clinic trials for modulating multidrug resistance transporters. The purpose of the present study was to develop the radiosynthesis of [11C]laniquidar and to assess its suitability as a tracer of P-gp expression. The radiosynthesis of [11C]laniquidar was performed by methylation of the carboxylic acid precursor with [11C]CH3I. The product was purified by HPLC and reformulated over a tC18 Seppak, yielding a sterile solution of [11C]laniquidar in saline. For evaluating [11C]laniquidar, rats were injected with 20 MBq [11C]laniquidar via a tail vein and sacrificed at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after injection. Several tissues and distinct brain regions were dissected and counted buy calan for radioactivity. In addition, uptake of [11C]laniquidar in rats pretreated with cyclosporine A and valspodar (PSC 833) was determined at 30 min after injection. Finally, the metabolic profile of [11C]laniquidar in plasma was determined. [11C]Laniquidar could be synthesized in moderate yields with high specific activity. Uptake in brain was low, but significantly increased after administration of cyclosporine A. Valspodar did not have any effect on cerebral uptake of [11C]laniquidar. In vivo rate of metabolism was relatively low. Further kinetic studies are needed to investigate the antagonistic behaviour of [11C]laniquidar at tracer level.

calan 120 mg 2016-01-07

Isolated hearts from immature rats were perfused by Langendorff method, and assigned to 1 of the following 5 groups (n = 6-8): control, continuously perfused for 170 min at 36 degrees C, normal temperature, normal perfused for 20 min, changed to perfuse with KVP for 3 min then no perfusion 87 min (ischemia 90 min), followed by 60 min reperfusion. 3 groups of low temperature, perfused for 15 min, cool down to 32 buy calan degrees C, 28 degrees C and 24 degrees C especially in 5 min, and at 20th min. heart rate (b/min), tension (g), contraction force (g), peak systolic velocity (dT/dt(max)), peak diastole velocity (dT/dt(max)), coronary flow (Drop/min) were monitored during the whole perfusion.

calan tab 2017-07-13

The 190-kDa multidrug resistance protein MRP1 is an ATP-binding cassette protein that confers resistance to multiple antineoplastic agents and actively transports conjugated organic anions. We have previously shown that MRP1-mediated GSH transport is stimulated by verapamil but transport of verapamil in the presence or absence of GSH is not observed. We have now examined 20 sulfur-containing verapamil analogs for their ability to buy calan inhibit MRP1-mediated leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) transport and stimulate GSH uptake into inside-out membrane vesicles. All of the derivatives were poor inhibitors of LTC(4) uptake. However, the inhibitory potency of the more lipophilic dithiane compounds could be enhanced by coincubation with GSH whereas this was not the case for the more hydrophilic dithiane tetraoxides. The dithiane derivatives stimulated GSH transport whereas, with one exception, the dithiane tetraoxides did not. One pair of dithiane stereoisomers differed significantly in their ability to stimulate GSH transport although their ability to inhibit LTC(4) uptake in the presence of GSH was comparable. Our findings indicate that the GSH transport activity of MRP1 can be dissociated from its conjugated organic anion transport activity.

calan 5 mg 2015-10-06

In recombinant strains of M. tuberculosis, the overexpression of this gene led to an increase in MIC of anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid and ethambutol when tested by REMA. In the presence of CCCP and verapamil, the recombinant strains showed decrease in MIC for these drugs. Bioinformatic analysis has shown a close relation of JefA protein with drug efflux pumps of other clinically relevant bacteria. In homology derived structure prepared buy calan from nearest available model, it was observed that amino acids forming TMH 1, 8 and 11 participated in ethambutol specificity and those forming TMH 2, 7 and 10 participated in isoniazid specificity in JefA.

