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Cozaar

Cozaar is an effective medication which helps to fight with the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension. It is used in the treatment of kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes. Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lasix, Norvasc, Toprol, Hyzaar

 

Also known as:  Losartan.

Description

Cozaar is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension.

Its target is to treat kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes.

Cozaar is also known as Losartan potassium, Cosart, Los-Po.

Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure. It is angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Generic name of Cozaar is Losartan Potassium.

Brand name of Cozaar is Cozaar.

Dosage

Take Cozaar tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Cozaar once or twice a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Cozaar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Cozaar overdosage: fainting, feeling lightheaded, rapid heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cozaar are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Cozaar if you are allergic to Cozaar components.

Do not take Cozaar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Cozaar can harm your baby.

Do not use Cozaar if you are taking salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicine, diuretic (water pill).

It can be dangerous to use Cozaar if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease, kidney disease, heart failure.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

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RT-PCR showed that high glucose and AngII up-regulated the expression of CTGF mRNA, and AngII stimulated the expression in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of CTGF mRNA induced by AngIIwas partially suppressed by 10(-5) mol/L Losartan (P < 0.05).

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Genotype was determined in 57 CGN patients and 113 subjects free of chronic diseases. Effects of ACE gene polymorphism on antihypertensive and antiproteinuric efficiency of ACEI and cozaar were studied in 35 CGN patients on monotherapy. 24-h proteinuria, levels of creatinine, potassium in the serum, arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate were measured in all the patients.

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In the second liver biopsy after 1 year, the decrease in fibrosis stage was significantly different between losartan group and silymarin group (a decrease of 1.88±0.96 (50.9%) vs. 0.45±0.93 (11.7%), respectively; P<0.01). In patients treated with losartan, regression in fibrosis stage was observed in 14/16 patients vs. 2/11 in silymarin group (P<0.01). No differences were observed in inflammation grades in both groups. A significant increase in albumin and prothrombin levels and a decrease in systolic blood pressure were found in losartan but not in silymarin group (P=0.009, 0.001 & 0.018 respectively and P=0.158, 0.603 & 0.288, respectively).

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Structure-activity relationships are reported for a novel class of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid derivatives that displace 125I-labeled angiotensin II from a specific subset of angiotensin II (Ang II) binding sites in rat adrenal preparations. This binding site is not the Ang II receptor mediating vascular contraction or aldosterone release, but, rather, is one whose function has not yet been fully elucidated. It has been identified in a number of tissues and has a similar affinity for Ang II and its peptide analogues as does the vascular receptor. The non-peptide compounds reported here are uniquely specific in displacing Ang II at this binding site and are inactive in antagonizing Ang II at the vascular receptor or in pharmacological assays measuring vascular effects. PD 123,319 (79), one of the most potent compounds, has an IC50 of 34 nM. Certain of these compounds may have utility in the definition and study of Ang II receptor subtypes.

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Intracerebroventricular injection of Los increased 5-HT content in the preoptic area and hypothalamus. Such results correlated positively with body heating rate and inversely with time to fatigue. On the other hand, time to fatigue was directly correlated with the diminished concentration of 5-HT in the hippocampus of Los rats. Although the levels of DA were not affected by Los treatment during exercise in any of the brain areas studied, a higher 5-HT/DA ratio was seen in the hypothalamus of Los animals. This higher hypothalamic 5-HT/DA ratio correlated positively with body heating rate and negatively with time to fatigue.

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A Simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for separation and quantitative analysis of losartan potassium, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations has been established and validated. After extraction with methanol, sample and standard solutions were applied to silica gel plates and developed with chloroform : methanol : acetone : formic acid 7.5 : 1.3 : 0.5 : 0.03 (v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. Zones were scanned densitometrically at 254 nm. The R(f) values of amlodipine besylate, hydrochlorothiazide, and losartan potassium were 0.35, 0.57, and 0.74, respectively. Calibration plots were linear in the ranges 500-3000 ng per spot for losartan potassium, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide, the correlation coefficients, r, were 0.998, 0.998, and 0.999, respectively. The suitability of this method for quantitative determination of these compounds was by validation in accordance with the requirements of pharmaceutical regulatory standards. The method can be used for routine analysis of these drugs in bulk and in formulation.

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Maximum CRIP uptake was observed in the infarct area; quantitative uptake (percent injected dose/g) was highest at 2 weeks (2.75 +/- 0.46%), followed by 4 (2.26 +/- 0.09%) and 12 (1.74 +/- 0.24%) weeks compared with that in unmanipulated mice (0.59 +/- 0.19%). Uptake was higher at 12 weeks in the remote areas. CRIP uptake was histologically traced to myofibroblasts. Captopril alone (1.78 +/- 0.31%) and with losartan (1.13 +/- 0.28%) significantly reduced tracer uptake; scrambled CRIP uptake in infarct area (0.74 +/- 0.17%) was similar to CRIP uptake in normal myocardium.

