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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed.

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Although further studies considering different dose regimens and time intervals are required, MESNA was shown to be at least as effective as methylprednisolone in the traumatic brain injury model.

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Isolated vasculitis of the bladder is extremely rare. The main causes of which are auto-immune diseases and occasionally infections. Corticosteroid therapy plays a central role in treatment in the majority of cases.

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Sotagliflozin significantly improved glycemic control, without increasing the rate of hypoglycemia measurements, in diabetic mice maintained on a low insulin dose. This sotagliflozin-mediated improvement in glycemic control was comparable to that achieved by raising the insulin dose alone, but was not accompanied by the increased rate of hypoglycemia measurements observed with the higher insulin dose.

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PubMed, LILACS (up to July 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, issue 5 of 12, May 2014), and the registry and reference lists were searched for randomized controlled trials of any treatment modality for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Data were extracted independently by two authors using predefined appraisal criteria and data fields.

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La amiloidosis de cadenas ligeras (amiloidosis AL) es una enfermedad muy rara. En este artículo se describen los aspectos nutritivos y farmaconutritivos de la enfermedada. La renutrición de los pacientes con amiloidosis malnutridos es una estrategia esencial para mejorar la eficacia del tratamiento y el resultado a largo plazo. El diagnóstico precoz de la amiloidosis AL es difícil, debido a que los signos y síntomas que aparecen emulan otras entidades morbosas y retrasan el correcto diagnóstico histológico final. Los pacientes no tratados tienen un porvenir oscuro, con una supervivencia media de entre 10 y 14 meses desde el diagnóstico. Cuanto antes se establezca el tratamiento, mejores son los resultados. Los agentes quimioterapéuticos modernos, en concreto ciclofosfamida, bortezomid y dexametasona, producen una respuesta rápida, importante y duradera en la mayoría de los pacientes. El trasplante de células autólogas debe restringirse a un grupo selecto de pacientes sin enfermedad cardiaca avanzada secundaria a la amiloidosis.

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Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) refractory to conventional immunosuppression suffer substantial morbidity and mortality due to active disease and treatment toxicity. Immunoablation followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a novel therapeutic strategy that potentially offers new hope to these patients.

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Treatment of LN may be different in patients with different ethnicity. Less aggressive disease in European patients may better respond to less aggressive treatment. Treatment of LN in nonwhite patients may require newer (more effective) therapeutic approaches, but targeting negative socioeconomic factors might be even more effective.

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This study, first reported profile of IIM from eastern India, showed JDM as the commonest form of IIM with a female preponderance. Five children had complete and 2 had partial remission. Two patients of JDM and 1 of OM died. Increased awareness, early referral, prompt diagnosis and treatment might improve the outcome and survival.

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Meticulous diagnosis and appropriate management help to improve the longitivity with an improved quality of life.

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Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder for which clearly defined criteria for the diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and treatment strategy have been proposed as part of the consensus panels of the International Workshop on Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (IWWM). At IWWM-8, a task force for treatment recommendations was impanelled to review recently published and ongoing clinical trial data as well as the impact of new mutations (MYD88 and CXCR4) on treatment decisions, indications for B-cell receptor and proteasome inhibitors, and future clinical trial initiatives for WM patients. The panel concluded that therapeutic strategies in WM should be based on individual patient and disease characteristics. Chemoimmunotherapy combinations with rituximab and cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone, bendamustine, or bortezomib-dexamethasone provide durable responses and are still indicated in most patients. Approval of the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib in the United States and Europe represents a novel and effective treatment option for both treatment-naive and relapsing patients. Other B-cell receptor inhibitors, second-generation proteasome inhibitors (eg, carfilzomib), and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are promising and may increase future treatment options. Active enrollment in clinical trials whenever possible was endorsed by the panel for most patients with WM.

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Induction therapy in patients with multiple myeloma has evolved from chemotherapy-based to novel agents-based regimens. We compared autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-associated toxicity in patients induced with VTD-PACE (bortezomib, thalidomide, dexamethasone, cisplatinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide) to that of patients induced with novel agents-only therapy.

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No RCTs or CCTs comparing the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcoma in children and young adults were identified. Therefore no definitive conclusions can be made about the effects of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in these patients. Based on the currently available evidence we are not able to give recommendations for clinical practice. More high quality research is needed.

