Desyrel is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of depression. This remedy is acting by increasing the amount of serotonin. It is serotonin modulator.
Other names for this medication:
Desyrel is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of depression. This remedy is acting by increasing the amount of serotonin. It is serotonin modulator.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trazodone.
Desyrel is a perfect remedy in struggle against depression.
This remedy is acting by increasing the amount of serotonin.
Desyrel is also known as Trazodone, Molipaxin, Deprax, Trittico, Thombran, Trialodine, Trazorel.
It is serotonin modulator.
Generic name of Desyrel is Trazodone.
Brand names of Desyrel are Desyrel, Desyrel Dividose.
Take Desyrel tablets orally with food.
Do not crush or chew it.
Take Desyrel at the same time every day with water.
Desyrel can be used by 18 year-old patients or over.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Desyrel suddenly.
If you overdose Desyrel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Desyrel overdosage: abnormal heartbeats, difficulty breathing, painful erection that does not go away, vomiting, feeling drowsy, convulsions.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 to 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Protect from light. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Desyrel are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Desyrel if you are allergic to its components.
Do not take Desyrel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Do not take it if you are under 18.
Be careful with Desyrel if you suffer from schizophrenia, other psychiatric illness, suicidal thoughts, heart attack, bipolar disorder (manic depression), drug abuse.
Try to avoid machine driving.
Be careful! Taking Desyrel you can become suicidal.
If you are going to have a surgery, be careful with Desyrel.
It can be dangerous to stop Desyrel taking suddenly.
Depressive disorders and antidepressant therapy have been associated with sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunctions are recognized as a potential side effect of antidepressant therapy. Not reliable algorithms have been developed in the presence of sexual dysfunctions in the course of depressive disorders. The most commonly used methods of treatment of sexual dysfunction in depressive disorders include: waiting for spontaneous remission, reduction in dose of a repressive drug, the change of drug discontinuation for a short time, the use of the drug after having sexual intercourse, drug holidays and corrective medications (yohimbine, phosphodiesterase type 5 and anesthetic creams). Among the most effective agents used in the treatment sre: bupropion, trazodone, nefazodone, agomelatine, tianeptine and flibanserin. Optimal antidepressant treatment should result in remission of the symptoms of the underlying illness and minimize the potential for short-term and long-term adverse effects, including sexual dysfunction. Physicians should monitor their patients for antidepressant-induced sexual adverse effects, as these may affect compliance with therapy and ultimate treatment success.
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The past decade has not yielded a large number of new antidepressants and, with the possible exception of agomelatine, none of the newer medications that have been introduced have decisively addressed the several unmet needs in this area of therapeutics. Among the various novel strategies that are being evaluated, results of several small studies of ketamine suggest that drugs that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission may hold the greatest promise for exerting rapid and large antidepressant effects in patients who have not responded to SSRIs or SNRIs.
Epidemiological retrospective study using Department of Health prescription data and mortality data from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, and the Registrar General for Scotland, for the years 1974-1989. The fatal toxicity index (FTI) of groups of drugs and individual drugs was compared with the FTI for all antidepressant drugs for the years 1985-1989.
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Using an administrative database, we assessed patients for whom the diagnosis was unspecified injuries of cervical spinal cord (International Classification of Diseases and Injuries-10th (ICD-10) code; S14.1). We categorized patients with codes for depressive episode (ICD-10 code; F32) or recurrent depressive disorder (F33), or those prescribed antidepressants (tricyclic, tetracyclic, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Serotonin Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors, Trazodone, Sulpiride, or Mirtazapine) as having a depressive state. We compared the rate of each acute treatment between the depressive state group and the non-depressive state group using chi-square tests, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify the association between the acute treatment and depressive state.
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The effects of the psychotropic drug etoperidone on the response to laboratory stressors was investigated in a controlled study. Cardiovascular and hormonal (catecholamines, corticotropin, and cortisol) measurements were made in a group of young, healthy volunteers during a cold pressor test (CPT), a mental arithmetic test (MAT), and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (ITT). One-week treatment with etoperidone (ETO) (150 mg/day, orally) reduced basal and stress-induced values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) on CPT, while it did not alter catecholamine output in response to the stressor. Cardiovascular response was also attenuated after ETO on MAT, in the absence of any hormone changes. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretions were markedly reduced on ITT after ETO, whereas catecholamine outflow and cardiovascular parameters were substantially unaffected. These findings on ITT suggest that the anti-serotoninergic and anti-alpha 1-adrenergic activities of ETO may be used in the pharmacological control of the potentially detrimental consequences of the stress response.