calan reviews 2015-03-13

Although sarcolemmal (SL) Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is known to regulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), its involvement in catecholamine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i is not fully understood. To gain some information in this regard, isolated rat cardiomyocytes were treated with different agents, which are known to modify Ca2+ movements, in the absence or presence of a beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol, and [Ca2+]i in cardiomyocytes was determined spectrofluorometrically with fura-2 AM. Treatment with isoproterenol did not alter [Ca2+]i in quiescent cardiomyocytes, whereas the ATP (purinergic receptor agonist)-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was significantly potentiated by isoproterenol. Unlike ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid, which affect the sarcoplasmic reticulum function, SL L-type Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem, as well as a SL Ca2+-pump inhibitor, vanadate, caused a significant depression in the isoproterenol-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. The SL Na+/Ca2+ exchange blockers amiloride, Ni2+, and KB-R7943 also attenuated the isoproterenol-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i. Combination of KB-R7943 and verapamil showed additive inhibitory effects on the isoproterenol-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. The isoproterenol-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in KCl-depolarized cardiomyocytes was augmented by low Na+; this augmentation was significantly depressed by treatment with KB-R7943. The positive inotropic action of isoproterenol in isolated hearts was also reduced by KB-R7943. These data suggest buy calan that in addition to SL L-type Ca2+ channels, SL Na+/Ca2+ exchanger seems to play an important role in catecholamine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in cardiomyocytes.

calan eeze review 2017-08-18

NMDA injection enhanced buy calan TXNIP expression, decreased Trx activity, causing increased oxidative stress, glial activation and release of TNF-α and IL-1β. Enhanced TXNIP expression disrupted Trx/ASK-1 inhibitory complex leading to release of ASK-1 and activation of the pro-apoptotic p38 MAPK/JNK pathway, as indicated by cleaved PARP and caspase-3 expression. Treatment with verapamil blocked these effects.

calan medication 2015-11-21

The test formulation of controlled release diltiazem pellets was evaluated in vivo, in comparison with Herbesser SR. Six healthy volunteers participated in the study, conducted according to a randomized, two-way crossover study design. The preparations were compared using the pharmacokinetic parameters plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0- infinity)), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) were estimated from the plasma concentration-time profiles for each volunteer. The test formulation was buy calan found to be comparable with the Herbesser SR in the extent of bioavailability but differ in the rate of absorption, the test formulation being less sustained. No lag time was observed in any of the volunteers indicating that both formulations started to release their drug content immediately upon rupture of the capsule but in sustained manner. Moreover, the values of pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were comparable to those reported in the literature.

calan 180 mg 2016-04-30

To describe a patient with galactorrhea and buy calan severe hyperprolactinemia in whom workup revealed a nontumoral mechanism.

calan drug classification 2015-10-19

Peptones are potent stimulants of cholecystokinin (CCK) release in rats, both in vivo and ex vivo in a model of isolated vascularly perfused duodeno-jejunum preparation and in vitro in the intestinal CCK-producing cell line STC-1. The underlying mechanisms were here investigated with this cell line. Protein hydrolysates from various origins (meat, casein, soybean, and ovalbumin; 0.5-1%, wt/vol) dose dependently increased CCK release. Cephalosporin antibiotics, which mimic tripeptides, also stimulated the release of CCK over the concentration range 1-20 mM. The study of concentration dependence of cephalosporin uptake indicated a passive diffusion process at either pH 7.4 or pH 6.0, thus arguing against the involvement of a peptide transporter in CCK secretion. After pertussis toxin treatment (200 ng/ml; 5 h), the peptone- and cephalexin-induced CCK secretion was significantly reduced, suggesting the involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G protein(s) in the secretory activity of STC-1 cells. Consistent with this was the identification by Western blot of G(i2)alpha, G(i3)alpha, and G(o)alpha immunoreactivities in STC-1 cell extracts. Additionally, peptones and cephalexin increased the cellular content in inositol phosphates, whereas a mild increase in cAMP content was restricted to peptone-treated cells. Protein kinase A or C inhibition did not modify peptone- or antibiotic drug-evoked CCK release. The extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA (500 microM) and the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis-(O-aminophenoxy)ethane buy calan -N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester; 20 microM] abolished the peptone- and antibiotic drug-induced CCK release. Nifedipine and verapamil (10 microM) reduced by about 50% the CCK secretion evoked by these two secretagogues. In conclusion, peptones and some cephalosporins are potent stimulants of CCK release in the STC-1 cell line. The cellular mechanisms involve pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein(s) and are dependent on Ca2+ availability. We suggest that the STC-1 cell line is a useful model to study the molecular basis of peptone-induced CCK secretion.