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Mean arterial pressure, measured 4 h after the dose, fell from 113.8 +/- 2.1 mmHg (placebo) to 99.2 +/- 2.4 mmHg (50-mg dose) and 96.5 +/- 2.4 mmHg (100-mg dose). This blood pressure lowering effect was sustained for 24 h 116.3 +/- 2.3 mmHg (placebo) versus 105.5 +/- 1.8 mmHg (50-mg dose) and 103.3 +/- 1.9 mmHg (100-mg dose)]. The glomerular filtration rate remained stable, while the effective renal plasma flow increased by 12.5 +/- 2.9% (100-mg dose). The systemic and renal hemodynamic effects were similar at the 50- and 100-mg doses. Urinary excretion of total protein, albumin and immunoglobulin G decreased dose-dependently by a maximum of +/- 50% (100-mg dose). With the high dose, serum uric acid fell from 0.43 +/- 0.02 mmol/l to 0.39 +/- 0.02 mmol/l, and potassium increased from 4.2 +/- 0.1 to 4.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/l.

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Alterations in the podocyte actin cytoskeleton have been implicated in the development of proteinuric kidney diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of HIV on the podocyte actin cytoskeleton and the mechanism involved. We hypothesized that HIV may be compromising the actin cytoskeleton via downregulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) of conditionally immortalized differentiated human podocytes (CIDHPs). HIV-transduced podocytes (HIV/CIDHPs) not only displayed downregulation of VDR but also showed activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the form of enhanced expression of renin and increased production of ANG II. Moreover, CIDHPs lacking VDR displayed enhanced ANG II production, and treatment of HIV/CIDHPs with EB1089 (vitamin D3; VD) attenuated ANG II production. HIV/CIDHPs as well as ANG II-treated CIDHPs exhibited enhanced expression of cathepsin (CTS) L. Additionally, losartan (an ANG II type I receptor blocker) inhibited both HIV- and ANG II-induced podocyte cathepsin L expression. Furthermore, VD downregulated HIV-induced podocyte CTSL expression. Both losartan and free radical scavengers attenuated HIV- and ANG II-induced podocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. HIV also led to cytosolic CTSL accumulation through enhancement of podocyte lysosomal membrane permeabilization; on the other hand, VD, losartan, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) attenuated HIV-induced enhanced podocyte cytosolic CTSL accumulation. Morphological evaluation of HIV/CIDHPs revealed sparse actin filaments and attenuated expression of dynamin. Interestingly, podocytes lacking CTSL displayed enhanced dynamin expression, and HIV/CIDHPs expressing CTSL exhibited downregulation of dynamin. These findings indicate that HIV-induced downregulation of podocyte VDR and associated RAS activation and cytosolic CTSL accumulation compromised the actin cytoskeleton.

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Dahl-salt sensitive rats fed high salt diet developed malignant hypertension, resulting in heart failure with inappropriately increased plasma aldosterone level. The gene expression pattern of the adrenal gland from heart failure rats showed strikingly upregulated b3-Adrenergic receptor (b3-AR) expression. Using Dahl-salt sensitive rats and H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, we conducted immunohistochemical and molecular biological studies to assess whether b3-AR contribute to aldosterone production in heart failure.

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A total of 65,358 incident diabetes cases were identified out of 1,771,173 person-years. Olmesartan initiators had a small but significantly increased risk of developing diabetes after adjusting for baseline characteristics and mean daily dose (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.12). After excluding those followed for less than one year, the increase in diabetes risk are more pronounced (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.14). This association was consistent across all subgroup analyses. Similar results were observed when a more strict definition of diabetes combining both diabetes diagnosis and anti-diabetic treatment was used. On the other hand, there was no difference in diabetes risk between telmisartan and losartan.

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The role of ANG II in the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in eight term-pregnant (P) and eight nonpregnant (NP) conscious rabbits was assessed using sequential intracerebroventricular and intravenous infusions of losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist. The blood pressure (BP)-RSNA relationship was generated by sequential inflations of aortic and vena caval perivascular occluders. Pregnant rabbits exhibited a lower maximal RSNA reflex gain (-44%) that was primarily due to a reduction in the maximal sympathetic response to hypotension (P, 248 +/- 20% vs. NP, 357 +/- 41% of rest RSNA, P < 0.05). Intracerebroventricular losartan decreased resting BP in P (by 9 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) but not NP rabbits, and had no effect on the RSNA baroreflex in either group. Subsequent intravenous losartan decreased resting BP in NP and further decreased BP in P rabbits, but had no significant effect on the maximal RSNA reflex gain. ANG II may have an enhanced role in the tonic support of BP in pregnancy, but does not mediate the gestational depression in the arterial baroreflex control of RSNA in rabbits.

