Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
Preliminary data suggest that a once-daily combination of lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz is an effective alternative regimen for antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. However, data from randomized trials comparing this combination versus standard first-line regimens are not available yet. In an observational study, we analyse the efficacy and tolerability of didanosine plus lamivudine and efavirenz versus zidovudine plus lamivudine and efavirenz in a cohort of therapy naive patients.
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Conjunctival MC is rare and associated with immune deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, the presented case is the first reported instance of bilateral, multi-lesional MC of the conjunctiva in an HIV-positive patient undergoing HAART. Attention must be paid to the possible complications associated with the restoration of immunocompetence.
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Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens during pregnancy are highly effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Congenital heart defects (CHDs) and anomalies in cardiac function have been reported in zidovudine (ZDV)-exposed uninfected children. We explored these associations in a large observational cohort and a randomized clinical trial.
Switching from ZDV/3TC to FTC/TDF led to an improvement in FMR, compared with progressive worsening of FMR in subjects receiving ZDV/3TC, showing that fat mass not only increased but was also distributed in a healthier way after the switch.
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In all, 70 adolescents were evaluated and 33 (31 females and 2 males) were enrolled. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 15 years, 61% were Hispanic, 30% black, and 79% presented to the emergency room within 24 hours of assault. Vaginal exposure was the most common site of penetration (64% [21 of 33]), but 18% (6 of 33) reported anal penetration. Only 9 subjects (27%) took >or=90% of all the medications. All subjects who returned for follow up tested HIV-negative. Adverse events occurred in 48% (16 of 33) of subjects; the most common events were abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting.
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Morphological abnormalities (lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation) and metabolic changes (dyslipidaemia and glucose regulation impairment) have emerged as components of lipodystrophy and as major tolerability issues with long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are recognized as having the greatest impact in terms of metabolic complications, followed by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, while the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have the least impact. In particular, regimens based on the NNRTI nevirapine have been shown to achieve significant metabolic benefits and may help to improve dyslipidaemia. Improvements in body shape changes associated with lipodystrophy have also been reported when nevirapine replaced a PI in long-term triple therapy.
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After starting treatment with Combivir-containing regimens viral load and CD4(+) T-cell count improved as well as the control group. Rates of adverse events in Combivir group and ZDV (400 mg/day) + 3TC group were 50.9% (28/55) and 60% (12/20), respectively. Some of these Japanese patients who started Combivir regimen as a first-line HAART (primary Combivir group) showed some decrease in hemoglobin levels or neutrophil counts within 6 months. However, a significant recovery of these indices of hematological toxicities occurred in patients who continued the regimen for 18-24 months.
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Sixty-five men were randomized and treated (28 in the FTC/TDF arm and 37 in the ZDV/3TC arm), and 57 completed the study (25 and 32 in each arm, respectively). In the FTC/TDF arm, adjusted mean FMR decreased by 0.52 at week 72 (P = 0.014), and in the ZDV/3TC arm it increased by 0.13 (P = 0.491; P between arms = 0.023). Among subjects with lipoatrophy (baseline FMR ≥ 1.5), adjusted FMR decreased by 0.76 (P = 0.003) in the FTC/TDF arm and increased by 0.21 (P = 0.411; P between arms = 0.009) in the ZDV/3TC arm. Baseline FMR and treatment group were significant predictors (P < 0.05) of post-baseline changes in FMR.
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The FDA approved FTC (emtricitabine, Emtriva) in July 2003 for use by adults in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. FTC is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Other drugs in this class include 3TC, abacavir, AZT, Combivir, d4T, d4T XR, ddC, ddI, ddI EC and Trizivir.
It is not possible to draw conclusions on the clinical effectiveness of non-occupational PEP for HIV because of the limited evidence available. The review of cost-effectiveness suggests that non-occupational PEP may be cost-effective, especially in certain population subgroups; however, the assumptions made and data sources used in the cost-effectiveness studies mean that their results should be used with caution.
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After short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis, nevirapine was detectable in most infant cord blood samples and the concentration in maternal plasma and breast milk was high through week 1 accompanied by suppressed HIV-1 RNA in plasma and breast milk.
