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Duricef (Cefadroxil)
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Duricef

Generic Duricef is a medication of cephalosporin antibiotic group. Generic Duricef is used to treat nose, throat, urinary tract, and skin infections that are caused by specific bacteria. Generic Duricef is a cephalosporin-type antibiotic. Generic Duricef prevents bacteria to grow in the organism.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Amoxil, Bactrim, Ampicillin, Augmentin, Macrobid, Trimox, Tinidazole, Biaxin, Chloromycetin, Myambutol

 

Also known as:  Cefadroxil.

Description

Generic Duricef is a medication of cephalosporin antibiotic group.

Generic Duricef is used to treat nose, throat, urinary tract, and skin infections that are caused by specific bacteria. Generic Duricef prevents bacteria to grow in the organism.

Brand name of Generic Duricef is Duricef.

Generic name of Generic Duricef is Cefadroxil Monohydrate.

Dosage

Generic Duricef can be taken in form of tablets which should be taken orally.

Take Generic Duricef with or without food.

For adults:

For urinary tract infections the usual dosage for uncomplicated infections is a total of 1 to 2 grams per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses. For all other urinary tract infections, the usual dosage is a total of 2 grams per day taken in 2 doses.

For skin and skin structure infections the usual dose is a total of 1 gram per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses.

Throat Infections"Strep Throat and Tonsillitis: The usual dosage is a total of 1 gram per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses for 10 days.

For children:

For urinary tract and skin infections the usual dosage is 30 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, divided into 2 doses and taken every 12 hours.

For throat infections the recommended dosage per day is 30 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight in a single dose or 2 smaller doses.

In the treatment of strep throat the dosage should be taken for at least 10 days.

Do not stop taking Generic Duricef suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Duricef and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Duricef overdosage: seizures.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw the medicine away after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Duricef are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Duricef if you are allergic to Generic Duricef components.

Be very careful with Generic Duricef while you are pregnant or have nurseling.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef usage in case of having kidney disorder, gastrointestinal disease.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef if you have allergies to medicines, foods or other substances.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation or dietary supplement.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Duricef taking suddenly.

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This study determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli causing community-acquired, acute, uncomplicated, non-recurrent urinary tract infection in unselected women aged 18-65 years and compared the results with those obtained 8 years earlier in the first ECO·SENS study (1999-2000). During 2007-2008, urine samples were taken from 1697 women in Austria, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. The countries were chosen to represent areas of Europe indicated to have more (Greece and Portugal) or less (UK, Austria and Sweden) problems with resistance. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 903 E. coli isolates (150-200 isolates per country) to 14 antimicrobials was performed by disk diffusion using European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. In E. coli, resistance to mecillinam, cefadroxil (representing oral cephalosporins), nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin trometamol, gentamicin and the third-generation cephalosporins cefotaxime and ceftazidime was <2%, with the following exceptions: gentamicin in Portugal (2.8%); fosfomycin in Greece (2.9%); and cephalosporins in Austria (2.7-4.1%). Resistance levels were higher for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.0-8.9%) and ciprofloxacin (0.5-7.6%) and much higher to ampicillin (21.2-34.0%), sulfamethoxazole (21.2-31.3%), trimethoprim (14.9-19.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14.4-18.2%). Resistance to quinolones and trimethoprim increased between the ECO·SENS I (1999-2000) and ECO·SENS II (2007-2008): nalidixic acid 4.3% to 10.2%; ciprofloxacin 1.1% to 3.9%; and trimethoprim 13.3% to 16.7%. In the previous study, no isolates with extended-spectrum β-lactamase were found; however, in the present study 11 isolates were identified as having either CTX-M or AmpC.

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Clinical efficacy was studied with cefadroxil powder for syrup in 35 pediatric patients including 20 acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis, 6 scarlet fever, 2 cervical lymphadenitis and 7 urinary tract infections. The results indicated a 97% effectiveness when 'excellent' and 'good' ratings were combined. A mild skin rash was observed in 1 patient.