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In the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction (LIFE) echocardiography substudy, 939 hypertensive patients with measurable LVM at baseline were randomized to a mean of 4.8 years of losartan- or atenolol-based treatment. Patients with LVH (LVM/body surface area ≥116 and ≥96 g/m(2) in men and woman, respectively) were divided into 4 groups-concentric nondilated (increased M/EDV, normal EDV), eccentric dilated (increased EDV, normal M/EDV), concentric dilated (increased M/EDV and EDV), and eccentric nondilated (normal M/EDV and EDV)-and compared with patients with normal LVM. Time-varying LVH classes were tested for association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and a composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and cardiovascular death in multivariable Cox analyses. At baseline, the LVs were categorized as eccentric nondilated in 12%, eccentric dilated in 20%, concentric nondilated in 29%, concentric dilated in 14%, and normal LVM in 25%. Treatment changed the prevalence of 4 LVH groups to 23%, 4%, 5%, and 7%; 62% had normal LVM after 4 years. In time-varying Cox analyses, compared with normal LVM, those with eccentric dilated and both concentric nondilated and dilated LVH had increased risks of all-cause or cardiovascular mortality or the composite end point, whereas the eccentric nondilated group did not.

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Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, potassium, haemoglobin, cholesterol and uric acid after 6 months of losartan treatment were assessed in the RENAAL database. Improvement in predictive performance of renal outcomes (ESRD or doubling serum creatinine) for each individual using ARB-induced changes in all risk markers was assessed by the relative integrative discrimination index (RIDI).

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To investigate the regulating role of protein kinase C(PKC) and the effects of losartan intervention on the expression of pulmonary arterial collagen in chronic hypoxic rat models.

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Exercise training markedly improves aerobic capacity and cardiac function after myocardial infarction, either alone or in combination with angiotensin inhibition. The two interventions appear to act by complementary mechanisms; whereas exercise training restores cardiac energy metabolism, mainly at the level of energy transfer, losartan unloads the heart by lowering filling pressure and afterload.

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Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers; ARBs) and thiazide diuretics have an accepted place in the management of hypertension. Most patients require combination therapy with two or more drugs to adequately control blood pressure to targets recommended by European and international guidelines. ARBs and the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide have complementary modes of action. Fixed-dose combinations of an ARB and low-dose hydrochlorothiazide provide a convenient and effective treatment option for patients who do not achieve blood pressure targets on monotherapy, without compromising the placebo-like tolerability of ARBs. In Europe, fixed-dose combinations with hydrochlorothiazide currently are available for the ARBs candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, telmisartan, and valsartan. Recently, a number of studies have focused on the use of ARBs in monotherapy and in combination therapy, in conditions including congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction management, hypertension with cardiovascular risk factors, and diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy. Evidence from these studies suggests a beneficial role beyond the antihypertensive effect of these therapies in providing protection against cardiovascular, renovascular, and cerebrovascular events.

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Among children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome who were randomly assigned to losartan or atenolol, we found no significant difference in the rate of aortic-root dilatation between the two treatment groups over a 3-year period. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00429364.).

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Adult male Wistar rats received lisinopril, losartan, bradykinin, or saline solution in a proportional volume, intraperitoneally, before and after 70% partial hepatectomy. Animals from the experimental and saline groups were sacrificed at 36 hours after partial hepatectomy. The alpha-smooth muscle actin labelled stellate cells population was counted in the periportal and pericentral zones of the liver specimen.

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Treatment of hypertensive patients with fixed-dose combination therapy consisting of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) has several potential benefits over monotherapy with each of the individual components: more effective blood pressure control, a reduction in the likelihood of adverse effects, and facilitation of patients staying on therapy due to a simple once-daily regimen. Losartan plus HCTZ fixed-dose combination therapy lowers blood pressure in mild to moderate or severe hypertensive patients to a level comparable with other classes of antihypertensive drugs in combination with HCTZ. Fixed-dose combination therapy with losartan plus HCTZ is therefore an excellent choice for hypertensive patients in whom combination therapy is necessary to achieve additional blood pressure reductions.

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Suppression of the formation of angiotensin II (A II) is thought to be a major contributor to the hemodynamic response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-inhibitor) therapy. However, during ACE-inhibitor treatment, A II plasma levels may also recover through tissue chymase. This study has attempted to verify the feasibility, safety and tolerability of a combined treatment using captopril (75 mg/day) and losartan (25 mg/day), and to ascertain its ability to reduce the formation and action of A II in the early post-infarction phase of reperfused anterior myocardial infarction (AMI).

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Forty hypertensive patients on hemodialysis therapy were randomly assigned to the losartan treatment group (n=20) or the control treatment group (n=20). At baseline and 6 and 12 months after the treatment, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring was performed. Echocardiography and measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and biochemical parameters were also performed before and after therapy.

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Angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII) induce a portal hypertensive response (PHR) and the liver is able to convert AI into AII to trough the action of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Our purpose was to characterize angiotensin I liver conversion.

