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Beta blockers have long been used in the treatment of systemic hypertension, where they effectively lower blood pressure and, in so doing, they decrease left ventricular hypertrophy. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in patients with congestive heart failure, and therefore it is logical that beta blockers may also provide benefit in these patients. As such, beta blockers are currently being evaluated in several large clinical trials in congestive heart failure. One particular drug, carvedilol, is a third-generation vasodilating beta blocker that is marketed for the treatment of hypertension. The drug lowers systemic arterial blood pressure without producing reflex tachycardia and preserves renal function. Carvedilol decreases mortality by 65% and decreases hospitalization by 29% in patients with congestive heart failure. The effects of carvedilol in heart failure may result, at least in part, from beta blockade as well as vasodilation, the latter resulting from alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blockade. Interestingly, carvedilol has a number of additional properties that may also provide benefit in these patients. Carvedilol and several of its metabolites are potent antioxidants that may inhibit catecholamine toxicity resulting from the oxidation of norepinephrine and the subsequent formation of toxic intermediates, including the generation of reactive oxygen free radicals in the myocardium. As a result of its antioxidant activity, carvedilol also blocks the expression of several genes involved in myocardial damage and cardiac remodeling, and the drug inhibits free radical-induced activation of transcription factors and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Carvedilol is a novel beta blocker that is highly effective in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, and combines in one molecule a number of important pharmacologic properties.
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Venous blood samples were collected from each patient. Serum procollagen type I and type III aminoterminal peptides (PINP and PIIINP) were determined by radioimmunoassay and compared between the 25 patients receiving low doses (< 50% of recommended target dose) and the 63 patients receiving high doses (> or = 50% of recommended target dose) of beta-blockers. Patients receiving low-dose beta-blockers had higher mean +/- SD PIIINP concentrations (6.6 +/- 3.5 vs 4.9 +/- 2.6 microg/L, p=0.03) and tended to have higher PINP concentrations (74.0 +/- 44.1 vs 57.1 +/- 28.6 microg/L, p=0.10) compared with those receiving high doses. A repeat blood sample was collected from the 29 patients who received spironolactone after 6 months of therapy. Changes in procollagen peptides also were compared in this subset between low-dose (9 patients) and high-dose (20 patients) beta-blocker groups. Low beta-blocker doses were associated with greater reductions in concentrations of PINP (median [intraquartile range] -14.3 microg/L [-9.8 to -19.3 microg/L] vs -2.5 microg/L [5.9 to -9.8 microg/L], p=0.02) and PIIINP (-1.4 microg/L [-0.9 to -2.4 microg/L] vs 0.1 microg/L [0.9 to -1.3 microg/L], p=0.045) with spironolactone therapy than high beta-blocker doses. In addition, 100% of the patients in this subset taking low-dose beta-blockers versus only 35% taking higher doses had reductions in both markers of cardiac fibrosis.
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The BLOCADE Feasibility Study will inform the design of a larger clinical endpoint study to determine whether beta-blocking agents provide benefit to patients receiving dialysis, and define whether such a study is feasible.
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Patients with new-onset systolic HF have both a good chance of LVEF recovery and low 6-month mortality. Achievement of target β-blocker dose identifies a very low-risk population. These data support delaying ICD implantation for a trial of medical therapy.
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To investigate the effects of CAR on migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and its corresponding signal pathways.
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Compared with metoprolol, carvedilol resulted in greater reduction of sympathetic activity after 6 wk of treatment and lower von Willebrand factor concentrations in both Arg16/Gln27 and Gly16/Glu27 individuals. Therefore, carvedilol may reduce the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with heart failure, irrespective of β2-receptor haplotype status.
Rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH were used in the present study to examine whether upregulated neurohumoral factors may induce left ventricular (LV) remodeling and(/or) contribute to prognosis. Morphological analysis revealed a significant increase in the weight of the free walls of both ventricles and the interventricular septum, indicating biventricular hypertrophy, although systemic blood pressure was not elevated. RNase protection assay demonstrated the activation of a fetal gene program in the cardiac muscle of the left and right ventricular free walls. Similar activation of the fetal gene program was observed in the LV of rats continuously infused with angiotensin (AT) II, although this was not the case for rats infused with isoproterenol. Measured plasma levels of ATII, noradrenaline, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were all significantly elevated in the PAH rats. Furthermore, the plasma BNP level positively correlated with the ratio of heart weight to body weight and the plasma level of ATII. Not right but LV hypertrophy was significantly reduced by treatment with an AT II type 1 receptor blocker, valsartan, whereas the effect of an adrenergic alpha1 and beta1,2 blocker, carvedilol, was borderline. Survival rate in the PAH rats was significantly improved when they were treated with valsartan or carvedilol.