calan sr dosage 2015-04-24

The murine electrocardiogram (ECG) is a valuable tool in cardiac research, although the definition of the T wave has been a matter of debate for several years potentially leading to incomparable data. By this study, we seek buy calan to make a clear definition of the murine T wave. Moreover, we investigate the consequences of performing QT interval correction in anaesthetized mice.

calan 240 mg 2015-03-13

The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual therapeutic potential of a new transdermal drug delivery system (electromotive drug administration; EMDA) for selected patients with Peyronie's disease. Forty patients with Peyronie's disease were treated by electromotive administration of the 3-drug association orgotein-dexamethasone-lidocaine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, partial crossover study (study 1). Another 25 patients were treated by EMDA with a combination of verapamil-dexamethasone in an uncontrolled study (study 2). Treatment sessions lasted 20 minutes each and took place 3 times a week for 3 weeks with a current of 3 mA. Patients were assessed before treatment and at 1- and 3-month follow-up examinations. Assessments were based on sexual history, physical examination, and dynamic color Doppler ultrasonographic results. Adverse effects of EMDA were not reported. In study 1, the clinical results observed after treatment proved to be significantly better than those of the placebo. Penile pain disappeared in all patients in both studies. Penile lesion (nodule or plaque) either disappeared buy calan or significantly improved in 79% and 90% of patients treated by the 3- and 2-drug association, respectively. The improvement of penile deformity also was notable although it did not match the effect observed on penile nodules or plaque (62% and 88%, in studies 1 and 2, respectively). In both studies, more than 80% of patients reported a definite amelioration of penile rigidity, which paralleled the improvement of penile dynamic color Doppler ultrasonographic parameters. Overall, the combination of verapamil-dexamethasone achieved better clinical results than the 3-drug combination. Electromotive drug administration is a novel technique capable of safely achieving satisfactory results in selected patients with Peyronie's disease not only in terms of improvement of patient's symptoms but also due to the reduced need for penile surgery.

calan generic name 2017-03-04

External divalent cations are known to play an important role in the function of voltage-gated ion channels. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of the voltage-gated K(+) currents of human atrial myocytes to external Ca(2+) ions. Myocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion of atrial appendages taken from patients undergoing coronary artery-bypass surgery. Currents were recorded from single isolated myocytes at 37 degrees C using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. With 0.5 mM external Ca(2+), voltage pulses positive to -20 mV (holding potential = -60 mV) activated outward currents which very rapidly reached a peak (I(peak)) and subsequently inactivated (tau = 7.5 +/- 0.7 msec at +60 mV) to a sustained level, demonstrating the contribution of both rapidly inactivating transient (I(to1)) and non-inactivating sustained (I(so)) outward currents. The I(to1) component of I(peak), but not I(so), showed voltage-dependent inactivation using 100 msec prepulses (V(1/2) = -35.2 +/- 0.5 mV). The K(+) channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 2 mM), inhibited I(to1) by approximately 76% and reduced I(so) by approximately 33%. Removal of external Ca(2+) had several effects: (i) I(peak) was reduced in a manner consistent with an approximately 13 mV shift to negative voltages in the voltage-dependent inactivation of I(to1). (ii) I(so) was increased over the entire voltage range and this was associated with an increase in a non-inactivating 4-AP-sensitive current. (iii) In 79% cells (11/14), a slowly inactivating component was revealed such that the time-dependent inactivation was described by a double exponential time course (tau(1) = 7.0 +/- 0.7, tau(2) = 90 +/- 21 msec at +60 mV) with no effect on the fast time constant. Removal of external Ca(2+) was associated with an additional component to the voltage-dependent inactivation of I(peak) and I(so) (V(1/2) = -20.5 +/- 1.5 buy calan mV). The slowly inactivating component was seen only in the absence of external Ca(2+) ions and was insensitive to 4-AP (2 mM). Experiments with Cs(+)-rich pipette solutions suggested that the Ca(2+)-sensitive currents were carried predominantly by K(+) ions. External Ca(2+) ions are important to voltage-gated K(+) channel function in human atrial myocytes and removal of external Ca(2+) ions affects I(to1) and 4-AP-sensitive I(so) in distinct ways.