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Losartan is a 4-chloro-5-hydroxymethylimidazole derivative that is a potent and highly selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Losartan is metabolized in vivo in rats, monkeys, and humans to a carboxylic acid derivative E3174 that is pharmacologically more active than the parent compound. We have investigated the mechanism of this biotransformation in human liver preparations. The oxidation of both losartan and the putative aldehyde intermediate E3179 was catalyzed by the microsomal fraction, required both NADPH and molecular oxygen, and was inhibited by SKF 525-A, implicating cytochrome P450 (CYP). When incubations with each substrate were performed under an atmosphere of 18O2, the extent of 18O incorporation into the carboxylic acid product was consistent with a mechanism for losartan oxidation involving an aldehyde intermediate. To substantiate the involvement of CYP in these reactions, incubations with losartan and the aldehyde E3179 were performed in the presence of isoform-selective inhibitors. Inhibitors of CYP3A4/5 (gestodene and ketoconazole) and CYP2C9/10 (sulfaphenazole) attenuated the oxidation of both substrates. It was then demonstrated that microsomes containing either recombinant human liver CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 were capable of oxidizing both losartan and the aldehyde E3179 to the carboxylic acid E3174. Subsequently, it was shown that rabbit anti-CYP2C9 and anti-CYP3A3/4 inhibited the oxidation of losartan to E3174 in incubations with human liver microsomes. These studies support the hypothesis that the aldehyde E3179 is an intermediate in the oxidation of losartan and that this two-step reaction is catalyzed in human liver microsomes by members of the CYP3A and CYP2C subfamilies.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression increases in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in response to hypertensive stimuli including stress and hyperosmolarity. However, it is unclear whether BDNF in the PVN contributes to increases in blood pressure (BP). We tested the hypothesis that increased BDNF levels within the PVN would elevate baseline BP and heart rate (HR) and cardiovascular stress responses by altering central angiotensin signaling. BP was recorded using radiotelemetry in male Sprague-Dawley rats after bilateral PVN injections of adeno-associated viral vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or myc epitope-tagged BDNF fusion protein. Cardiovascular responses to acute stress were evaluated 3 to 4 wk after injections. Additional GFP and BDNF-treated animals were equipped with osmotic pumps for intracerebroventricular infusion of saline or the angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor losartan (15 μg·0.5 μl(-1)·h(-1)). BDNF treatment significantly increased baseline BP (121 ± 3 mmHg vs. 99 ± 2 mmHg in GFP), HR (394 ± 9 beats/min vs. 314 ± 4 beats/min in GFP), and sympathetic tone indicated by HR- and BP-variability analysis and adrenomedullary tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression. In contrast, body weight and BP elevations to acute stressors decreased. BDNF upregulated AT1R mRNA by ∼80% and downregulated Mas receptor mRNA by ∼50% in the PVN, and losartan infusion partially inhibited weight loss and increases in BP and HR in BDNF-treated animals without any effect in GFP rats. Our results demonstrate that BDNF overexpression in the PVN results in sympathoexcitation, BP and HR elevations, and weight loss that are mediated, at least in part, by modulating angiotensin signaling in the PVN.

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It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT(1a)) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that AT(1a) receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a(-/-) mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a(-/-) mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 ± 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 5.9 ± 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 ± 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 843 ± 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion. These responses in Agtr1a(-/-) mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 ± 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 67 ± 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 ± 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 ± 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that AT(1a) receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V(2) receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla.

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The fluorescence intensity of labeled HPS70 in the NPY group was 1,825.10 +/- 115.55, significantly stronger than that in the control group (1595.83 +/- 186.54, P < 0.05) and the fluorescence intensity of labeled HPS70 in the NPY + losartan group (1 658.54 +/- 183.78) was not significantly different from that in the control group (P > 0.05). The MTT-OD in NPY group was 0.2626 +/- 0.0025, significantly higher than that in the control group (0.2239 +/- 0.0010, P < 0.01). and the MTT-OD in NPY + losartan group was 0.2440 +/- 0.0013, significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05).