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Ciprofloxacin is a new antibacterial agent of the 4-quinolone group. With an agar dilution technique we compared its activity on 365 clinical isolates with those of norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, mezlocillin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriazone , cefotaxime, latamoxef (moxalactam), and gentamicin. Ciprofloxacin was overall the most active agent tested against aerobic Gram-negative species, with the MIC90 values for all species being below 1 mg/l (excepting Providencia stuartii with 4 mg/l), and the large majority being below 0.12 mg/l. Many of the strains were selected on the basis of resistance to beta-lactam agents or gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin was also active against these. There was little difference in the activity of ciprofloxacin at inocula of 10(4) or 10(6) cfu. Strains with higher MIC's of the related agents norfloxacin and nalidixic acid were less susceptible to ciprofloxacin . Ciprofloxacin was less active against Gram-positive species (typical MIC90 values were 0.5 or 1 mg/l) and obligate anaerobes (4 mg/l for Bacteroides fragilis). The activity of ciprofloxacin in broth dilution tests was little affected by pH over the range 6.0-8.0, or by human serum or tissue fluid; its activity was reduced by the presence of urine. Binding to human serum protein was 20-28%. Ciprofloxacin was rapidly bacterial in broth at concentrations near to its MICs. By exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin it was possible to increase its MIC for bacteria in daily subcultures. The final MIC values after ten days were often about 16-fold greater than those observed initially.

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The intestinal transport of cefadroxil is directly proportional to PepT1 expression, suggesting that the PepT1 expression level in the rat small intestine is the major determinant of the absorption of peptide-like compounds.

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Clarithromycin is a new macrolide analog of erythromycin with activity against a number of dermatologic pathogens.

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Sartans are very effective drugs for treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and other cardiovascular disorders. They antagonize the effects of angiotensin II at the AT(1) receptor and display p.o. bioavailability rates of 13 to 80%. Because some sartans sterically resemble dipeptide derivatives, we investigated whether they are transported by peptide transporters. We first assessed the effects of sartans on [(14)C]glycylsarcosine uptake into Caco-2 cells expressing H(+)/peptide transporter (PEPT) 1 and into SKPT cells expressing PEPT2. Losartan, irbesartan, valsartan, and eprosartan inhibited [glycine-1-(14)C]glycylsarcosine ([(14)C]Gly-Sar) uptake into Caco-2 cells in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 24, 230, 390, and >1000 microM. Losartan and valsartan also strongly inhibited the total transepithelial flux of [(14)C]Gly-Sar across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In SKPT cells, [(14)C]Gly-Sar uptake was inhibited with K(i) values of 2.2 microM (losartan), 65 microM (irbesartan), 260 microM (valsartan), and 490 microM (eprosartan). We determined by the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique whether the compounds elicited transport currents by PEPT1 or PEPT2 when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. No currents were observed for any of the sartans, but the compounds strongly and reversibly inhibited peptide-induced currents. Uptake of valsartan, losartan, and cefadroxil was quantified in HeLa cells after heterologous expression of human PEPT1 (hPEPT1). In contrast to cefadroxil, no PEPT1-specific uptake of valsartan and losartan was found. We conclude that the sartans tested in this study display high-affinity interaction with PEPTs but are not transported themselves. However, they strongly inhibit hPEPT1-mediated uptake of dipeptides and cefadroxil.

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Co-administration of piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum L. enhanced bioavailability of beta lactam antibiotics, amoxycillin trihydrate and cefotaxime sodium significantly in rats. The improved bioavailability is reflected in various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. tmax, Cmax, t(1/2) and AUC, of these antibiotics. The increased bioavailability could be attributed to the effect of piperine on microsomal metabolising enzymes or enzymes system.

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A prospective randomized trial with a cost analysis.