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We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, surgical treatments, and physical treatments for focal and generalised dystonia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of a controlled-release (CR) formulation of trazodone were evaluated in healthy subjects who received acutely 150 mg and 75 mg of the CR trazodone and equal amounts of the conventional formulation on separate occasions. Plasma trazodone concentrations were measured by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic profile of CR trazodone was characterized by a slower increase in drug plasma levels and a lower and retarded peak plasma concentration without any modification in the total amount of trazodone absorbed over 24 hrs. The side effects were less severe and less frequent than with the conventional formulation.
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This case is unique due to the absence of substance abuse. This and another report note heightened sensitivity to medication side-effects. Visual phenomena resembling HPPD evidently can occur with risperidone and, possibly, other atypical antipsychotics and certain antidepressants regardless of previous hallucinogen use. Several lines of evidence implicate reduced 5HT2a serotonin receptor stimulation rather than increased 5HT2c stimulation.
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Antidepressants were prescribed for unipolar depression (F32-34, ICD X) either without comorbidity (46.2%) or with comorbidity (24.7%), mostly as a monotherapy (91% had one antidepressant), to the patients who were 65% female, aged 50.1 +/- 8.9, most of them with 12 years of education (52.6%), married (69.3%) and employed (55.9%). The majority of patients had a history of two hospitalizations (Med 2; 25th-75th perc. 1-4) during nine years (Med 9; 25th-75th perc. 2-15) after the first episode of depression. Among them, 19% were found to be suicidal in a lifetime. The single most prescribed antidepressant was sertraline (20.4%), followed by fluoxetine (13.3%) and maprotiline (11.7%). Utilization of antidepressants was positively correlated with the rate of reimbursement (p < 0.01). The most prescribed antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (47.8%), followed by tricyclic antidepresants (TCA) (25.3%) and new antidepressants - venlafaxine, tianeptine, mirtazapine, bupropion, trazodone (15.1%). Most of the drugs were prescribed in doses which are at the lower end of the recommended dose-range. Regarding severity of the actual depressive episode, TCA were prescribed for severe depression with psychotic features, while SSRI were choice for episodes with moderate symptom severity (p = 0.01). Psychiatrists with longer working age (20-30 years) hesitated to prescribe new antidepressants in comparison to younger colleagues (p = 0.01).
Chronic insomnia is a prevalent disorder associated with significant psychosocial, health, and economic impacts. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) and benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BzRA) medications are the most widely supported therapeutic approaches for insomnia management. However, few investigations have directly compared their relative and combined benefits, and even fewer have tested the benefits of sequential treatment for those who do not respond to initial insomnia therapy. Moreover, insomnia treatment studies have been limited by small, highly screened study samples, fixed-dose, and fixed-agent pharmacotherapy strategies that do not represent usual clinical practices. This study will address these limitations.
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Caffeine caused a significant prolongation in objective SOL in rats and humans. This effect was sensitive to zolpidem and trazodone, both of which attenuated the caffeine-induced increase in SOL. Furthermore, both hypnotics restored the disruption in subjective measures of sleep onset caused by caffeine in volunteers.
This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006 and previously updated in 2009.Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound or noise in the absence of real acoustic stimulation. It has been compared with chronic pain, and may be associated with depression or depressive symptoms which can affect quality of life and the ability to work. Antidepressant drugs have been used to treat tinnitus in patients with and without depressive symptoms.
CMAI scores improved in each treatment group over the 9 weeks of treatment (P < .001 in each group). Within the haloperidol treatment group, CMAI improvement was not associated with baseline delusional thoughts score or with change in delusional thoughts score over the course of treatment. Within the trazodone treatment group, CMAI improvement was associated with baseline score on total Ham-D (r = -0.60, P = .02), Ham-D items measuring subjective mood symptoms (r = -0.50, P = .07), and Ham-D items measuring neurovegetative signs (r = -0.49, P = .08). CMAI improvement was also associated with improvement in Ham-D total score over the course of treatment (r = 0.62, P = .02).
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14 patients (9 females, mean age 57.3 ± 13.3) with primary insomnia and increased Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>10) and 15 sex- and age-matched patients with primary insomnia and low BDI scores (≤ 10) were treated with trazodone CR 25-150 mg/d for 3 months and followed for 1 month after discontinuation of the medication. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) were completed at baseline, after each month of treatment and after the first week of run-out phase. Additional assessment tools comprised sleep diaries, the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) and actigraphic recordings.
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We calculated the time courses of muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor occupancy after oral administration of paroxetine and fluvoxamine at the treatment doses by using pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the literature. The mACh receptor occupancy was estimated to be decreased from 0.22% to 0.020% by replacing paroxetine with fluvoxamine.