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cozaar 150 mg 2015-11-10

Cardiovascular responses after the central blockade of the brain angiotensin system with peptide or nonpeptide angiotensin II analogs in conscious, freely moving hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DS/JR) rats were measured. Four-week-old animals were maintained on an 8% salt diet until experimentation at 7 weeks of age. At the time of experimentation, mean arterial pressures were 176 +/- 6 mm Hg. The i.c.v. administration of 20 micrograms of the peptide analog sarcosine1, threonine8-angiotensin II (sarthran) resulted in a significant bradycardic response (approximately 17% decrease in H.R. peaking at 8 min after injection) without a significant change in blood pressure. Central administration of the AT1 antagonist losartan (10 micrograms) or of the AT2 antagonist PD 123319 (10 micrograms) was without effect. The peptide and nonpeptide analogs differed in their ability to inhibit central angiotensin II (10 ng)-induced pressor and dipsogenic responses. PD 123319 (10 micrograms) had no effect on the pressor and dipsogenic responses, whereas losartan (10 micrograms) and sarthran (20 micrograms) inhibited both responses for 85 +/- 17 and 29 +/- 3 min, respectively. The effect of preblocking either the AT1 or the AT2 receptors on the sarthran-induced bradycardia was also determined. Preblocking with either losartan (10 micrograms) or PD 123319 (10 micrograms) inhibited the bradycardic response by approximately 45%, which suggests that both receptor subtypes are involved in the central cardiovascular responses in the DS/JR rat and that, buy cozaar because it was attenuated by pure antagonists, the response to sarthran may be mediated by its agonist actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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We have previously shown, in a neonatal rat cell line, that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells is extracellular matrix (ECM) dependent. We hypothesized that such an effect might be mediated via differences in Ang II-induced increases in the transcriptional factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) gene and, consequently, in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Cultured human newborn aortic smooth muscle cells were studied on 4 different surfaces: (1) plastic, (2) laminin, (3) collagen, and (4) fibronectin. Ang II-induced increases in DNA synthesis were significantly greater on collagen (2.0+/-0.3-fold) and fibronectin (1.9+/-0.3-fold) than on laminin (1.0+/-0.2-fold) or plastic (1.4+/-0.2-fold). As with DNA synthesis, at 48 and 72 hours, Ang II-induced increases in cell numbers occurred only in cells grown on collagen and fibronectin culture plates and were blocked by an antagonist to the angiotensin type 1 (losartan, 10 micromol/L) but not the angiotensin type 2 (PD 123319, 10 micromol/L) receptor. Anti-PDGF AA antibody (6 microg/mL) blocked the increase in DNA synthesis by 60% to 64% in cells on collagen or fibronectin cultures but not on plastic cultures. When PDGF-AA (10 ng/mL) and Ang II were added together, DNA synthesis increased 2-fold and did not differ on the various ECM proteins. Increases in PDGF A-chain mRNA were observed only in cells grown on collagen (3.21+/-0.65-fold) and fibronectin (2.86+/-0.49-fold) plates 2 to 8 hours after the addition of Ang II and were blocked by losartan but not PD 123319. Expression of Egr-1, an early growth response gene, increased at 15 minutes, peaked at 30 minutes, and returned to normal after 2 hours with Ang II treatment. Ang II-induced buy cozaar increases in Egr-1 mRNA were greater on collagen (4. 82+/-0.66-fold at maximum) and fibronectin (4.01+/-0.56-fold) than on laminin (2.74+/-0.45-fold) or plastic (2.53+/-0.40-fold) and were blocked by losartan but not PD 123319. Thus, in human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture, Ang II-induced proliferation is mediated via the angiotensin type 1 receptor, dependent on ECM proteins, and regulated by differential gene expression of Egr-1 and PDGF-1.

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These preliminary data suggest that healthy rats that suffered from preeclampsia buy cozaar during pregnancy have increased in-vivo sensitivity to Ang-II postpartum as compared to rats with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Whether these differences are related to in-vitro- changes in Ang-II sensitivity or changes in endothelial function remains to be established.

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Moderately elevated coronary concentrations of angiotensin II reduced coronary blood flow during pacing. Enalaprilat, losartan and LU 135252 restored the hyperaemic coronary flow to similar values observed with saline. The beneficial effect of ACE inhibition buy cozaar is mediated through an increase in bradykinin.

cozaar generic picture 2017-07-12

To determine the effect of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of losartan ( buy cozaar MK-954) and its metabolite E3174.

cozaar 50mg medication 2016-05-10

ANG II type 1 receptor blockade (AT1R-BLK) is used extensively to slow down the progression of proteinuric kidney diseases. We hypothesized that AT1R-BLK provides podocyte protection through regulation of silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression under adverse milieus such as high glucose and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Both AT1R-BLK and VDR agonists (VDAs) stimulated VDR complex formation that differed not only in their composition but also in their functionality. AT1R-BLK-induced VDR complexes contained predominantly unliganded VDR, SMRT, and phosphorylated histone deacetylase 3, whereas VDA-VDR complexes were constituted by liganded VDR and CREB-binding protein/p300. AT1R-BLK-induced complexes attenuated podocyte acetyl-histone 3 levels as well as cytochrome P-450 family 24A1 expression, thus indicating their deacetylating and repressive properties. On the other hand, VDA-VDR complexes not only increased podocyte acetyl-histone 3 levels but also enhanced cytochrome P-450 family 24A1 expression, thus suggesting their acetylating and gene activation properties. AT1R-BLK- induced podocyte SMRT inhibited expression of the proapoptotic gene BAX through downregulation of Wip1 and phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 in high-glucose milieu. Since SMRT-depleted podocytes lacked AT1R-BLK-mediated protection against DNA damage, it appears that SMRT is necessary buy cozaar for DNA repairs during AT1R-BLK. We conclude that AT1R-BLK provides podocyte protection in adverse milieus predominantly through SMRT expression and partly through unliganded VDR expression in 1,25(OH)2D-deficient states; on the other hand, AT1R-BLK contributes to liganded VDR expression in 1,25(OH)2D-sufficient states.