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A total of 41 HIV-positive female patients were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 28 y (range 20-37 y). These patients were stratified into 2 groups: 21 women in the third trimester of pregnancy (group A) and 20 non-pregnant women (group B). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) plasma C(trough) of lopinavir was 4205 (2418-6896) ng/ml in group A and 5098 (3187-8084) ng/ml in group B. The reduction in lopinavir plasma levels observed in group A was not significant (geometric mean ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62-1.32; p = 0.411). No correlation was found between lopinavir plasma levels and adverse events (such as diarrhoea and hyperlipidaemia) or immunological parameters of HIV disease, and no changes in plasma HIV viral load were reported.
To investigate the emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 infected pregnant women.
The results of this large European cohort study validate that SVR rates are generally not affected by ABC. Use of d4T or AZT as part of the HIV treatment regimen was associated with a lower likelihood of achieving an SVR.
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The efficacy and safety of raltegravir (RAL) with tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) have been well studied in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, limited clinical data are available on the use of RAL with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) or zidovudine (ZDV)/3TC. We investigated HIV-1-infected Korean adults, including 13 antiretroviral-naïve patients and 15 antiretroviral-experienced patients, treated with RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC. Virological suppression was achieved in 12 of the 13 (92%) antiretroviral-naïve patients within 24 weeks and in all (100%) patients within 96 weeks. In 13 of the 15 treatment-experienced patients, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) was replaced with RAL because of hyperlipidemia (n = 11) and diarrhea (n = 2). A significant decrease in median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels was observed in these patients (P < 0.01, each). No adverse event related to RAL was observed in any of the 28 patients. The RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC regimens were effective and safe in antiretroviral-naïve Korean HIV-infected patients, and replacing LPV/r with RAL significantly improved lipid abnormalities in patients previously treated with regimens including LPV/r.
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We compared biological outcomes in antiretroviral-naive patients with viral load (VL) > 5,000 copies/ml starting combivir-based, three-drug highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens in 2001-2002 according to the third component, namely abacavir (ABC), nelfinavir (NFV), indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/r), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV).
It has been proposed that antiretroviral therapies (ART) possess both antiviral and immunomodulatory activities when used in HIV infected patients. Few studies have addressed whether these putative immunomodulatory effects are also seen in HIV negative patients, for example, when used for post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). We chose to evaluate immunologic function in HIV negative patients who received Nelfinavir and Combivir (AZT and 3TC) as PEP. Lymphocytes from patients taken immediately before, during, and after PEP were analyzed. No changes were seen in absolute or percent CD4 or CD8 T lymphocyte numbers, nor in markers of activation, memory, or co-stimulatory molecules. Surface expression of apoptosis-related ligands and receptors were unaltered, but apoptosis susceptibility was significantly inhibited by PEP (P less than 0.05). These data confirm in vitro that apoptosis susceptibility is altered by ART, including in HIV-negative patients who take PEP.
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A DAVG (difference in averages) analysis of the fall in viral load and increase in CD4 count showed no significant differences between regimens. Triple therapy resulted in a -4.17 log change (95% CI, -4.48 to -3.85) and quadruple therapy in a -4.36 log change (95% CI, -4.68 to -4.03) in viral load. For CD4 counts, the triple therapy arm increased by 164 cells/mm(3) (95% CI 112-217) and the quadruple arm by 185 (95% CI, 133-237). In an intent-to-treat analysis, 77% of patients in the triple therapy group reached an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) compared with 84.2% of the quadruple therapy group. For ultrasensitive viral load testing, 23% and 18% of each group, respectively, reached undetectable viral loads. The hazard ratio for attaining a viral load of <5 copies/mL was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.26-1.33) for quadruple versus triple therapy. Three individuals in the triple therapy arm and nine in the quadruple therapy arm discontinued treatment.
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To demonstrate that lamivudine and zidovudine, given separately (lamivudine/zidovudine) or as a single combination tablet (Combivir), had equivalent efficacy. To evaluate the safety and antiretroviral activity of intensification with abacavir in patients treated with lamivudine/zidovudine for > or = 12 weeks.
Since 1986, the French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolled all HIV-infected women in 90 centers and collected follow-up on their children through 2 years of age. All CHDs were reviewed by a specialist blinded to exposures. Additionally, in a randomized trial (PRIMEVA ANRS 135) of 2 ARV regimens during pregnancy, 1 of which was without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, infants had a specific follow-up including echocardiography at 1 month and 12 months.