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Cyclosporin-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction have been attributed to the effects of cyclosporin on factors controlling vasomotor tone. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) regulates basal vasodilation, and an NO-mediated protective mechanism from cyclosporin-induced vasoconstriction has been proposed. In transplanted patients with cyclosporin-induced hypertension, we have recently demonstrated upregulation of the NO system and superoxide and free radical overproduction, which, by increasing NO metabolism, could induce hypertension, vascular remodeling and chronic rejection. In the present work, we have evaluated endothelial constitutive NO synthase (ecNOS), transforming growth factor beta and heme oxygenase-1 (protective against oxidative stress), mRNA production and plasma NO metabolites, peroxynitrite and antioxidant power in 15 kidney transplanted patients before and after 4 months of treatment with carvedilol alpha 1-beta-blocker and potent antioxidant. Our aim was to study the efficacy of the reduction of oxidative stress on complications such as endothelial dysfunction and fibrogenesis. Monocyte ecNOS and plasma NO metabolites remained higher versus those of control subjects and were unchanged by carvedilol, while antioxidant power and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA production increased. Peroxynitrite, as well as transforming growth factor beta mRNA, were reduced by carvedilol. It also normalized blood pressure. In conclusion, carvedilol reduces oxidative stress and normalizes blood pressure; ecNOS remains upregulated while mRNA for transforming growth factor beta, a key fibrogenic cytokine, is reduced by carvedilol, which seems to preserve protective mechanisms such as NO and heme oxygenase-1 against long-term complications of oxidative stress, e.g., endothelial dysfunction, fibrogenesis and chronic rejection.
In Japan, when pharmaceutical companies launch a new drug, they are obligated to conduct a post-marketing survey to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug in accordance with Good Post-Marketing Surveillance Practice under Article 14-4 (re-examination) of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law at contracted medical institutions. We report the results of a long-term special survey that we conducted as a post-marketing survey.
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Carvedilol exerted a greater reduction in mortality than metoprolol tartrate in the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET). However, it is unclear if the degree and time course of beta1-blockade during a 24-h period was similar with each agent at the doses used. Therefore we analyzed 24-h ECG Holter recordings from a study which compared the long-term clinical efficacy of metoprolol tartrate to carvedilol in chronic heart failure patients using the same dosing regimen as in COMET.
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Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent functional deficits via mechanical injury and secondary mechanisms, but the therapeutic strategy for SCI is limited. Carvedilol has been shown to possess multiple biological and pharmacological properties. The of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of carvedilol in SCI rats. An acute SCI rat model was established and neurological function was tested. After carvedilol (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) treatment for 21 days, the status of osteoporosis, neuron damage, astrocyte activation, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in rats. Carvedilol significantly improved locomotor activity that was decreased by SCI. In addition, carvedilol promoted bone growth by regulating the expression of nuclear factor-κB ligand (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), inactivating osteoclasts and thereby increasing bone mineral density in tibias. In addition, carvedilol reduced SCI-induced neural damage, increased neuron number and reduced astrocyte activation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, the production and mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly reduced, reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity were markedly increased and malondialdehyde content was markedly decreased in the spinal cords of carvedilol-treated rats. These results indicate that carvedilol exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in SCI rats. In addition, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand was reduced by carvedilol treatment, which, in turn, reduced cleaved caspase 3 expression and finally decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. In conclusion, carvedilol promotes neurological function, reduces bone loss and attenuates cell damage after acute SCI in rats.
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Epidemiologic studies predict that reduction of the systemic blood pressure by the amount usually achieved in major clinical trials could be expected to reduce cerebrovascular events by 42% and cardiac events by 24%. Although antihypertensive treatment achieves the expected cerebrovascular benefits, the risk of coronary events is reduced by only 14%. The reason for this dichotomy in cardiovascular protection afforded by antihypertensive drugs is unknown. Compared to treatment with other antihypertensive drugs, treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists has not yielded a superior outcome despite the fact that they possess some cardiac pharmacodynamic properties that could be potentially advantageous in the prevention of coronary heart disease. It is an untested argument that conventional beta-adrenoceptor antagonists possess unwanted metabolic effects that may counter some of their potential cardiac benefits. Newer drugs of this group possess ancillary metabolic characteristics which may convey more cardiac protection, but in the absence of results of formal clinical trials this hypothesis remains to be tested.