cozaar y alcohol 2016-12-15

Hypertension caused by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion is associated with oxidative stress in the peripheral vasculature and kidney. The role of redox mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS), a tissue known to be pivotal in Ang II-dependent hypertension, has not been investigated. We recently identified superoxide (O2*-) in the brain as a key signaling intermediate in the transient pressor response elicited by acute injection of Ang II directly into the CNS. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypertension caused by chronic systemic infusion of Ang II is mediated by a central neurogenic mechanism involving O2*-. Infusion of Ang II (600 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)) over a 2-week period in mice caused a gradually developing hypertension that was correlated with marked elevations in O2*- production specifically in the subfornical organ (SFO), a buy cozaar brain region lying outside the blood-brain barrier and known to be a primary sensor for blood-borne Ang II. Adenoviral-mediated delivery of cytoplasmically targeted superoxide dismutase (SOD) selectively to this site prevented the hypertension and the increased O2*- production, whereas gene transfer of SOD targeted to the extracellular matrix had no effect. These data suggest that increased intracellular O2*- production in the SFO is critical in the development of Ang II-induced hypertension.

cozaar 5 mg 2015-03-27

To investigate whether serum and/or retinal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity might correlate with the decrease buy cozaar in sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) activity in the retina of experimentally diabetic rats.

cozaar 75 mg 2015-09-04

The present study was conducted among 719 patients enrolled by 109 doctors to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of losartan potassium and amlodipine besylate in Indian patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Out of them 11 patients were dropped out. Of these 708 patients 643 patients received once daily dosage of the combination whereas 10 patients received 1/2 daily, 13 patients received 1 1/2 daily and 42 patients received 1 twice daily dosage of the combination. The mean SBP in the study was 172.89 +/- 19.18 mm Hg baseline. After the 10-day treatment, the mean SBP had significant reduction ie, 13.1% from basal and at the end of day 20 of the treatment, the reduction was 19.13% from the baseline which was significant. Similarly mean DBP was 105.42 +/- 10.85 mm Hg at baseline. After treatment, the mean DBP had significant reduction. After 10- day treatment, there was 12.7% reduction from the baseline and at the end of the treatment ie, after day 20, the reduction was 17. buy cozaar 70% from basal, which was significant. Global evaluation of efficacy was done by the physicians; 93.8% of the cases had excellent to good response and 4.9% patients had fair response. Details of any adverse event reported or noted during the treatment with the combination were recorded in the appropriate section of the case record form, whether considered treatment related or not, as reported by the patients. The severity of an adverse event was graded on a 3-point scale as mild, moderate and severe. The most common side-effects reported were oedema of feet (5.08%), ankle oedema (1.98%). Remaining adverse events included some cardiovascular events such as palpitations, gastro-intestinal events such as constipation, miscellaneous events, muscular pain, weakness, generalised swelling, etc. CNS events included giddiness, headache, insomnia, etc.

cozaar 50mg tablets 2015-12-30

Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress induced by excessive superoxide has a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Telmisartan buy cozaar , one of the currently available angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), has been shown to exert a more powerful proteinuria (albuminuria) reduction in patients with DN, but whether the prominent renoprotective effect of telmisartan is mediated through enhancing antioxidant defense capacity and reducing oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. The present study first revealed that the serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) responsible for superoxide removal is reduced in the DN stage of microalbuminuria, but not in normoalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. We next examined the alteration of SOD and oxidative stress following an 8-week treatment with telmisartan (40 mg per day) in 12 type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Interestingly, the telmisartan treatment not only reduced the circulating levels of two oxidative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine (NT), but also enhanced serum SOD activity. Notably, a significant correlation was observed between the increase in serum SOD activity and the reduction in albuminuria. We further compared the anti-oxidative effect of telmisartan with that of losartan, another member of the ARB class, by implementing an 8-week interval crossover treatment with these ARBs in another 12 microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. The patients showed higher serum SOD activity, and lower circulating levels of 8-OHdG and NT, during treatment with telmisartan than with losartan. These results suggest that telmisartan has a more potent antioxidative effect through its ability to enhance SOD activity in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

cozaar hctz dose 2017-12-26

Brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could regulate oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the development of hypertension. This study was designed to explore the precise mechanisms of RAS acting on reactive oxygen species (ROS) in salt-induced hypertension. Male Wistar rats were administered with a high-salt diet (HS, 8.0% NaCl) for 8 weeks to induced hypertension. Those rats were received PVN infusion of AT1R antagonist losartan (LOS, 10 μg/h) or microinjection of small interfering RNAs for protein kinase C γ (PKCγ siRNA) once a day for 2 weeks. High salt intake resulted in higher levels of AT1R, PKCγ, Rac1 activity, superoxide and malondialdehyde buy cozaar (MDA) activity, but lower levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in PVN than control animals. PVN infusion of LOS not only attenuated the PVN levels of AT1R, PKCγ, Rac1 activity, superoxide and decreased the arterial pressure, but also increased the PVN antioxidant capacity in hypertension. PVN microinjection of PKCγ siRNA had the same effect on LOS above responses to hypertension but no effect on PVN level of AT1R. These results, for the first time, identified that the precise signaling pathway of RAS regulating ROS in PVN is via AT1R/PKCγ/Rac1 in salt-induced hypertension.

