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α-Fluoro-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (α-F-TMCD) and α-Cl-TMCD, are α-halo derivatives of TMCD, the corresponding amide of a cyclopropane analog of valproic acid (VPA). This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of α-F-TMCD and α-Cl-TMCD in rodent models of epilepsy and for antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced teratogenicity. The potential of α-F-TMCD as an antiallodynic and antinociceptive compound was also evaluated.
Thirty-nine adult TBI patients with cerebral contusions, who did not need a neurosurgical treatment, could be followed up for more than 3years. Fourteen patients developed seizures during that period and 25 did not. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission and the modified Rankin (mR) score on discharge from the hospital, the computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns as well as the vascular and habit risk factors were compared between both groups.
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Selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increase the risk of birth defects. To assess the impact of influencing AED prescribing practices on spina bifida and cleft palate we searched the literature for estimates of the association between valproic acid or carbamazepine use during pregnancy and these defects and summarized the associations using meta-analyses. We estimated distributions of the prevalence of valproic acid and carbamazepine use among women of childbearing age based on analyses of four data sets. We estimated the attributable fractions and the number of children born with each defect that could be prevented annually in the United States if valproic acid and carbamazepine were not used during pregnancy. The summary odds ratio estimate for the association between valproic acid and spina bifida was 11.9 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 4.0-21.2); for valproic acid and cleft palate 5.8 (95% UI: 3.3-9.5); for carbamazepine and spina bifida 3.6 (95% UI: 1.3-7.8); and for carbamazepine and cleft palate 2.4 (95% UI: 1.1-4.5) in the United States. Approximately 40 infants (95% UI: 10-100) with spina bifida and 35 infants (95% UI: 10-70) with cleft palate could be born without these defects each year if valproic acid were not used during pregnancy; 5 infants (95% UI: 0-15) with spina bifida and 5 infants (95% UI: 0-15) with cleft palate could be born without these defects each year if carbamazepine were not used during pregnancy. This modeling approach could be extended to other medications to estimate the impact of translating pharmacoepidemiologic data to evidence-based prenatal care practice.
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To compare the proportions of appropriate TDM utilization regarding the indication, sampling time, and application of the measured drug levels of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) between the pre-intervention period and pharmacist intervention period.
In dissociated cultures of cerebellar granule cells, extracellular high potassium (HK) and low potassium (LK) concentrations control cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATYK) is up-regulated during the LK-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of wild-type AATYK, but not its kinase-deficient mutant, stimulates apoptosis in LK. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the phosphorylation states of AATYK and the survival of granule cells. AATYK was hypophosphorylated in HK, whereas it was hyperphosphorylated in apoptotic LK. HK-dependent hypophosphorylation of AATYK was controlled by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel-mediated Ca2+ influx followed by Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase activity. However, LK-induced hyperphosphorylation of AATYK at multiple sites was blocked by kainate, lithium, and protein kinase C-delta inhibitor. AATYK phosphorylation was concurrent with c-Jun phosphorylation. In addition, mutations of AATYK on either the kinase domain or Ser-480, Ser-558, and Ser-566 residues suppressed the LK-induced hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of self-kinase activity and these Ser residues in this process. Our data therefore indicate that the phosphorylation states of AATYK are closely related to the HK-induced survival and LK-induced apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells.
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Severe blood dyscrasias were uncommon in psychiatric patients given carbamazepine and were about as rare with valproate as with imipramine or desipramine. Most important, in this cohort of 2,228 patients exposed to carbamazepine and valproate, there were no life-threatening cases.
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The bromodomain is an evolutionarily conserved motif harbored by many transcription regulators and nearly all nuclear histone acetyltransferases including the transcriptional coactivator p300. The function of p300 is required for the expression of an array of genes, in part through histone acetylation. Here, we describe an experimental approach to examine the role of either the wild-type or a bromo-deficient p300 in the expression of p300-dependant genes. The role of histone acetylation in the expression of p300-dependent genes can also be assessed by targeting histone deacetylase activities using an inhibitor approach.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection.
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The authors describe three patients with foreign accent syndrome during psychotic episodes which resolve with improvement of psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were worse during the times patients had foreign accents, suggesting a relationship between the presence of the accent and the severity of the psychosis.