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Fat mass ratio (FMR) has been suggested as an objective indicator of abnormal body fat distribution in HIV infection. Although it could provide more comprehensive information on body fat changes than limb fat mass, FMR has scarcely been used in clinical trials examining body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients.
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Cessation of antiretroviral medication and initiation of antipsychotic medication with appropriate monitoring and assessment.
Overall 1-year 5% infant mortality was similar to the 2%-4% post-neonatal mortality observed in this region. No increase in congenital, renal, or growth abnormalities was observed with in utero tenofovir exposure. Although some infants died untested, absence of recorded HIV infection with combination ART in pregnancy is encouraging. Detailed safety of tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis will need confirmation from longer term follow-up of larger numbers of exposed children.
To determine the profile of clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalised HIV positive patients with neurological complications at a private hospital in Nairobi, Kenya from January 2000 to June 2005.
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MERIT was a randomized trial comparing maraviroc (MVC) + Combivir versus efavirenz (EFV) + Combivir in drug-naive patients screened as having R5 HIV-1 by the original Trofile assay (OTA). We retrospectively evaluated treatment response after rescreening for viral tropism using population-based V3-loop sequencing.
Aggressive treatment has been advocated for the management of primary HIV infection (PHI), but the composition and the optimal duration of therapy are still to be determined. In addition, time to undetectable viral load (VL), rate and duration of VL suppression as well as subsequent therapeutic choices remain issues widely debated. We evaluated the rate and duration of VL suppression in 12 consecutive patients with PHI given triple-drug treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine and indinavir (highly active antiretroviral therapy, HAART) at onset of the acute illness and subsequently switched to a simplified 2-NRTI-based regimen once VL suppression was maintained for at least 6 months. Throughout the study, no patient discontinued treatment because of symptoms attributed to the study medications. In the study population, undetectable VL was achieved after a median of 84 days (range: 67-135) on HAART and was maintained for a median of 194 days (range: 179-205) before simplification. After switching to simplified maintenace, undetectable VL was maintained in all patients for at least 6 months. Only one patient experienced virological failure, plasma HIV-RNA remaining suppressed for a median foliow-up of 33 months (15-54) and T-CD4+ being steadily higher than 500/mL in the remaining patients. Our results suggest that simplification of HAART in patients promptly treated during PHI and maintaining undetectable VL for at least 6 months before simplification may be a valid option capable of controlling viral replication and maintaining an optimal immunological profile for a prolonged time.
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The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care policy since 2003. Detailed research on the actual expenditures and costs for providing care to patients with AIDS is needed for future financial planning of AIDS health care services and possible reform of HIV/AIDS-related policy. The purpose of the current study was to determine the actual expenditures and factors influencing costs for untreated AIDS patients in a rural area of China after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) under the national Free Care Program (China CARES).
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Although most uninfected infants born to women infected with HIV-1 show no clinical evidence of mitochondrial compromise, mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in children born to women receiving zidovudine and/or lamivudine during pregnancy. In this pilot study we examined mitochondrial integrity in HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected women receiving Combivir during pregnancy.
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The present study investigates the specific drug targeting of anti retroviral drugs, such as lamivudine and zidovudine, after intraperitoneal (i.p) injection by incorporation into polymeric nanoparticles (PNs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Our results showed that Glyceryl Monosterate-Poloxamer 188 SLNs (average diameter of 522.466 nm) showed slow drug release rates (63.18% of lamivudine and 62.37% of zidovudine were released in 12 hrs) among all the SLN formulations. For Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-Poloxamer 188 PNs (average diameter of 70.348 nm), there were faster release rates of both lamivudine and zidovudine (97% and 94.06%, respectively, in 12 hrs). Tissue distribution studies were carried out in mice and concentrations of drugs in different organs were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after i.p. administration. Glyceryl Monosterate-Poloxamer 188 SLNs and PLGA-Poloxamer 188 PNs showed increase in the distribution of lamivudine and zidovudine to liver and spleen when compared to the drugs in solution. Also, Glyceryl Monosterate-P 188 SLNs showed higher concentration of drugs in RES organs than PLGA-P 188 PNs.
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