losartan cozaar reviews 2015-11-30

Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan buy cozaar , and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function.

cozaar max dose 2016-07-20

Treatment of manifestations: Treatment includes use of corticosteroids to control pain. Losartan may be a helpful adjuvant therapy to minimize the need for steroids to control Atarax Lethal Dose pain. Pain is also managed with analgesics and non-pharmacologic methods. Bilateral myringotomy can improve conductive hearing loss resulting from serous otitis. Surveillance: Following initiation of corticosteroid treatment, blood pressure should be monitored monthly; when maintenance steroid dose is achieved, yearly evaluation includes complete neurologic examination, CBC, blood pressure, hearing screen, and bone density scan.

cozaar generic equivalent 2016-09-15

Six-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats Hyzaar Generic Name (WKY) were used. Animals of each model were randomly assigned to the following four groups: Group 1, SHAM operated+vehicle; Group 2, orchidectomy (ORX)+vehicle; Group 3, ORX+low-dose losartan (10 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)); and Group 4, ORX+high-dose losartan (25 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)). Blood pressure was recorded weekly. SHAM and ORX operations were performed, followed by daily losartan and vehicle treatment from day 4 after operation for 16 weeks. Serum and 24-hour urine samples were collected for measurement of bone turnover markers before euthanasia and then the left femur was collected for measurements of BMD and microarchitecture before mechanical test.

cozaar medication classification 2017-11-23

Angiotensin II maintains extracellular volume homeostasis, in part, by regulating proximal tubule transport. Physiological doses of angiotensin II stimulate volume and solute transport in the proximal tubule independent of changes in the glomerular filtration rate. Stimulation of bicarbonate transport primarily occurs via increasing activity Indocin 20 Mg of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger and the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter. The effects of circulating angiotensin II are mediated by angiotensin II receptors on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. Recently, the proximal tubule was found to synthesize and secrete angiotensin II into the lumen. The luminal membrane contains angiotensin II receptors and luminal angiotensin II levels are 100 to 200-fold higher than that found in plasma. Luminal angiotensin II receptor blockade or luminal inhibition of angiotensin II synthesis both significantly diminish proximal tubule transport, consistent with stimulation of proximal tubule transport by endogenously produced and luminally secreted angiotensin II. These data provide evidence for an autocrine/paracrine role for angiotensin II that functions independent of circulating angiotensin II.

cozaar medication 2015-11-24

The Pediatric Heart Network designed a randomized clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in subjects with MFS receiving atenolol or losartan. Individuals 6 months to 25 years of age with a body surface area-adjusted aortic root z score >3.0 will be eligible for inclusion. The primary aim is to compare the effect of atenolol therapy with that of losartan therapy on the rate of aortic root growth over 3 years. Secondary end Crestor Dosage Strengths points include progression of aortic regurgitation; incidence of aortic dissection, aortic root surgery, and death; progression of mitral regurgitation; left ventricular size and function; echocardiographically derived measures of central aortic stiffness; skeletal and somatic growth; and incidence of adverse drug reactions.

cozaar generic medication 2016-05-27

The present article reviews 3 head-to-head trials directly comparing the antihypertensive efficacy of olmesartan with that of Combivir Medication 4 other AIIRAs, at recommended maintenance doses, already in clinical use for the treatment of hypertension.

cozaar 40 mg 2015-02-25

Evaluating the effectiveness of the various options of combination antihypertensive therapy (AHT) in women with arterial hypertension (AH) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and hypothyroidism Prednisone Medication .

cozaar starting dose 2015-08-17

These studies indicated that the cross talk between TLR4 signaling cascade and AT Periactin Order -II plays a pivotal role in liver fibrosis development in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

cozaar tablets 2015-02-11

Renoprotection conferred by losartan combined with Imitrex Overdose pioglitazone is superior to that conferred by losartan alone in subjects with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. The combination is generally well tolerated.

cozaar 15 mg 2015-09-24

The isometric tension was measured in the strips of clitoral cavernosum. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate expression of AT1a and AT1b ANG II receptor subtype mRNAs. In vitro autoradiography was used to Avapro 150 Mg localize ANG II receptors in the clitoral cavernosum.

cozaar 50 mg 2016-09-07

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) or CXCL8 is a potent chemotactic factor that is involved in atherogenesis. IL-8 mediates its pre-inflammatory effects through interaction with CXCR1 and CXCR2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on IL-8 synthesis and CXCR1/CXCR2 expression of THP-1 monocytes. IL-8 was measured in the culture medium using ELISA. Expression of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results demonstrated that the addition of Ang II increased IL-8 production in the THP-1 monocytes. The Ang II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) losartan significantly blocked Ang II-induced IL-8 production. Notably, losartan blocked LPS-induced IL-8 production by THP-1 monocytes and produced a small but statistically significant reduction of baseline IL-8 production of naïve THP-1 cells. Losartan also produced a statistically significant increase of fluorescence intensity of naïve CXCR1- and CXCR2-positive THP-1 monocytes, probably as a negative feedback effect secondary to IL-8 downregulation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Ang II increased IL-8 production by THP-1 monocytes. Losartan significantly suppressed the latter effect, suggesting an AT-1 mediated pathway. Moreover, losartan suppressed the IL-8 production of naïve THP-1 monocytes and LPS-treated THP-1 monocytes, suggesting a broader spectrum of pleiotropic effects. Extrapolating this in vitro observation to in vivo pathways, we propose Ang II-induced IL-8 production by monocytes as another pre-atherogenic potential of Ang II that can be effectively blocked by the AT1 receptor blockade.