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FWB (n = 6) and VPA treatments (n = 7) significantly increased survival (100% and 86%, respectively) compared to control group (n = 8) (25%). The protocol produced significant anemia (Hb<6 g/dL) and lactic acidosis (lactate 3-5 mmol/L). Acidosis improved after blood transfusion and worsened in the other two groups. VPA treatment increased phospho-Akt (activated), phospho-GSK-3beta (Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta), beta-catenin and Bcl-2 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2) protein levels compared to control group (P = .01, .01, .03, and .02, respectively). There was no significant difference in the level of these proteins between the control and FWB groups.
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Pretreatment height and weight were available for 445 of 446 participants in the NIH-funded CAE comparative effectiveness trial (NCT00088452). Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected. Calculated BMI and dietary intake were standardized for age, sex, and race/ethnicity and compared to age-matched US population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Logistic regression models tested BMI as a predictor of treatment response. Pharmacokinetic variables were explored as contributors to differential drug response.
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In patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy, valproate increases threshold and reduces the maximum values of the silent period curve and the motor-evoked potential recruitment curve. These findings probably reflect valproate's effects on voltage-dependent Na(+) channels, as well as an activation of GABA(A) receptors.
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In this period, 425 plasmatic AVP monitoring were carried out in our laboratory. From 128 patients treated by high doses of AVP, only 73 were included in this study. Our work showed that adverse effects in epileptics under high doses of AVP was related to the association of the AVP with other antiepileptic in particular carbamazépine, phenobarbital and benzodiazepines rather than supra-therapeutic plasmatic concentrations of AVP. The association of AVP to major antiepileptics (carbamazépine and or phenobarbital) does not seem to generate an increase in the plasmatic concentration of AVP, which was not associated with a greater risque of adverse effects.
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To our knowledge, our patient represents the second reported case of anomalous septum pellucidum after intrauterine valproate exposure. Clinicians evaluating patients with craniofacial features associated with intrauterine valproate exposure should recognize that concomitant anomalies of the central nervous system, including the septum pellucidum, might exist.
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We analysed the cost of treatment with lamotrigine (LTG), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT) and valproic acid (VPA) using published data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of comparative clinical trials of monotherapy. We established a model of treatment for newly diagnosed patients during the first 12 months after diagnosis. A panel of doctors reached a consensus on the use of resources, costs and model of treatment in Spain. We made a cost minimization analysis for economic assessment of the data based on the fact that randomized trials indicated that CBZ, LTG, PHT and VPA ware of similar efficacy. Analysis was done as 'intention to treat'. Only direct medical costs were considered.
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The two study groups were well matched in terms of age, gender and body mass index. Insulin resistance measured via homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index was more severe among the VPA-treated group (4.91±2.91 vs. 2.00±1.72, P=0.007). The frequency of the MetS was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy compared to controls (47.2% vs. 32.1%, respectively), but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.223). Multivariate analysis with stepwise logistic regression revealed low positive correlations between MetS development, HOMA index (P=0.029; r=0.361) and valproic acid dose (P=0.049; r=0.323). These correlations were independent of other clinical parameters.
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Treatment with histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) such as valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to improve survival after lethal insults through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Cell survival under adverse conditions requires a healthy network of capillaries to ensure adequate oxygen delivery. Angiogenic activation of endothelial cells to migrate and form sprouts is associated with characteristic changes in gene expression profiles. Because HDACi can modulate expression of various genes involved in angiogenic activity, we investigated the effect of these agents on capillary-like sprout formation in this study.
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The mean ± SD daily dose of ziprasidone was 89.8 ± 29.1 mg. Least squares mean ± standard error changes from baseline to week 6 on MADRS total score for ziprasidone and placebo treatment groups were -13.2 ± 1.2 and -12.9 ± 1.1, respectively, with a 2-sided P value of .792. There was no significant difference on the key secondary variable (CGI-S). Adjunctive ziprasidone was well tolerated. Poor quality ratings at baseline were associated with a trend for better improvement on placebo than ziprasidone. Among 43 placebo-treated subjects with poor baseline quality ratings, 29 (67.4%) had baseline MADRS scores > 10 points higher on the computer-administered assessment than the MADRS administered by the site-based rater. The response favoring placebo over ziprasidone observed in this subgroup suggests that poor signal detection in some clinical trials can be a consequence of "subject inflation" as well as "rater inflation."
Research laboratory at university teaching hospital.