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This study evaluated the tolerability and feasibility of titration of 2 distinctly acting beta-blockers (BB) in elderly heart failure patients with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced (HFrEF) left ventricular ejection fraction.
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Prospective, controlled, randomized animal study.
The maximum recommended daily dose of the antioxidant and beta-blocker carvedilol failed to reduce restenosis after successful atherectomy. These findings are in contrast to those of the Multivitamins and Probucol Trial, which raises doubts regarding the validity of the interpretation that restenosis reduction by probucol was via antioxidant effects. The relationship between antioxidant agents and restenosis remains to be elucidated.
The protective effects of carvedilol, an antihypertensive agent, against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen were studied in rat liver. Male Wistar rats (250 +/- 30 g) were pre-treated with carvedilol (3.6 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days and on the 11th day received an overdose of acetaminophen (800 mg/kg, p.o.). Four hours after acetaminophen administration, blood was collected to determine serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). After that, rats were killed and the livers were excised to determine reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl protein contents, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and also the DNA damage index. Acetaminophen significantly increased the levels of TBARS, the DNA damage and SOD, AST and ALT activities. Carvedilol was able to prevent lipid peroxidation, protein carbonilation and DNA fragmentation caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, this drug prevented increases in SOD, AST and ALT activities. These results show that carvedilol exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative injury caused by acetaminophen in rat liver. These effects are probably related to the O2*- scavenging property of carvedilol or its metabolites.
Many patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are thought to be non-adherent to their prescribed medications. The objective was to describe perceptions about and adherence to regular medicines and study medication at baseline and study end in CHF patients participating in a clinical trial.
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The β-blockers carvedilol and metoprolol provide important therapeutic strategies for heart failure treatment. Therapy with metoprolol facilitates the control by phosphodiesterase PDE3, but not PDE4, of inotropic effects of catecholamines in human failing ventricle. However, it is not known whether carvedilol has the same effect. We investigated whether the PDE3-selective inhibitor cilostamide (0.3 μM) or PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram (1 μM) modified the positive inotropic and lusitropic effects of catecholamines in ventricular myocardium of heart failure patients treated with carvedilol. Right ventricular trabeculae from explanted hearts of nine carvedilol-treated patients with terminal heart failure were paced to contract at 1 Hz. The effects of (-)-noradrenaline, mediated through β1-adrenoceptors (β2-adrenoceptors blocked with ICI118551), and (-)-adrenaline, mediated through β2-adrenoceptors (β1-adrenoceptors blocked with CGP20712A), were assessed in the absence and presence of the PDE inhibitors. The inotropic potency, estimated from -logEC50s, was unchanged for (-)-noradrenaline but decreased 16-fold for (-)-adrenaline in carvedilol-treated compared to non-β-blocker-treated patients, consistent with the previously reported β2-adrenoceptor-selectivity of carvedilol. Cilostamide caused 2- to 3-fold and 10- to 35-fold potentiations of the inotropic and lusitropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline, respectively, in trabeculae from carvedilol-treated patients. Rolipram did not affect the inotropic and lusitropic potencies of (-)-noradrenaline or (-)-adrenaline. Treatment of heart failure patients with carvedilol induces PDE3 to selectively control the positive inotropic and lusitropic effects mediated through ventricular β2-adrenoceptors compared to β1-adrenoceptors. The β2-adrenoceptor-selectivity of carvedilol may provide protection against β2-adrenoceptor-mediated ventricular overstimulation in PDE3 inhibitor-treated patients. PDE4 does not control β1- and β2-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic and lusitropic effects in carvedilol-treated patients.
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Carvedilol apparent aqueous solubility was increased (up to 60.4-folds) after its encapsulation within NMs. The micellar size was ranged between 10.9 and 81.9 nm with a monomodal size distribution. There was a significant enhancement of CAR relative oral bioavailability for both copolymers vs a micelle-free drug solution (P < 0.05). This improvement was higher for TPGS-based micelles (4.95-fold) in accordance with the in-vitro CAR permeation results.