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The in vitro activities of Ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of a novel orally absorbable cephalosporin ester, Ro 41-3399, against 164 nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative rods of predominantly intestinal origin from patients with diarrhea were evaluated by the agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Ro 40-6890 was inhibitory (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], 0.12 micrograms/ml) against the majority of intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae (Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas shigelloides). The potency of Ro 40-6890 was very similar to that of cefotaxime (MIC90, 0.12 micrograms/ml) and distinctly higher than those of cefadroxil (MIC90, > or = 128 micrograms/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml-2 micrograms/ml).

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Seventeen full-length, peer-reviewed controlled trials reporting clinical outcomes of systemic antimicrobial treatment for canine pyoderma were identified. Outcomes specific to superficial or deep pyoderma were reported in nine and five studies, respectively. Five studies reported outcomes only for nondifferentiated pyoderma depth. Heterogeneity of study designs and outcome measures made meta-analysis inappropriate. A good level of evidence was identified supporting the high efficacy of subcutaneously injected cefovecin in superficial pyoderma and for oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in deep pyoderma. A fair level of evidence was identified for moderate to high efficacy of oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin, cefadroxil, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim in superficial pyoderma and oral pradofloxacin, oral cefadroxil and subcutaneously injected cefovecin in deep pyoderma. Eleven trials reported observations of adverse effects in treated pyoderma cases by intervention group; four dogs were withdrawn owing to the severity of adverse effects.

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The purpose of this study was to compare the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of oral cephalexin twice vs. three times daily vs. cefadroxil once daily as therapy for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) tonsillopharyngitis. A prospective open-label, observational cohort study was conducted over 18 months (January 2000-June 2001). Children enrolled had an acute onset of symptoms and signs of a tonsillopharyngeal illness and a laboratory-documented GABHS infection. Follow-up examination and laboratory testing occurred 21 +/- 4 days following enrollment. Two hundred seventy-one patients were enrolled (intent to treat group): 63 received cephalexin twice daily, 124 received cephalexin three times daily, and 84 received cefadroxil once daily. Fifty-three children did not return for the follow-up visit, leaving 218 patients in the per-protocol group: 54 cephalexin twice-daily treated, 94 cephalexin 3-times daily treated, and 70 cefadroxil once-daily treated. In the per-protocol group, bacteriologic cure for those treated with cephalexin twice daily was 87%, for cephalexin 3 times daily, it was 81% and for cefadroxil once daily it was 81% (p = 0.61). The clinical cure rate for cephalexin twice-daily treatment was 91%; for three-times daily, it was 86%; and for cefadroxil once daily, it was 84% (p = 0.56). Because treatment allocation was not randomized, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for treatment group differences. Younger age of patient was significantly associated with bacteriologic (p = 0.04) and clinical (p = 0.01) failure independent of treatment group but in the adjusted logistic model no differences were found among the 3 treatment regimens. Cephalexin dosed twice daily or three times daily and cefadroxil dosed once daily appear equivalent in bacteriologic and clinical cure of GABHS tonsillopharyngitis.

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A total of 5116 non-fastidious bacterial strains isolated from either blood or urine culture were collected from 20 geographically distributed centres within the UK. Upon receipt the strains were identified and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ten antimicrobial agents in hospital usage were determined for each of the strains. All laboratories submitted a similar range of bacterial species and in species normally considered as sensitive the overall rates of resistance to the different antibiotics tested were: amikacin 2.4%, gentamicin 3.7%, netilmicin 2.6%, tobramycin 3.4%, ampicillin 41.7%, cefadroxil 11.6%, cefotaxime 1.4% [corrected], cefuroxime 4.3%, ciprofloxacin 0.6% and trimethoprim 13.0%. For those strains resistant to one or more aminoglycosides the mechanisms of resistance responsible were determined from the aminoglycoside-resistance patterns of the strains to 16 different aminoglycoside antibiotics. The predominant mechanisms of resistance found were APH(2") + AAC(6') production in staphylococci. AAC(2') production in Providencia spp., and AAC(3) production in the other Gram-negative genera.