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ARCTIC was a multi-center, randomized-controlled, open, phase IIB non-inferiority trial in previously untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). Conventional frontline therapy in fit patients is fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR). The trial hypothesized that including mitoxantrone with low-dose rituximab (FCM-miniR) would be non-inferior to FCR. 200 patients were recruited to assess the primary endpoint of complete remission (CR) rates according to IWCLL criteria. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate, minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity, safety and cost-effectiveness. The trial closed following the pre-planned interim analysis. At final analysis, CR rates were 76% FCR vs 55% FCM-miniR [adjusted odds-ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.19-0.73]. MRD-negativity rates were 54% FCR vs 44% FCM-miniR. More participants experienced Serious Adverse Reactions with FCM-miniR (49%) compared to FCR (41%). There are no significant differences between the treatment groups for PFS and OS. FCM-miniR is not expected to be cost-effective over a lifetime horizon. In summary, FCM-miniR is less well tolerated than FCR with an inferior response and MRD-negativity rate and increased toxicity, and will not be taken forward into a confirmatory trial. The trial demonstrated that oral FCR yields high response rates compared to historical series with intravenous chemotherapy.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 24 March 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.96.

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Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of 14 SLE patients with TTP were retrospectively analyzed.

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Overall, 264 previously untreated stage II-III operable breast cancer patients were randomized to receive either standard treatment (arm A, n = 131), consisting of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC100: 500, 100, and 500 mg/m(2), respectively, for 3 cycles) followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m(2) for 3 cycles), or adapted treatment (arm B, n = 133), beginning with 2 cycles of FEC100 and switching to docetaxel if tumor size decreased by <30% after 2 cycles or <50% after 4 cycles of FEC100 (ultrasound assessments according to World Health Organization criteria). Otherwise, FEC100 was given for six cycles before surgery. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed.

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These results suggest that the developed HPLC method for ifosfamide did not detect the degradation products shown by NMR. It is possible that degradation products co-elute with ifosfamide, do not elute altogether or are not amenable to the detection method employed. Therefore, investigation of ifosfamide stability requires additional techniques that do not suffer from the aforementioned shortcomings.

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To evaluate the impact of adding taxanes to anthracycline-based regimens in the adjuvant setting in localized young female breast cancer patients on the overall survival (OS) and the disease free survival (DFS).

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One hundred and 35 patients were identified. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy with curative intent was performed in 115 (85%) patients. According to CGA, 82 (61%) patients were classified as 'fit'. Their 1-yr overall survival (OS) was significantly better than that of 'unfit' patients [91.3% vs. 53.8%, P < 0.001]. Patients classified as 'unfit' treated with curative intent had a significantly better 1-yr OS when compared with those receiving palliative measures [66.1% vs. 19.0%, P < 0.001].

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Hyperprolactinaemia is prevalent in twenty to thirty percent of SLE patients but it is rarely due to a prolactinoma. The source of excessive circulating prolactin in SLE patients has not been fully determined.

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To study the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with enhanced chemotherapy regimen and increase of treatment courses, including number of treatment courses, short-term efficacy, long-term survival and safety.

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This report describes the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented with painless swelling of the right orbit since 4 weeks and moderate proptosis. Tests revealed visual acuity RE 6/6, LE 6/6, normal intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior and posterior segments normal. Ultrasound examination showed multiple lesions in the spleen, normal liver, no abdominal mass and enlarged abdominal lymph nodes. Fine-needle aspirate results were not available at the time of clinical decision-making. In Malawi the treatment for all stages of Burkitt's lymphoma is intravenous cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg on day 1 and oral cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg on days 8, 18 and 28). Intrathecal hydrocortisone (12.5 mg) and methotrexate (12.5 mg) are given with each treatment cycle.

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Lenalidomide has been linked to second primary malignancies in myeloma. We aimed to pool and analyse available data to compare the incidence of second primary malignancies in patients with and without lenalidomide exposure.

