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Patients with LUTS associated BPH appear the improved IPSS after combined therapy with terazosin and tolterodine. This study, although short term and limited numbers of patients, provides evidence that the combined therapy with terazosin plus tolterodine is a good approach for meeting the objectives of rapid, sustained, and safe improvements in the LUTS associated with BPH. And the profile of patients in this study might be used as the indication of such combined therapy for LUTS associated with BPH without urodynamic evaluation.
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A total of 224 and 487 children (mean age 8 years) were randomized to placebo and tolterodine, respectively. Differences in the number of incontinence episodes per week, voids per 24 hours, and volume of urine per void between tolterodine and placebo did not reach statistical significance. This finding may be explained by a high placebo response and under dosage of tolterodine among children with greater body weight. Tolterodine was well tolerated.
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Two-stage randomized clinical trial currently being conducted by the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network, a clinical trials network established by the National Institutes of Health.
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Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent in the older population and decreases quality of life. Current therapy consists primarily of anticholinergic drugs. Because older individuals typically take multiple medications, clinicians must pay special attention to potential drug-drug interactions that may cause adverse events or alter drug efficacy. The most clinically important drug-drug interactions occur during cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme metabolism, resulting in altered metabolism of one or more of the coadministered agents. Of the drugs indicated for OAB, tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin are extensively metabolized by CYP450, but trospium is not. Trospium is eliminated as unchanged drug, suggesting that it has lower potential for drug-drug interactions and may, therefore, represent a safer treatment option for OAB, particularly in the context of polypharmacy, a significant concern in older adults.
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Despite the potential limitations of the study, the vulnerable elderly non institutionalized patients with OAB treated with fesoterodine, compared to solifenacin or tolterodine were associated with lower resource utilization and healthcare costs.
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This study included 87 cases of BPH with OAB, with a disease course > or = 3 months, daily urination > or = 8 times, nocturnal urination > or = 2 times, urine volume < 200 ml per time, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) > or = 8, OAB symptom score (OABS) > or = 3, quality of life score (QOL) > or = 3, post-void residual (PVR) < or = 100 ml, maximum urinary flow (Qmax) > or = 5 ml/s, prostate weight 25-50 g, and PSA < 4 microg/L. We randomized the patients to a monotherapy group (n = 44) and combination group (n = 43), the former treated with Cardura 4 mg qd, and the latter with Cardura 4 mg + Tolterodine L-Tartrate Tablets 4 mg qd, both for 8 weeks. Then we recorded the IPSS, OABS, Qmax, PVR, PSA, and adverse events.
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The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the percutaneous absorption of tolterodine (TOL) using O-acylmenthol derivatives as enhancers as well as to correlate their enhancing activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The in vitro permeation studies of TOL were conducted in isopropyl myristate (IPM) solution or from patches in side-by-side diffusion cells. TOL pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after intravenous administration and topical application of patches without enhancer or with l-menthol and (E)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl octadec-9-enoate (M-OA) as enhancers in rats. The in vitro permeation studies indicated that M-OA was the most promising enhancer for transdermal delivery, as 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl 2-hydroxypanoate (M-LA) was merely effective in IPM solution. There was no significant difference between the control and l-menthol group in terms of the flux before patches were removed, while the skin reservoir effects of the enhancer-containing groups were significantly greater than that of the control group. The mean steady-state plasma concentrations after applying patches without enhancer or with l-menthol and M-OA as enhancers were 0.89, 0.84 and 1.47 microg/mL, respectively. The in vivo results observed from the three types of patches in rats were in good agreement with the plasma concentrations predicted from the in vitro data.
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We performed a randomized, prospective study to assess the possible role of combined tamsulosin and tolterodine therapy for the relief of vesical irritability and in facilitating the spontaneous expulsion of intramural ureteral stones. Patients were randomized to one of three treatment groups. Treatment group 1 patients received tamsulosin 0.4 mg/day, group 2 patients received tamsulosin 0.4 mg/day plus tolterodine 2 mg (twice a day), and group 3 patients received tolterodine 2 mg (twice a day). Subjects rated the urgency associated with each micturition using the Urinary Sensation Scale. Pain descriptions were recorded by the patients using the Visual Analog Scale. Stone expulsion was observed in 30 patients in group 1, 29 patients in group 2 and 18 patients in group 3. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to access the expulsion rate of each group over time. A significant difference was shown for the expulsion rate between the tolterodine group and the other two groups. (P = 0.003 by log rank test). Average time to expulsion for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7.62 ± 2.42, 7.79 ± 2.11 and 10.57 ± 2.71 days, respectively (P = 0.000). In groups 1, 2 and 3, the mean number of pain episodes was 2.27 ± 0.91, 1.39 ± 1.34 and 1.38 ± 1.20, respectively (P = 0.023). Treatment with tamsulosin and tolterodine appears to be beneficial in intramural ureteral stone clearance, particularly in intramural ureter stone with symptoms of vesical irritability.
After exhaustion of conservative standard treatment (i.e. urotherapy), medical treatment should be considered for children with non-neurogenic OAB. Oxybutynin or off-label use of an agent that has been shown to be well tolerated and effective should be given preference over the use of medication that has not yet been evaluated in children. Randomized controlled studies on newer and receptor-selective anticholinergics, combination therapy, and botulinum toxin in children are needed.
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The final formulation of acrylic adhesive type patch consisted of 10% TOL (w/w) and 5.8 × 10(-4) mol isopropyl myristate (IPM) and 2.9 × 10(-4) mol Span 80 in per unit gram (mol/g) of adhesive, while 2.5% TOL (w/w) and 2.9 × 10(-4) mol/g IPM for silicone adhesive type patch. Comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters between two types of patches showed that the steady-state concentration of silicone type patch was 2-fold higher than that of acrylic type patch being 0.97 mg/L versus 0.49 mg/L, and the absolute bioavailability was 27.5% for silicone type patch and 6.3% for acrylic type patch, respectively. In addition, the prediction of in vivo drug level from the in vitro permeation data of silicone adhesive formulation was in good agreement with actual observed concentration data in rabbits.