calan 80 mg 2015-07-16

Most of the substances used as fluorescent probes to study drug transport and the effect of efflux blockers in multidrug resistant cells have many drawbacks, such as toxicity, unspecific background, accumulation in mitochondria. New fluorescent compounds, among which Bodipy-FL-verapamil (BV), have been therefore proposed as more useful tools. The uptake of BV has been evaluated by cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy using cell lines that overexpress P-glycoprotein (P388/ADR and LLC-PK(1)/ADR) or MRP (multidrug resistance-related protein) (PANC-1) and clinical specimens from patients. The effect of specific inhibitors for P-glycoprotein (verapamil and vinblastine) or MRP (MK571 and probenecid) has been also studied. BV intracellular concentrations were significantly lower in the two P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell lines in comparison with the parental lines. In addition, verapamil and vinblastine increased the intracellular concentrations of the dye; MK571 and probenecid, two MRP inhibitors, increased BV levels in PANC- buy calan 1 cells, that express this protein. These findings were confirmed in clinical specimens from patients. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a faint fluorescence emission in P-glycoprotein or MRP expressing cell lines; however, treatment with specific inhibitors significantly increased the fluorescence. BV is a useful tool for studying multidrug resistance proteins with different techniques such as cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, but does not discriminate between P-glycoprotein and MRP. In comparison with other classic fluorescent probes, the assay with this dye is extremely rapid, simple, not toxic for cells, devoid of fluorescent background, and can be useful in the clinical settings.

calan dosage forms 2016-08-23

A new glucagon-like peptide was isolated from the intestine of the eel Anguilla japonica. The primary structure was determined by sequence analysis after cleavage with lysyl endopeptidase, quantitative amino acid analysis and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as HSQGTFTNDY(10)SKYLETRRAQ(20)DFVQWLMNSK(30)RSGGPT. Since its structure is similar to that of oxyntomodulins (OXMs) reported in various vertebrates, we named this peptide eel oxyntomodulin (eOXM). We found that eOXM enhanced the contractile force and the beating rate of the eel atrium in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of eOXM were not inhibited by betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, indicating that the actions of eOXM were independent of those of adrenaline. eOXM enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of the myocardium. The contractility of the eel atrium was greatly reduced after omitting Ca(2+) from the bathing medium or after treatment with verapamil, a Ca(2+) channel blocker. After inhibiting Ca(2+) entry under these conditions, the inotropic effect of eOXM was markedly reduced, but the chronotropic effect was not altered significantly. These results indicate that the inotropic buy calan effect of eOXM is via a stimulation of Ca(2+) influx but that the chronotropic effect may be independent of extracellular Ca(2+).

calan dosage 2016-01-21

To study the influences of calcium channel blockers on calcium release-activated calcium Plavix 65 Mg currents (ICRAC) in rat hepatocytes.