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Since activation of the immune system and a perivascular infiltrate of inflammatory cells are key features of SSc, immunosuppression has long been considered to be an anchor treatment. Non-selective immunosuppression remains central to the treatment of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and skin involvement, with CYC most widely used to obtain remission. The use of MTX as a first-line agent may be considered in the presence of skin involvement without ILD. More recently, MMF has shown encouraging results in observational studies, but still needs more formal evaluation to verify if it can be considered an alternative drug to CYC or a maintenance agent such as AZA. Rituximab has provided promising results in small open-label studies and other novel therapies targeting specific molecular and cellular targets are under evaluation. Patients with rapidly progressing diffuse cutaneous SSc should be evaluated for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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Encapsulation of CYP increased its mutagenicity, especially at a longer sampling time. This may due to interaction of liposomes with cells which is mainly through endocytosis or fusion resulting in accumulation of drug inside the cell causing chromosomal damage. Further evaluation of possible toxicity of encapsulation drugs in healthy tissue is needed.

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cytoxan tablet 2016-09-17

Of the 49 patients in the cisplatin group the response rates were 21 (43%), 10 (20%) and 18 (37%) in the groups of pathologic complete response, pathologic partial response and progressive disease, respectively. The median survival from the initiation of intraperitoneal chemotherapy was 59 months. Of the buy cytoxan 25 patients in the carboplatin group the response rates were 10 (40%), 4 (16%) and 11 (44%) respectively. The median survival -51 months. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant p>0.05 either in response or in toxicity.

cytoxan 75 mg 2016-07-31

This is a pioneering study in the ecotoxicological assessment of immunotoxic effects of the three selected drugs of concern to a buy cytoxan freshwater gastropod species. Lymnaea stagnalis was exposed in the laboratory for 3 days to three drugs used for immune systems: diclofenac (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), cyclophosphamide (anti-cancer immunosuppressive drug) or cyclosporine A (anti-xenograft immunosuppressive drug). Exposure ranges included environmental realistic (1-10μgL(-1)) and therapeutic concentrations (100-1000μgL(-1)). At the end of exposure times, the immune parameters of individual snails were measured: hemocyte density and viability, hemocyte phagocytosis capacity and hemocyte-related oxidative activities (basal and NADPH-oxidase stimulated with zymosan particles). Diclofenac and cyclosporine A induced immune responses, although the effects were not strong. No immunosuppression was observed. Such subtle immunomodulations bring further interrogations regarding their long-term immunotoxicity and possible resulting tradeoffs with life-history traits. On the other hand, the prodrug cyclophosphamide did not induce significant immune responses. Since metabolism pathways differ greatly between vertebrates and invertebrates, this study also suggests that relevant vertebrate metabolites should be included in the immunotoxicity assessment of pharmaceuticals in non-target invertebrate species. Finally, the possible interactive effects of these pharmaceuticals sharing similar modes of action or effects features should also be explored.

cytoxan capsules 2015-04-03

In the present study, the immunomodulatory and synergistic anti-tumor activity of thymosin α1-thymopentin fusion peptide (Tα1-TP5) was investigated in vivo. In addition, the potential receptor of Tα1-TP5 was investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies. It was found that Tα1-TP5 (305 μg/kg) alleviated immunosuppression induced by hydrocortisone (HC). Tα1-TP5 (305 μg/kg) combined with cyclophosphamide (CY) had a better tumor growth inhibitory effect than CY alone. Furthermore, Tα1-TP5 had a higher affinity (KD=6.84 μmol/L) to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) than Tα1 (K(D)=35.4 μmol/L), but its affinity was not significantly different from that of TP5. The results buy cytoxan of our present work indicate that Tα1-TP5 can possibly be developed as a new immunomodulatory agent.

cytoxan brand name 2016-12-21

We sought randomised and quasi-randomised trials of all immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil, and rituximab and all immunomodulatory agents buy cytoxan such as interferon alfa and interferon beta, in participants fulfilling standard diagnostic criteria for CIDP.