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A new chemiluminescence reaction, the luminol-Cu(2+) reaction, was investigated for the determination of thirteen (13) cephalosporin antibiotics, namely cefalexin, cefadroxil, cefradine, cefazolin sodium, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime sodium, cefoperazone sodium, ceftriaxone sodium, ceftazidime, cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, cefixime, and cefpodoxime. It was found that, without adding any special oxidant, strong chemiluminescent (CL) signal could be produced from the reaction of the alkaline luminol with the above-mentioned antibiotics in the presence of Cu(2+). The experimental conditions for the reaction were carefully optimized with flow-injection mode. The detection limits are 0.3 ng/mL cefalexin, 3 ng/mL cefadroxil, 0.3 ng/mL cefradine, 0.02 μg/mL cefazolin sodium, 0.8 ng/mL cefaclor, 0.02 μg/mL cefuroxime axetil, 5 ng/mL cefotaxime sodium, 0.02 μg/mL cefoperazone sodium, 0.8 ng/mL ceftriaxone sodium, 1 ng/mL ceftazidime, 0.08 ng/mL cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, 0.8 ng/mL cefixime, and 2 ng/mL cefpodoxime. The proposed method was validated by direct application to commercial formulations and spiked milk samples containing cefradine. A possible reaction mechanism is also discussed.

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The Delvotest method detection limits per manufacturer's instructions at a fixed reading time of 3 h for 24 antimicrobial agents were determined in ewe milk by photometric measurement. For each drug, eight concentrations were tested on 20 ewe milk samples from individual ewes. Detection limits, determined by means of logistic regression models, were (microg/kg): 3, amoxycillin; 2, ampicillin; 18, cloxacillin; 1, penicillin "G"; 34, cefadroxil; 430, cephalosporin "C"; 40, cephalexin; 20, cefoperazone; 33, Ceftiofur; 18, cefuroxime; 6100, streptomycin; 1200, gentamycin; 2600, neomycin; 830, erythromycin; 100, tylosin; 180, doxycycline; 320, oxytetracycline; 590, tetracycline; 88, sulfadiazine; 44, sulfamethoxazole; 140, sulfametoxypyridazine; 48, sulfaquinoxaline; 12,000, chloramphenicol; and 290, trimethoprim. Whereas the beta-lactam antibiotics, sulphonamides, and tylosin were detected by Delvotest method at levels equal to those of maximum residue limits, its sensitivity needs to be enhanced to detect aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim residues in ewe milk or to develop an integrated residue detection system for ewe milk with different sensitive microorganisms for each group of antiinfectious agents.

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We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill 99% of the organisms.

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This work focused on the extraction of violacein from an isolated strain of C. violaceum and determined the combinatory effect of violacein with commercial antibiotics against various pathogens.

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Cefadroxil (CDX), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin derivative, was administered to 20 patients with acute or chronic otolaryngological infections and following results were obtained. Of 11 cases with acute infections such as acute otitis media, acute otitis externa and postoperative maxillary cyst, excellent, good and fair results were obtained in 10 cases, the efficacy ratio being 91%, while the efficacy ratio in 9 cases with chronic infections such as chronic pharyngolaryngitis and chronic otitis media was 56%. CDX is, therefore, extremely effective for acute otolaryngological infections. No severe side effect was observed, although there were 2 cases with minor adverse effects, one with drug induced eruption and the other with stomatitis.

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A 77-year-old patient is described who developed pemphigus vulgaris temporally with the administration of cefadroxil. The disease improved when the drug was discontinued but was exacerbated with the administration of ampicillin. This may be the first case of possible cefadroxil-induced and only the second case of ampicillin-induced pemphigus vulgaris reported. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pemphigus vulgaris is briefly described. Drug-induced pemphigus is reviewed. By far the most incriminated drug has been penicillamine. It is postulated that the sulfhydryl group of penicillamine alters the intercellular cement substance into an antigenic structure with subsequent antibody formation. The chemical similarity between penicillamine, the penicillins, and the cephalosporins is alluded to and the potential for cross-sensitivity between the penicillins and cephalosporins is emphasized. Although the pemphigus vulgaris could have occurred by chance, it seems probable that it was drug-induced.