calan 40 mg 2015-12-29

The maltose transporter FGK2 complex of Escherichia coli was purified with the aid of a glutathione S-transferase molecular tag. In contrast to the membrane Voltaren 4 Gel -associated form of the complex, which requires liganded maltose binding protein (MBP) for ATPase activity, the purified detergent-soluble complex exhibited a very high level of ATPase activity. This uncoupled activity was not due to dissociation of the MalK ATPase subunit from the integral membrane protein MalF and MalG subunits. The detergent-soluble ATPase activity of the complex could be further stimulated by wild-type MBP but not by a signaling-defective mutant MBP. Wild-type MBP increased the V(max) of the ATPase 2.7-fold but had no effect on the K(m) of the enzyme for ATP. When the detergent-soluble complex was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, it returned to being dependent on MBP for activation of ATPase, consistent with the idea that the structural changes induced in the complex by detergent that result in activation of the ATPase are reversible. The uncoupled ATPase activity resembled the membrane-bound activity of the complex also with respect to sensitivity to NaN(3), as well as a mercurial, p-chloromercuribenzosulfonic acid. Verapamil, a compound that activates the ATPase activity of the multiple drug resistance P-glycoprotein, activated the maltose transporter ATPase as well. The activation of this bacterial transporter by verapamil suggests that a structural feature that is conserved among both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ATP binding cassette transporters is responsible for this activation.

calan pill 2016-11-18

A need still exists for a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method that can detect broad classes of glutathione (GSH) conjugates and provide characterization of their structures. We now describe the development of a method that multiplexes high-resolution accurate mass analysis with isotope pattern triggered data-dependent product ion scans, for simultaneous detection and structural elucidation of GSH conjugates within a single analysis using a LTQ/Orbitrap. This method was initially developed to detect GSH conjugates generated from incubating 10 microM test compound with pooled human liver microsomes fortified with NADPH-regenerating system and a 2:1 ratio of 5 mM glutathione and [(13)C(2) (15)N-Gly]glutathione. The GSH conjugates were detected by isotope search Nexium Cost of mass defect filtered and control subtracted full scan accurate MS data using MetWorks software. This was followed by elucidation of reactive intermediate structures using chemical formulae for both protonated molecules and their product ions from accurate masses in a single analysis. The mass accuracies measured for the precursor and product ions by the Orbitrap were <2 ppm in external mass calibration mode. Successful detection and characterization of GSH conjugates of acetaminophen, tienilic acid, clozapine, ticlopidine and mifepristone validated this method. In each case, the detected GSH conjugates were within the top five hits by isotope search. This method also has a broader detection capability since it is independent of the collision-induced dissociation behavior of the GSH conjugates. Furthermore, this method is amenable to a broad class of reactive intermediate trapping agents as exemplified by the simultaneous detection and structural elucidation of the cyano-N-methylene iminium ion conjugates of verapamil and its O-desmethyl metabolites, which we report for the first time. In addition to the chemically tagged reactive intermediates, this method also provides information on stable metabolites from the full scan accurate MS data.

calan tablets 2016-09-19

Our current understanding of brain mechanisms involved in learning and memory has been derived largely from studies using experimentally naïve animals. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that not all identified mechanisms may generalize to subsequent learning. For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsal hippocampus are required for contextual fear conditioning in naïve animals but not in animals previously trained in a similar task. Here we investigated how animals learn contextual fear conditioning for a second time-a response which is not due to habituation or generalization. We found that dorsal hippocampus infusions of voltage-dependent calcium Flagyl 1 Tablet channel blockers or the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist impaired the first, not the second contextual learning. Only manipulations of the entire hippocampus led to an impairment in second learning. Specifically, inactivation of either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus caused the remaining portion of the hippocampus to acquire and consolidate the second learning. Thus, dorsal hippocampus seems necessary for initial contextual fear conditioning, but either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus is sufficient for subsequent conditioning in a different context. Together, these findings suggest that prior training experiences can change how the hippocampus processes subsequent similar learning.

calan overdose 2017-12-20

RHR is poorly controlled in daily practice among patients with stable cardiovascular disease, and control is Aricept User Reviews only achieved by some BBs.

calan sr medication 2016-01-09

Patients with CAD were randomly assigned to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment and followed for cardiovascular events. Cases (all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke) and an age-, Zithromax Normal Dosage sex-, race/ethnicity-matched control population were genotyped for the -786T>C and Glu298>Asp polymorphisms in NOS3. On-treatment BP and BP control were compared across genotype groups. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the -786T>C and Glu298>Asp polymorphisms in the combined population and in randomized treatment groups.