cytoxan 150 mg 2015-05-16

Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a clinically prescribed drug for the treatment of digestive ulcer and inflammation. It is also a widely used pharmacological inhibitor of several channels in basic research. Given that the overactivity of several channels, including those inhibitable by CBX, underlies bladder dysfunction, we tested the potential therapeutic application and mechanism of CBX in the treatment of voiding dysfunction. In a mouse model of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP), CBX administration prevented the CYP-elicited buy cytoxan increase in bladder weight, oedema, haemorrhage, and urothelial injury. CBX also greatly improved micturition pattern, as manifested by the apparently decreased micturition frequency and increased micturition volume. Western blot results showed that CBX suppressed CYP-induced increase in protein carbonyls, COX-2, and iNOS. Further analysis using cultured urothelial cells revealed that acrolein, the major metabolite of CYP, caused protein oxidation, p38 activation, and urothelial injury. These effects of acrolein were reproduced by TRPV4 agonists and significantly prevented by antioxidant NAC, p38 inhibitor SB203580, TRPV4 antagonist RN-1734, and CBX. Further studies showed that CBX potently suppressed TRPV4 agonist-initiated calcium influx and subsequent cell injury. CBX attenuated CYP-induced cystitis in vivo and reduced acrolein-induced cell injury in vitro, through mechanisms involving inhibition of TRPV4 channels and attenuation of the channel-mediated oxidative stress. CBX might be a promising agent for the treatment of bladder dysfunction.

cytoxan oral dosage 2017-06-29

Mortality in the elderly group was higher (p = 0.007). Cardiovascular death was significantly increased (p = 0.002) in the elderly, but mortality due to vasculitis or infections was comparable. Treatment effectiveness was also similar in elderly and younger patients. At the end of the first follow-up year, 37 % of the elderly and 27 % of the younger patients died (p = 0.22). In univariate Cox regression analyses, being older than 65 year, having cardiovascular disease at baseline, need for dialysis at diagnosis, and buy cytoxan lower serum albumin were associated with an increased hazard of mortality.

cytoxan user reviews 2015-08-29

Targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway has become buy cytoxan an important approach to current cancer therapy. Anti-VEGF therapy-related renal adverse effects may present as hypertension, non-nephrotic proteinuria, and rarely as nephrotic syndrome (NS) and acute kidney injury.

cytoxan drug category 2017-01-15

The levels of CD20 expression in DLBCL are heterogeneous among the patients buy cytoxan with DLBCL. A subgroup of the patients with CD20 expression levels below the cut-off score showed poor clinical outcome.

cytoxan drug interactions 2017-03-27

The mean age of study patients was 67.4 ± 13.6 years. Seven patients presented with exophthalmos, 6 with upper lid swelling, 5 with double vision, 5 with reduced visual acuity and one patient with retinal detachment. None of the patients complained of pain. In 7 cases the location of the OAL was superior, in 6 retrobulbar, in 4 patients in the lacrimal gland (1 bilaterally affected), one case with lacrimal sac infiltration and another with isolated subconjunctival lymphoma. Patients with retrobulbar tumors complained of visual loss, whereas patients with anterior orbital tumors showed localized nodular swelling. In 11 cases (58%) the diagnosis was marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALT), in 5 (26%) follicular lymphoma. 11 patients (69%) received curative and one HIV-positive buy cytoxan patient palliative radiation. Three patients were treated with systemic rituximab due to generalized lymphoma and one of them was complemented with CHOP therapy. One patient received chemotherapy alone (CHOP). During the follow-up the HIV-positive patient died.

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Overall, the rates of pathological complete response were 14.9% with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and 18.4% with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel plus bevacizumab (odds ratio with addition of bevacizumab, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.65; P=0.04); the corresponding rates of buy cytoxan pathological complete response were 27.9% and 39.3% among 663 patients with triple-negative tumors (P=0.003) and 7.8% and 7.7% among 1262 patients with hormone-receptor-positive tumors (P=1.00). Breast-conserving surgery was possible in 66.6% of the patients in both groups. The addition of bevacizumab, as compared with neoadjuvant therapy alone, was associated with a higher incidence of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects (febrile neutropenia, mucositis, the hand-foot syndrome, infection, and hypertension) but with a similar incidence of surgical complications.

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Seventy-nine patients with stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer were treated with NAC followed by radical hysterectomy. According to different adjuvant therapies, patients were divided into postoperative chemotherapy group (47 cases) and postoperative radiotherapy/concurrent buy cytoxan chemoradiotherapy group (32 cases). Regimens for NAC and postoperative chemotherapy were BIP (bleomycin+ ifosfamide+ cisplatin/carboplatin) or TP (paclitaxel+ cisplatin/carboplatin). An average of 1.1±0.3 cycles of NAC and 3.4±1.2 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy were prescribed.