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PEPT2 is functionally expressed in H441 cells, making the cell line a good in vitro model to study PEPT2 function and its regulation in human distal lung.

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Pyoderma caused by Peptostreptococcus tetradius in a pup was successfully treated with cefadroxil. Although this bacterium is rarely found in veterinary medicine, it is a known pathogen in human beings and should be considered as a potential causative agent in pyodermas in which anaerobes are suspected.

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Therapeutic use of cephaloridine, a beta-lactam antibiotic, in humans is associated with carnitine deficiency. A potential mechanism for the development of carnitine deficiency is competition between cephaloridine and carnitine for the renal reabsorptive process. OCTN2 is an organic cation/carnitine transporter that is responsible for Na(+)-coupled transport of carnitine in the kidney and other tissues. We investigated the interaction of several beta-lactam antibiotics with OCTN2 using human cell lines that express the transporter constitutively as well as using cloned human and rat OCTN2s expressed heterologously in human cell lines. The beta-lactam antibiotics cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam were found to inhibit OCTN2-mediated carnitine transport. These antibiotics possess a quaternary nitrogen as does carnitine. Several other beta-lactam antibiotics that do not possess this structural feature did not interact with OCTN2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 is competitive with respect to carnitine. Interestingly, many of the beta-lactam antibiotics that were not recognized by OCTN2 were good substrates for the H(+)-coupled peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In contrast, cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam, which were recognized by OCTN2, did not interact with PEPT1 and PEPT2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 was Na(+)-dependent, whereas the interaction of cefoselis and cefepime with OCTN2 was largely Na(+)-independent. Furthermore, the Na(+)-dependent, OCTN2-mediated cellular uptake of cephaloridine could be demonstrated by direct uptake measurements. These studies show that OCTN2 plays a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of certain beta-lactam antibiotics such as cephaloridine and that cephaloridine-induced carnitine deficiency is likely to be due to inhibition of carnitine reabsorption in the kidney.