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Thirty consecutive DCM patients with persistent LV dysfunction (ejection fraction < or =40%) and reduced exercise tolerance (peak oxygen consumption <25 ml/kg/min) despite chronic (>1 year) tailored treatment with metoprolol and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were enrolled in a 12-month, open-label, parallel trial and were randomized either to continue on metoprolol (n = 16, mean dosage 142+/-44 mg/day) or to cross over to maximum tolerated dosage of carvedilol (n = 14, mean dosage 74+/-23 mg/day).
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In Japan, when pharmaceutical companies launch a new drug, they are obligated to conduct a post-marketing survey to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug in accordance with Good Post-Marketing Surveillance Practice under Article 14.4 (re-examination) of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law at contracted medical institutions. We report the results of a drug use survey, which we conducted as a post-marketing survey.
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This study investigated the differential effects of 2 weeks pretreatment with carvedilol 25 mg day(-1) and atenolol 50 mg day(-1) on plasma noradrenaline at rest and during exercise on a treadmill in a double-blind randomized crossover study, involving 12 healthy male volunteers (mean age 21.6 +/- 0.3 years).
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In addition to ACE inhibitors, diuretics and glycosides, beta blockers are an integral part in the combination therapy of patients with heart failure. Carvedilol, bisoprolol and metoprolol have been approved for use in patients with heart failure. Carvedilol is a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with additional alpha 1-receptor-blocking properties. Furthermore, it has additional antioxidative and antiproliferative effects. Bisoprolol and metoprolol are beta 1-selective beta blockers without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Based on the results of the US carvedilol trials, the CIBIS-II trial, the MERIT-HF study and the COPERNICUS study, it has been shown that beta blocker therapy can improve the prognosis of patients with compensated heart failure (NYHA II and III) and carvedilol can improve prognosis in severe heart failure (stage IV). Induction of therapy must be performed using very low doses, that can be increased in 2- to 3-week intervals. Drug dosages should be increased as much as possible. Besides a better prognosis, clinical symptoms and left ventricular ejection fraction can be expected to improve. The final effect can be expected only after months up to 1 year. Therapy should continue lifelong.
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Randomized double blind placebo controlled parallel or cross-over trials. Studies contained a beta blocker monotherapy arm with a fixed dose. Patients enrolled in the studies had primary hypertension at baseline. Duration of the studies was from three to 12 weeks. Drugs in this class of beta blockers are carvedilol, dilevalol and labetalol.
Remote monitoring with an automated telemedicine system can successfully facilitate titration of carvedilol in outpatients with New York Heart Association class II and III congestive heart failure.
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About 10% of patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease on GP morbidity registers have a persistently raised plasma BNP concentration. Simple adjustment of their drug treatment may reduce their BNP and associated mortality risk, but further up-titration against BNP is only possible if the within-person biological variability of measurement can be reduced.
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There is no controlled clinical trial on the treatment of de novo arterial hypertension after liver transplantation (LT) a common complication using calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) for immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, and carvedilol, an alpha1- and beta-blocker. The study included 50 patients who developed arterial hypertension after LT. The data on the first 30 patients who have completed 12-month follow-up are reported herein. Eighteen patients received nifedipine, and 12 patients received carvedilol. Patients were evaluated monthly at the outpatient clinic for 1 year. If patients developed severe adverse effects to nifedipine, they were switched to carvedilol and vice versa (therapy failure). The two groups were similar for clinical features, indications for LT, immunosuppressive therapy, and baseline blood pressures. A failure of treatment was observed in 9 of 18 patients treated with nifedipine (50.0%) and one of 12 patients treated with carvedilol (8%, P < .025). Nifedipine was effective in 4 of 18 patients, carvedilol, in 4 of 12 patients (22.21% vs 33.3%, P = NS). Two of the nine nonresponders to nifedipine responded to carvedilol. The efficacy of monotherapy was observed in 11 of 40 randomized patients (27.5%). Carvedilol monotherapy is as effective as nifedipine but far better tolerated.
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The detection of autoantibodies against the cardiac beta(1)-adrenergic receptors is related to severer cardiac dysfunction and autoantibodies title decrease was found with improved cardiac function after standard therapy (ACEI, digitalis, betablocker) in patients with CHF.