Olfactory dysfunction is a common and early symptom of many neurodegenerative diseases, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment, pointing to the progression to dementia. Recent studies have revealed that valproic acid (VPA) has neuroprotective effects in rodent models of AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of VPA on olfactory dysfunction of APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse models of AD. After continuous treatment with a 100mg/kg daily dose of VPA for 3 months, APP/PS1 mice showed improved olfactory performances. In agreement with the behavioral findings, VPA treatment reduced amyloid β (Aβ) burden in the olfactory epithelium (OE) of transgenic mice. And, VPA increased epithelial thickness of the olfactory mucosa through decreased cell apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. In the olfactory bulb (OB), VPA administration also reduced senile plaques and levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ42 peptides. Besides, VPA promoted the increase of mitral cells and decrease of neurofilament immunostaining. In hence, VPA treatment completely improved the olfactory performances and prevented degenerative changes of the OE and OB. Our study raises the possibility of AD diagnosis by OE biopsy. Moreover, VPA may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of olfactory dysfunction in AD patients.
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Using ANCOVA with age adjustment, we found that there were no significant differences in serum BDNF protein levels between patients with bipolar mania and healthy controls (p = 0.582). In contrast, the serum TrkB protein level was significantly higher in bipolar mania patients than in healthy controls (p = 0.001), especially in women (p = 0.001). Of 26 patients with bipolar mania, 21 underwent a second measurement of serum BDNF and TrkB protein levels after a 4-week treatment with mood stabilizers. There were no significant changes in serum BDNF or TrkB protein levels.
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It is well known that alterations in sexual functions occur more frequently in men with epilepsy than in general population. The results of the epidemiological studies are considerably diverge from one another (3-61%), so the exact value of the incidence is not known. The most common form of sexual dysfunctions is the hyposexuality, determined as a overall reduction in sexual interest, awareness, and activity. Sexual dysfunction, as a disorder is often multifactorial, but the role of medical factors can be the most important in the development. The endocrinological disturbances occurring in epilepsy are mainly caused by the pharmacokinetic interactions among the antiepileptic medication. The enzyme inductor drugs decrease the level of free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, and increase the sex-hormone-binding globulin and estradiol levels. In valproate treated men significantly lower follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, and free/total carnitine ratio, and higher dehydroepiandrosterone concentration can be detected. The enzyme inductor antiepileptic drugs can decrease the biologically active testosterone level by stimulating the aromatase and the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, which can result in the development of sexual dysfunctions. Hormonal changes resulting in the alteration of the androgen synthesis and gonadotropin levels may contribute to the sexual dysfunction observed in valproate treated epileptic patients. If the role of the antiepileptic medication can be proven in the development of the sexual dysfunctions, changing in the antiepileptic drug therapy is recommended. According to evidences, the usage of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine is not associated with changes in hormonal levels, and does not lead to alterations in sexual functions. In case of sexual dysfunctions switching from carbamazepine to oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, or gabapentin is recommended in patients with partial epilepsy, and from valproate to lamotrigine or levetiracetam in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Enforcement of the primary prevention in the treatment of men with epilepsy is an important task of the future.
Birth defects are an urgent global health priority. They affect millions of births worldwide. But their prevalence and impact are largely under-ascertained, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Fortunately, a large proportion of birth defects can be prevented. This review examines the global prevalence and primary prevention methods for major preventable birth defects: congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, rhesus hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn; and those associated with maternal diabetes, and maternal exposure to valproic acid or iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Challenges to prevention efforts are reviewed. The aim of this review is to bring to the forefront the urgency of birth defects prevention, surveillance, and prenatal screening and counseling; and to help public health practitioners develop population-based birth defects surveillance and prevention programs, and policy-makers to develop and implement science-based public health policies.
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We describe the clinical and neurophysiological findings in a case of hyperammonemic encephalopathy. A 72-year-old woman taking valproate (VPA), as monotherapy for her partial epilepsy developed urinary tract infection. She was treated with pivmecillinam 600 mg daily. The following days she deteriorated and became stuporous. At admission her serum ammonia level was increased (113 mmol/l) but the liver function appeared normal. EEG showed bilateral triphasic waves and continuous high-amplitude delta-theta wave. The patient recovered rapidly after discontinuation of VPA and i.v. treatment with cefuroxime for her urinary tract infection. VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in adults is a rare phenomenon, especially when VPA is used as monotherapy. It has been suggested that the VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy is due to reduced serum carnitine concentration. Pivmecillinam, a widely used antibiotic for treatment of urinary tract infections, is also known to decrease the serum carnitine concentration. Our case shows that caution is required when treatment with VPA is combined with pivmecillinam due to the risk of developing hyperammonemic encephalopathy.