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A total of 134,833 patients who were prescribed long-term warfarin from June 1, 1999-May 31, 2000.
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Few clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate trazodone's efficacy in the treatment of the diseases and symptoms for which it is often used in clinical practice. More studies are necessary to investigate possible new therapeutic indications, and to scientifically demonstrate the risk/benefit ratio for the many conditions for which trazodone is used, but not approved by the FDA.
The general practice database of Chivasso, a city near Turin in Piedmont, was analysed. The database includes all community (i.e. outside hospitals) prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health System in the population living in the study area. From the database, the total number of units of antidepressant drugs prescribed over a 6-month period was extracted. Using the general practice patient code, all records were converted into a sample of patients receiving one or more prescriptions of one or more antidepressants.
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Three trials involving 247 people were included. Two studies involving 151 people assessed the use of folate in addition to other treatment, and found that adding folate reduced Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores on average by a further 2.65 points (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 4.93). Fewer patients treated with folate experienced a reduction in their HDRS score of less than 50% at ten weeks (relative risk (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.92) The number needed to treat with folate for one additional person to experience a 50% reduction on this scale was 5 (95% confidence interval 4 to 33). One study involving 96 people assessed the use of folate instead of the antidepressant trazodone and did not find a significant benefit from the use of folate. The trials identified did not find evidence of any problems with the acceptability or safety of folate.
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1. The cardiovascular effects of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and two second generation antidepressants mianserin, a tetracyclic, and trazodone, a triazolopyridine derivative, were investigated in the isolated perfused rat heart. 2. Imipramine caused cardiac slowing and a negative inotropic effect at 2.5 microM after 30 min of perfusion. Conversely mianserin and trazodone had no effect on heart rate at 5 microM with inotropic state remaining above control values after 30 min of perfusion. 3. Varying effects on coronary flow, which appear to correlate well with the documented receptor actions of each drug, were demonstrated. Imipramine caused a decrease in coronary flow at 1.25 and 2.5 microM, followed by an increase at 10 microM. Mianserin decreased coronary flow at all concentrations between 1 and 20 microM. Trazodone elicited a marked elevation in coronary flow over the dose range of 2.5 to 250 microM. 4. The results in this model suggest that although the second generation agents appear to cause less cardiodepression all three agents elicit quantitatively different coronary vascular responses.
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A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of risperidone and its major active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone in plasma. Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in plasma were extracted using a CN bonded-solid phase cartridge, followed by, C4 reversed-phase HPLC separation. Risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone and trazodone as an internal standard were detected by ultraviolet absorbance at 280 nm. It was possible to determine risperidone in the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 ng/ml(-1) and 9-hydroxyrisperidone at a range of 2.0-200.0 ng/ml(-1). The detection limits of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 0.5 and 1.0 ng/ml(-1), respectively. The mean recoveries of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone added to plasma were less than 92.0 and 92.6%, with a coefficient of variation of less than 10.6 and 10.5%, respectively. This method has been used for the simultaneous determination of steady-state plasma concentration (Css) of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in schizophrenic patients treated with 3-, 6-, and 12-mg risperidone oral doses per day.
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Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the piperazine-derived designer drug 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are described. mCPP was extensively metabolized, mainly by hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and by degradation of the piperazine moiety to the following metabolites: two hydroxy-mCPP isomers, N-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylenediamine, 3-chloroaniline, and two hydroxy-3-chloroaniline isomers. The hydroxy-mCPP metabolites were partially excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and/or sulfates, and the aniline derivatives were partially acetylated to N-acetyl-hydroxy-3-chloroaniline isomers and N-acetyl-3-chloroaniline. Our systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of mCPP and its previously mentioned metabolites in rat urine after single administration of a dose calculated from the doses commonly taken by drug users. The hydroxy-mCPP metabolites should be used as target analytes being the major metabolites of mCPP. Assuming similar metabolism, our STA procedure should be suitable for detection of an intake of mCPP in human urine. Furthermore, possibilities for differentiating an intake of mCPP from that of its precursor drugs trazodone or nefazodone, two common antidepressants, are described. Within the context of these studies, N-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylenediamine was identified as a new metabolite of these two antidepressants.
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Sexual adverse effects are common with psychotropics. Rational polypharmacy may confound etiology. This case report describes development of ejaculatory inhibition in a male patient with co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses treated with fluoxetine, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, trazodone, and clonazepam. Detailed psychotropic history with time-line of adverse effect onset implicated trazodone. Within 48 hours of trazodone discontinuation, ejaculatory inhibition was resolved. Clinicians should be aware that trazodone may cause ejaculatory inhibition, understand that determination of sexual adverse effects necessitates directed and periodic questioning as these symptoms may increase in severity over time, and appreciate that religious patients may find discussing this issue difficult.