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We identified 259 patients consecutively treated with BCS for primary BC from January 2002 to November 2010. All patients had undergone Oncoplastic Breast Surgery (OBS) or standard BCS after primary buy cytoxan CT. Mastectomy rates, and oncological and cosmetic outcomes were compared.

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Significant differences were noted in expression of UGT1A7, ABCB1, and ABCC2; for UGT1A7, SVV (0.17 ± 0.42; p < 0.05) and SLE (0.03 ± 0.1; p < 0.05) groups had lower expression than HC (0.79 ± 2.02). For ABCB1, SLE had a lower expression (0.33 ± 0.21; p < 0.05) than HCs (1 ± 0.82). For ABCG2, SVV group had a lower expression (0.17 ± 0.14; p < 0 Casodex Dosage .05) than HCs (1 ± 1.82). Differences in expression of ABCC2 approached statistical significance with VC patients (2.02 ± 1.13) exhibiting higher expression than SVV patients (1.06 ± 1.11; p = 0.05). The relationships between transcript expression and patient-level data demonstrated; ABCC2 expression was different by race (1.26 ± 1.82 Caucasian versus 1.37 ± 0.86 non-Caucasian; p = 0.049) and CYP2B6 expression was different by treatment (2.07 ± 2.94 cyclophosphamide versus 0.45 ± 0.5 mycophenolate; p = 0.01).

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Patients were randomized to receive classical CHOP (cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) [maximum 2 mg] on day 1 and prednisone 100 mg/day for 5 days) or CHOP plus amifostine (6 Lamictal Drug Interactions cycles of amifostine 910 mg/m(2) on day 1). Efficacy (time to progression, TTP; disease-free survival, DFS; overall survival, OS) and toxicity endpoints were evaluated.

cytoxan in pills 2016-02-22

Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p = .002) stage III-IV(p = .003), ≥ 2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p = .002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3-5 (p = .009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p = .005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p = .005, expB = 0.339, CI = 0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3-5 (p = .010, expB = Amoxil Dosing Pediatrics 0.274, CI = 0.102-0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement.

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Workplace contamination with antineoplastic drugs is still present. As patients have to be considered as a potential source of contamination, surface contamination is difficult to avoid. However, our study revealed that it is possible to administer a large number Duricef Alcohol of preparations without causing high workplace contamination.

cytoxan 100 mg 2017-07-30

Déterminer si le personnel de pharmacie s’occupant de la préparation et de la vérification des doses de cyclophosphamide est plus susceptible de présenter des concentrations détectables de ce médicament dans leurs urines que le personnel de pharmacie ne travaillant pas en oncologie, donc sans contact connu avec ce médicament, et Geodon 240 Mg comparer le niveau de contamination de surface par la cyclophosphamide, le méthotrexate et l’ifosfamide dans la pharmacie d’oncologie d’un hôpital pédiatrique de soins tertiaires, où sont préparées les doses de chimiothérapie, à celui dans la pharmacie principale (témoin) du même établissement, où n’est préparée aucune chimiothérapie.

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We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients Zantac User Reviews with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy.

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GLS combined with cTnT may provide a reliable and non-invasive method to predict cardiac dysfunction in patients receiving anthracycline Prednisone Decreasing Dosage -based chemotherapy.

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Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disorder of unclear etiology. Vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis may be in part responsible for the pathogenesis of BD. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a recent angiogenic mediator. The aim of the present study was to assess Ang-1 in the plasma of BD patients as well as to analyze its association with clinical, and laboratory parameters of the disease. The present study included 47 BD patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Demographic, clinical, disease activity and severity were prospectively assessed. Plasma Ang-1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plasma level of Ang-1 in BD patients was significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.005 Feldene Gel 112g ). Plasma Ang-1 level in patients with vascular affection was significantly lower than those without vascular affection (p = 0.045). Levels of Ang-1 showed a significant positive correlation with steroid dose. Patients who received cyclophosphamide or steroids showed a significant increase in plasma Ang-1 level. This was further confirmed by the results of the multivariate analysis. There was no significant association between plasma Ang-1 levels and other clinical manifestations or disease activity and severity. Plasma Ang-1 levels were diminished in our BD patients especially in patients with vascular involvement. Larger studies with further investigations of the precise role of Ang-1 in the pathogenesis of BD are needed and might lead to novel therapies for the clinical management of BD.