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The aim of the present review article was to summarize the efficacy and tolerability for mirabegron 50 mg over 12 weeks and 1 year versus placebo (SCORPIO) or tolterodine ER 4 mg (SCORPIO and TAURUS). After a 2-week placebo run-in, adults with overactive bladder symptoms for ≥3 months were randomized if, during a 3-day micturition diary period before baseline, they had an average of ≥8 micturitions/24 h and ≥3 urgency episodes. Efficacy end-points were change from baseline to each study visit and final visit in incontinence, micturitions, volume voided/micturition, urgency incontinence, urgency (grades 3 or 4), level of urgency and nocturia. Additional secondary efficacy variables included patient-reported outcomes. Safety variables included changes in treatment-emergent adverse events and vital signs. For SCORPIO, statistically significant improvements from baseline in efficacy variables and patient-reported outcomes were seen with mirabegron versus placebo from week 4, and were maintained over time. For TAURUS, numerical improvements in efficacy were evident from month 1, and were maintained throughout 12 months. Treatment-emergent adverse events incidence was similar between groups, except for dry mouth, which was reported by fourfold (SCORPIO) and threefold (TAURUS) more patients taking tolterodine than mirabegron. Mirabegron 50 mg for 12 weeks was associated with statistically significant improvements in objective measures of efficacy and patient-reported outcomes. At final visit, improvements with mirabegron 50 mg were statistically greater versus placebo. The efficacy profile of mirabegron 50 mg appears to be maintained over 12 months.
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Sixteen patients significantly decreased their incontinence episodes from 8-12 episodes before to 0-2 episodes during the doubled treatment. The reflex volume increased from 202 +/- 68 to 332 +/- 50 ml (P < 0.001). Cystometric capacity enlarged from 290 +/- 56 to 453 +/- 63 ml (P < 0.001). One patient had to stop the medication because of intolerable side effects and five patients did not experience satisfactory benefit.
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Among the 15 participants (median age, 57 years; 13 women, 2 men), 12 attributed dissatisfaction with prior antimuscarinics to lack of efficacy. Only 7 participants had positive expectations of tolterodine ER treatment, 5 did not expect it to work, and 3 did not know what to expect. Reasons given for satisfaction with combined treatment were improved OAB symptoms (n = 13), attention of clinic staff (n = 8), review of educational materials on OAB symptoms and treatment (n = 14), and keeping a bladder diary (n = 13). One-third of participants (n = 5) continued to take tolterodine ER for 7 to 10 months after completing the open-label study.
Fesoterodine, a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist, is converted to its active metabolite, 5-hydroxymethyltolterodine, by nonspecific esterases, bypassing the cytochrome P450 system. Two randomized controlled Phase 3 trials examined the safety and efficacy of fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder. Fesoterodine was found to produce significant improvements in the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms compared with placebo. Post hoc analysis of these trials demonstrated significant improvements in health-related quality of life in patients with overactive bladder. Only one study included tolterodine, and direct comparisons between fesoterodine and tolterodine were not conducted. The most common treatment-emergent adverse effects associated with fesoterodine included dry mouth, constipation, urinary tract infection, and headache.
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An 86-year-old woman developed hyponatremia after recent initiation of tolterodine therapy.
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Twenty-two children (12 boys and 10 girls; age range 3 months to 15 years, mean age 5.7 years) with detrusor hyperreflexia resulting in maximum detrusor pressures exceeding 40 cm H(2)O during filling cystotonometry were enrolled to receive tolterodine tartrate (a total of 0.1 mg/kg orally daily, divided into two doses) either as a first-line therapy (n = 12, group 1) or replacing oxybutynin chloride therapy (n = 10, group 2). Within 3 months, all patients underwent urodynamic re-evaluation during ongoing tolterodine treatment.
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Ureteral stent discomfort is a significant postoperative problem for many patients. Despite the use of narcotics and α-blockers patients often experience bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and pain, which impair daily activities. We compared combination therapy with an α-blocker and an anticholinergic to monotherapy with an α-blocker.
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Our case illustrates that tolterodine may rarely be associated with liver injury. This may have been an organ manifestation of tolterodine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.
The severity of OAB in continent patients can be similar to that in incontinent ones. Symptom improvement upon treatment with tolterodine ER is very similar in both groups. We propose that continent patients may similarly deserve treatment with a muscarinic receptor antagonist as incontinent ones.
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Few randomized controlled trials have compared electrical stimulation treatment with drug therapy. Our hypothesis was that electrical stimulation treatment in women with urgency/urge incontinence would be more efficient compared to drug treatment.
Single-centre, open-label, randomised, 4-way crossover study in a total of 24 healthy male volunteers. Single oral doses of 4, 8, or 12 mg fesoterodine were administered after an overnight fast. In addition, the 8 mg dose was also administered after a standard high-fat and high-calorie breakfast. Blood and urine samples for the analysis of 5-HMT were collected before and multiple times after drug administration for pharmacokinetic analysis.
Fifty-two patients (33 men and 19 women; mean age 52.0 years) who underwent insertion of a Double-J stent after urological surgery were prospectively randomized into three groups. Group 1 included 20 patients who received 10 mg of alfuzosin, once daily for 6 weeks; group 2 included 20 patients who received 4 mg of tolterodine ER, once daily for 6 weeks; group 3 included 12 patients who received a placebo for the same protocol. All patients completed a validated Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire at 6 weeks after the stent placement.