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Increasing age, certain medications such as diuretics, disease processes such as malignant neoplasm and schizophrenia, and a history of hyponatraemia or polydipsia may predispose patients to the development of hyponatraemia. In addition, certain psychotropic medications, including TCAs, MAOIs, carbamazepine, trazodone and neuroleptics, may predispose to hyponatraemia, yet a causative role for most has not been firmly established and the effect is most likely to be more idiosyncratic. The SSRIs have been associated with hyponatraemia in a small number of case reports. The mean age and sex of patients in reported cases is over 70 years and predominantly female, and patients were often receiving concomitant diuretic therapy. The frequency of hyponatraemia in elderly female patients receiving fluoxetine has been estimated to be as high as eight per 1000. The risk of developing hyponatraemia appears to be highest during the first few weeks of treatment. Because of the potential seriousness of hyponatraemia, if an elderly patient receiving an SSRI develops unexplained symptoms during the first few weeks of therapy, it is necessary to measure the serum sodium level.
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A Medline literature search was performed for the period January 1980 to September 1997 of randomized, double-blind comparison studies between anxiolytics and antidepressants in the acute treatment of adult patients with either MDD or GAD.
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A fatal suicidal ingestion of drugs, together with activated charcoal, is reported. The death occurred 31 hours after the self-administration. The autopsy revealed a large amount of gastric content that appeared to be a compact mass of black color. Toxicologic analyses showed the presence of toxic levels of desalkylflurazepam and trazodone; metamizole and pridinol were also detected. The obtained results supported the hypothesis of a death due to acute intoxication delayed by the self-administration of activated charcoal, which elimination was probably hindered by the action of pridinol.
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To describe a case of a woman who presented with clitoral priapism, who was managed conservatively with a simple over-the-counter treatment plan.
The forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) are widely used as animal models for screening potential antidepressants. Immobility or despair behavior produced in both FST and TST are taken as paradigm of depression and antidepressant drugs reduce the immobility period. Recent studies have suggested dissimilar hemodynamic, behavioral, physiological and pharmacological variations in these two models. Also, studies have proposed the significance of strain in these models of despair in an attempt to replicate results from one laboratory to another. The present study was undertaken to compare the antidepressant action of four major classes of antidepressants namely tricyclics (imipramine), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine), dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine (venlafaxine) and atypical antidepressants (mianserin and trazodone) using male laca mice in order to validate the two test procedures. Total immobility period was recorded during the period of 6 min in both the tests and the results were expressed as percentage decrease in immobility period with respect to vehicle control. Chlorpromazine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or pentobarbitone (20 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as negative control. Imipramine (2, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), or venlafaxine (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the immobility period in mice. ED(50) values of imipramine, fluoxetine, and venlafaxine in FST and TST were found to be 9.2 and 10 mg/kg i.p, 18 and 20 mg/kg, i.p., and 8.5 and 12 mg/kg, i.p respectively. The relative potency of standard drugs in both FST and TST is imipramine=venlafaxine>fluoxetine. Mianserin (16 and 32 mg/kg., i.p.) or trazodone (1 and 2 mg/kg., i.p.) were ineffective to reduce the immobility period in both the tests showing the atypical nature of these antidepressants. Chlorpromazine or pentobarbitone was ineffective in reversing the immobility period thus validating the models for testing antidepressants. The present study further validated that both the test procedures are equi-sensitive to antidepressant drugs of different class in the strain of animals used.
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Trazodone is a triazolopyridine derivative with antidepressant activity, that is chemically unrelated to other currently available antidepressants. Its pharmacological properties differ from those of most other antidepressants. Trazodone exhibits antiserotonin activity in animal studies, but its mechanism of action in depressive illness in humans is not clear. It has an overall therapeutic efficacy comparable with imipramine and amitriptyline in depressive illness but, at dosages which have achieved a similar overall clinical improvement, trazodone causes fewer anticholinergic side effects than the tricyclic antidepressants. Trazodone appears also to have activity against the concomitant anxiety in depressed patients and in limited studies was comparable with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide in anxiety neurosis. Trazodone has been reported to be of value in tremors and chronic alcoholism. Studies in animals, limited human studies and the low incidence of cardiovascular side effects in controlled therapeutic trials, suggest that trazodone is less likely than imipramine to cause cardiotoxicity at therapeutic doses, but the effects of overdosage are not known at present. Trazodone appears to be well tolerated by the elderly, seldom aggravates psychotic symptoms and does not produce neurological side effects.
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