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Antitumor effect of paclitaxel used as the monotherapy or in combination with cyclophosphamide was studied on CBA/LacSto mice with transplanted LS and RLS tumors characterized by high (LS) and low (RLS) sensitivity to cyclophosphamide. The therapeutic effects of cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel were summed in animals with drug-resistant RLS tumor, while combined use of these drugs in LS tumor highly sensitive to the apoptogenic effect of cyclophosphamide was no more effective than cyclophosphamide alone.

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Systemic vasculitis is a rare vemurafenib-associated adverse event that may be life-threatening.

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We searched for articles published in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Scopus, and Ovid database from inception to March 2014. Articles related to interim PET/CT in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy were selected. PFS with or without OS was chosen as the endpoint to evaluate the prognostic significance of interim PET/CT.

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The risk model consists of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors in addition to involvement of kidneys and/or adrenal glands (CNS-IPI). In a three-risk group model, the low-risk group (46% of all patients analyzed), the intermediate-risk group (41%), and the high-risk group (12%) showed 2-year rates of CNS disease of 0.6% (CI, 0% to 1.2%), 3.4% (CI, 2.2% to 4.4%), and 10.2% (CI, 6.3% to 14.1%), respectively. Patients from the validation British Columbia Cancer Agency data set showed similar rates of CNS disease for low-risk (0.8%; CI, 0.0% to 1.6%), intermediate-risk (3.9%; CI, 2.3% to 5.5%), and high-risk (12.0%; CI, 7.9% to 16.1%) groups.

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In the absence of concurrent trisomies, patients with 17p deletion, t(14;16), and t(14;20) are considered to have high-risk myeloma. Patients with t(4;14) translocation are considered intermediate-risk. All others are considered as standard-risk. RISK-ADAPTED INITIAL THERAPY: Standard-risk patients can be treated with lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd), or a bortezomib-containing triplet such as bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone (VCD). Intermediate-risk and high-risk patients require a bortezomib-based triplet regimen. In eligible patients, initial therapy is given for approximately 4 months followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Standard-risk patients can opt for delayed ASCT if stem cells can be cryopreserved. In patients are not candidates for transplant, initial therapy is given for approximately 12-18 months.

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Leukocyte mRNA expression patterns of drug metabolizing enzyme genes and transporter genes that are relevant for the disposition of cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate were studied. The relationships between expression and patient-level data and pharmacokinetics were evaluated.

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Based on data from randomized controlled trials over the past decade, oral mycophenolate (CellCept) now rivals intravenous cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) as a first-line therapy for lupus nephritis, offering similar efficacy but less toxicity. The roles of rituximab (Rituxan) and new immunomodulatory agents are being explored. Creativity in treating lupus nephritis is needed; one regimen does not fit all.

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Strongyloides stercoralis infection can persist in the host for several decades, and patients with cancer and other clinical conditions who are exposed to immunosuppressive therapy are at risk of developing hyperinfection.

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In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, we enrolled women (≥18 years) with newly diagnosed HER2-negative early invasive breast cancer (radiological tumour size >20 mm, with or without axillary involvement), at 66 centres in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned via a central computerised minimisation procedure to three cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2) once every 21 days) followed by three cycles of fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2)), epirubicin (100 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m(2)) once every 21 days (D-FEC), without or with four cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) (Bev+D-FEC). The primary endpoint was pathological complete response, defined as the absence of invasive disease in the breast and axillary lymph nodes, analysed by intention to treat. The trial has completed and follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2008-002322-11), ISRCTN (68502941), and (NCT01093235).

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Cancer immune therapy is difficult partly because several classes of suppressor cells, including regulatory T-cells and macrophage-derived suppressor cells, inhibit the antitumor T-cell response. We used treatment studies of implanted tumors in mice to demonstrate that the same inhibitory cells that abrogated an acute therapeutic T-cell response to established tumor did not inhibit the therapeutic response produced by memory T-cells. Generating antitumor memory T-cells may be a highly potent strategy against cancer with late developing metastases.