cozaar generic availability 2016-01-24

The patient was shown to have a higher activity of CYP2C9 than any of the 190 healthy Swedish Caucasians used as controls.

cozaar usual dosage 2017-10-14

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has profound effects in the central nervous system (CNS), including promotion of thirst, regulation of vasopressin secretion, and modulation of sympathetic outflow. Despite its importance in cardiovascular and volume homeostasis, angiotensinergic mechanisms are incompletely understood in the CNS. Recently, a novel signaling mechanism for Ang II involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been identified in a variety of peripheral tissues, but the involvement of ROS as second messengers in Ang II-mediated signaling in the CNS has not been reported. The hypothesis that superoxide is a key mediator of the actions of Ang II in the CNS was tested in mice using adenoviral vector-mediated expression of superoxide dismutase (AdSOD). Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and drinking elicited by injection of Ang II in the CNS were abolished by prior treatment with AdSOD in the brain, whereas the cardiovascular responses to carbachol, another central vasopressor agent, were unaffected. In addition, Ang II stimulated superoxide generation in primary CNS cell cultures, and this was prevented by the Ang II receptor (Ang II type 1 subtype) antagonist losartan or AdSOD. These results identify a novel signaling mechanism mediating the actions of Ang II in the CNS. Dysregulation of this signaling cascade may be important in hypertension and heart failure triggered by Ang II acting in the CNS.

cozaar mg 2017-04-25

The Basel cocktail was well tolerated, and bioequivalence tests showed no evidence of mutual interactions between the probe drugs. In plasma, single timepoint metabolic ratios at 2 h (for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) or at 8 h (for the other isoforms) after dosing showed high correlations with corresponding area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (AUC0-24h parent/AUC0-24h metabolite) and are proposed as simple phenotyping metrics. Metabolic ratios in dried blood spots (for CYP1A2 and CYP2C19) or in saliva samples (for CYP1A2) were comparable to plasma ratios and offer the option of minimally invasive or non-invasive phenotyping of these isoforms.

cozaar tabs 100mg 2017-04-09

44 patients completed 6 months of treatment with MMF (n=22) or placebo (n=22). The trial was terminated early at the recommendation of the Data Monitoring Committee because of the lack of benefit. No patient achieved a complete remission (UPCR<0.2g/g). Mean UPCRs at randomization and after 6 months were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.75) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.09-1.70) for MMF and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.17-1.65) and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04) for placebo, respectively. The mean difference in UPCR change between these groups (MMF minus placebo) was -0.22 (95% CI, -0.75 to 0.31; P=0.4). Adverse events were rare apart from nausea (MMF, 8.7%; placebo, 3.7%); one of these MMF patients withdrew.

cozaar drug interactions 2016-11-17

Losartan, a recently developed nonpeptide angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist, was orally administered for 14 days to mice with viral myocarditis, beginning 7 days after encephalomyocarditis virus inoculation. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) captopril and enalapril were also administered in the same manner to compare the therapeutic effects of these three drugs on the degree of myocarditis, acute heart failure, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Heart weight and the heart weight/body weight ratio were reduced by losartan (60 mg/kg/day) and captopril (7.5 mg/kg/day), but not by enalapril (1 mg/kg/day). LV wall thickness and cavity dimension were decreased in the losartan and captopril groups. Captopril reduced both myocardial necrosis and inflammation, whereas enalapril reduced myocardial necrosis but not inflammation. However, none of the studied losartan doses (1.2, 12, 60 mg/kg/day) influenced myocardial necrosis and inflammation resulting from viral infection. Thus, specific blockade of AII is beneficial in congestive heart failure (CHF) and LV hypertrophy but is not effective in viral-evoked inflammation and injury.

cozaar tabs 50mg 2016-09-09

It is proposed that a locally active, intrinsic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the bone marrow (BM) and plays a role in regulating haematopoiesis. Angiotensin II type I receptor has been detected on erythroid burst-forming unit-derived cells; its antagonist losartan and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can suppress erythropoiesis. The possible role of ACE/RAS in BM was investigated by evaluating ACE expression in normal BM, several myeloproliferative disorders and myelodysplasia. Immunohistochemical studies showed that erythroid elements expressed ACE protein in both normal and disturbed haematopoiesis. The presence of ACE in erythroid cells suggests another mechanism for direct ACE inhibitor activity in erythropoiesis.