calan drug 2017-08-14

Significant differences by comparison with the control group were: BP increased 71% and HBR increased 24% in the L-NAME group. Vv[c] was 15% smaller in L-NAME animals, while an increase of 11% occurred in the enalapril group and 7% in the verapamil group. Vv[i] increased 20% in the L-NAME group; however, it decreased 13% in the enalapril group and 10% in the verapamil group. a[c] Was 30% greater in the L-NAME group, 13.5% in the enalapril group and 8.5%, in the verapamil group. a[c] Was 12.5% smaller in the enalapril group and 16% smaller in the verapamil group when L-NAME rats were compared.

calan 120 mg 2017-10-26

We designed the present study to examine whether diabetes mellitus affects the antiarrhythmic effect of flecainide, a sodium channel blocker, E-4031, a potassium channel blocker, and verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, in diabetic rats. The experiments were performed in intact and diabetic rats 2, 4, and 6 wk after administration of streptozotocin. Rats were anesthetized with halothane and monitored continuously for arterial blood pressure and premature ventricular contractions. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine was defined as the smallest dose producing 3 or more premature ventricular contractions within a 15-s period. The arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in the presence of flecainide were 8.2 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- sd), 7.4 +/- 6.1, 5.5 +/- 2.8, and 2.0 +/- 0.5 microg/kg in intact and diabetic rats 2, 4, and 6 wk after streptozotocin administration, respectively. Similarly, the arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in the presence of E-4031 were 7.7 +/- 2.6, 2.3 +/- 0.7, 2.0 +/- 0.7, and 1.2 +/- 0.5 microg/kg, and those in the presence of verapamil were 8.2 +/- 2.1, 3.1 +/- 1.2, 2.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microg/kg. Insulin partially recovered the antiarrhythmic effect of the blockers. We concluded that diabetes mellitus reduces the antiarrhythmic effects of flecainide, E-4031, and verapamil.

calan tab 2017-08-30

The objective of this study was to compare the antispasmodic activities of atropine, verapamil, (-)scopolamine n-butyl bromide and propinox in the isolated human and guinea pig gallbladder strip models. Concentration-response curves for each of the agents were obtained in both models following administration of carbachol. Atropine was the only drug to show marked activity in the guinea pig gallbladder model (ED50 = 2.75 x 10(-7) M); the remaining drugs elicited less inhibition of a similar order of magnitude (ED50 = 1.65 x 10(-5), 4.18 x 10(-6) and 2.71 x 10(-5) M for verapamil, [-]scopolamine n-butyl bromide and propinox, respectively). In contrast, results obtained from the human gallbladder strip model revealed differences among the drugs (ED50 = 5.03 x 10(-8), 1.34 x 10(-6), 6.63 x 10(-6) and 5.45 x 10(-5) M for atropine, propinox, verapamil and [-]scopolamine n-butyl bromide, respectively). Based on these results, propinox showed a relative potency in the human gallbladder that was 20.22-fold higher than that in the guinea pig model followed by atropine (5.47-fold) and verapamil (2.49-fold), whereas (-)scopolamine n-butyl bromide was 0.07 times more potent in the guinea pig model. Regression analysis of ED50 values showed a lack of correlation between the two models (r = 0.44). Considering interspecies variations, further studies in human tissues are needed to evaluate the efficacy of antispasmodic drugs.

calan 5 mg 2015-09-04

It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy.

calan reviews 2017-08-14

Ca(2+) antagonist drugs are widely used in therapy of cardiovascular disorders. Three chemical classes of drugs bind to three separate, but allosterically interacting, receptor sites on CaV1.2 channels, the most prominent voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channel type in myocytes in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. The 1,4-dihydropyridines are used primarily for treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris and are thought to act as allosteric modulators of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel activation, whereas phenylalkylamines and benzothiazepines are used primarily for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and are thought to physically block the pore. The structural basis for the different binding, action, and therapeutic uses of these drugs remains unknown. Here we present crystallographic and functional analyses of drug binding to the bacterial homotetrameric model CaV channel CaVAb, which is inhibited by dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines with nanomolar affinity in a state-dependent manner. The binding site for amlodipine and other dihydropyridines is located on the external, lipid-facing surface of the pore module, positioned at the interface of two subunits. Dihydropyridine binding allosterically induces an asymmetric conformation of the selectivity filter, in which partially dehydrated Ca(2+) interacts directly with one subunit and blocks the pore. In contrast, the phenylalkylamine Br-verapamil binds in the central cavity of the pore on the intracellular side of the selectivity filter, physically blocking the ion-conducting pathway. Structure-based mutations of key amino-acid residues confirm drug binding at both sites. Our results define the structural basis for binding of dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines at their distinct receptor sites on CaV channels and offer key insights into their fundamental mechanisms of action and differential therapeutic uses in cardiovascular diseases.

calan eeze review 2016-06-29

Flavonoid dimer FD18 is a new class of dimeric P-gp modulator that can reverse cancer drug resistance. FD18 is a potent (EC50 = 148 nM for paclitaxel), safe (selective index = 574), and selective P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulator. FD18 can modulate multidrug resistance toward paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and mitoxantrone in human breast cancer LCC6MDR in vitro. FD18 (1 μM) can revert chemosensitivity of LCC6MDR back to parental LCC6 level. FD18 was 11- to 46-fold more potent than verapamil. FD18 (1 μM) can increase accumulation of doxorubicin by 2.7-fold, daunorubicin (2.1-fold), and rhodamine 123 (5.2-fold) in LCC6MDR. FD18 inhibited P-gp-mediated doxorubicin efflux and has no effect on influx. FD18 at 1 μM did not affect the protein expression level of P-gp. Pharmacokinetics studies indicated that intraperitoneal administration of 45 mg/kg FD18 was enough to maintain a plasma level above EC50 (148 nM) for more than 600 min. Toxicity studies with FD18 (90 mg/kg, i.p. for 12 times in 22 days) with paclitaxel (12 mg/kg, i.v. for 12 times in 22 days) revealed no obvious toxicity or death in mice. In vivo efficacy studies indicated that FD18 (45 mg/kg, i.p. for 12 times in 22 days) together with paclitaxel (12 mg/kg, i.v. for 12 times in 22 days) resulted in a 46% reduction in LCC6MDR xenograft volume (n = 11; 648 ± 84 mm(3)) compared to paclitaxel control (n = 8; 1201 ± 118 mm(3)). There were no animal deaths or significant drop in body weight and vital organ wet weight. FD18 can increase paclitaxel accumulation in LCC6MDR xenograft by 1.8- to 2.2-fold. The present study suggests that FD18 represents a new class of safe and potent P-gp modulator in vivo.

calan medication 2016-05-31

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amiodarone, antithrombotic treatment before cardioversion, digoxin, diltiazem, direct current cardioversion, flecainide, propafenone, quinidine, sotalol, timolol, and verapamil.

calan 180 mg 2016-01-27

Tardive dyskinesia is a disfiguring movement disorder of the orofacial region often caused by antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies has been used to help manage tardive dyskinesia and, for people who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the calcium-channel blocking group of drugs (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil) has been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment.

calan drug classification 2017-03-19

The BP reduction after treatment was significantly larger with bedtime dosing mainly during night time sleep (P < 0.012). The number of patients with controlled ambulatory BP after treatment was greater with bedtime than morning treatment (P = 0.016). The baseline prevalence of nondipping was unaltered after ingestion of nifedipine on awakening, but reduced from 51 to 35% after bedtime dosing (P = 0.025). The morning surge of BP, a risk factor for stroke, was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) only after bedtime administration of nifedipine. Bedtime in comparison to awakening-time ingestion of nifedipine was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of edema from 13 to 1% (P < 0.001).

calan sr dosage 2017-04-09

Heat-resistant variants were isolated by ten repeated cycles of heat exposure at 45 degrees C for 80 min. Highly multidrug-resistant variants were isolated by stepwise selection with colchicine.