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Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) is a new oral cephem derivative drug in which carboxylic acid was esterified to the 4-position of CPDX (oxime type cephem antibiotic). CPDX-PR is hydrolyzed mainly with esterase in intestinal wall and CPDX exists as an active form in body fluid. While there are numerous study reports using CPDX-PR in tablet forms in Japan, the dry syrup formula for pediatric use was newly developed. The dry syrup of CPDX-PR was orally administered 20 minutes after meal to the 6 boys of ages from 8 years and 1 month to 10 years and 10 months, with doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 cases each. Serum concentrations and urinary concentrations and recovery rate of the drug were investigated. In addition to the above, the clinical and bacteriological studies were performed in a total of 105 cases consisting of children with ages ranging from 2 months to 11 years and 8 months, upon administering an average dose of 3.4 mg/kg, 3 to 4 times per day (96 cases of 3 times and 9 cases of 4 times). The 105 cases included 13 cases of pharyngitis, 21 cases of tonsillitis, 4 cases of acute bronchitis, 6 cases of pneumonia, 1 case of pleurisy, 13 cases of scarlet fever, 41 cases of urinary tract infection, 3 cases of posthitis and 3 cases of bacillary dysentery. Drug sensitivity test was performed for the following strains: (i) Strains retained by our department; 52 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 18 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, and 11 strains of Bordetella pertussis, and (ii) strains isolated from cases to which CPDX-PR was administered; 2 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 8 strains of S. pyogenes, 2 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 10 strains of Escherichia coli, and 1 strain of Proteus mirabilis. Drug sensitivities of the strains retained by our department were tested with the inoculum sizes of 10(8) and 10(6) cfu/ml for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX), cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX), amoxicillin (AMPC), and methicillin (DMPPC), and those against strains separated from the cases to which CPDX-PR was administered were tested with the same inoculum sizes for R-3746, CCL, CEX, cefadroxil, ampicillin (ABPC), DMPPC and cloxacillin (MCIPC). Adverse reactions and abnormal clinical laboratory test results were also examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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Little is known about the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae from swine in China. Thus, this paper aims to demonstrate the β-lactam resistance phenotypes and genotypes of K. pneumoniae isolates from swine in southwestern China, detect possible new β-lactamase variants, and determine whether or not the variants differ in their antibiotic resistance. Isolates from 58 unrelated diseased swine were collected from 61 pig farms in southwestern China from 2007 to 2009. Among the 58 isolates, 75.8-100% were resistant to β-lactam, 62.0-68.97% to fluoroquinolone, 44.8-46.55% to aminoglycoside, and 8.62-17.24% to β-lactam inhibitors. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing showed that bla(TEM-1) was detected in 100% (n=58) of the isolates, bla(SHV) in 82.76% (n=48), bla(CTX-M) in 39.66% (n=23), and bla(OKP) in 17.24% (n=10). The bla(SHV) types included bla(SHV-1), bla(SHV-11), bla(SHV-12), and bla(SHV-27). None of the isolates harbored bla(KPC), bla(LEN), or bla(GES) gene. Four novel variants (bla(OKP-A-13), bla(OKP-A-14), bla(OKP-A-15), and bla(OKP-A-16)) were identified among the 10 OKP β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, cefalexin, and cefadroxil. Plasmid analysis and PCR amplification indicated that bla(TEM-1) genes were detected in the total plasmid. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of 10 distinct pulsotypes of OKP producer isolates. Plasmid DNA digested with XbaI yielded two to six bands of ca. 0.15-30 kb. Transformants of the 10 OKP producer isolates showed no differences in their antibiotic susceptibility, except for the pulsotype B transformant, which carried bla(CTX-M). In China, β-lactam resistance appeared to be common among K. pneumoniae isolates from swine, suggesting that K. pneumoniae may be a reservoir for the dissemination of β-lactam resistance among Chinese pig farms.

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The sample is placed in the sample vessel of a RH cell and the moisture content of the air flow is controlled. From the RH cell the air flow is conducted into a subsequent perfusion cell in which a saturated salt solution has been loaded. The RH cell and perfusion cells are positioned in the sample sides of two twin calorimetric units. Depending on the moisture content in the outlet flow leaving the preceding RH cell, the heat flow signal from the subsequent perfusion cell will vary. By means of blank measurement with identical settings, the rate of water sorption can be calculated and, by integration, the amount of sorbed water is obtained.

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A preliminary study revealed that similarly to the antibiotics amoxillin, thiamphenicol, erythromycin and doxycycline, the oral cephalosporin cefadroxil (CAS 66592-87-8) can be administered simultaneously with the mucolytic n-acetylcysteine (CAS 616-91-1). In the present study 12 healthy male volunteers received in a randomised cross-over design a single oral dose of 1000 mg cefadroxil or a single oral dose of 1000 mg cefadroxil (Bidocef) plus 200 mg n-acetylcysteine. The two study days were separated by a wash-out period of one week. To determine the pharmacokinetic profile of cefadroxil, plasma and sputum were analysed by HPLC at defined intervals. Regarding the bioavailability of cefadroxil, the free combination is bioequivalent to the individual component. After administration of cefadroxil plus n-acetylcysteine, a higher cefadroxil concentration was found in the sputum compared to an administration of cefadroxil alone. However, the difference was not statistically significant. According to the results, simultaneous administration of the oral cephalosporin cefadroxil and the mucolytic n-acetylcysteine is possible without changes in the bioavailability of cefadroxil being observed.

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We evaluated the dose-dependent (saturable) gastrointestinal absorption of cefatrizine, an aminocephalosporin transported by peptide carriers, in rats by a physiological mechanism-based approach to clarify its absorption characteristics and to examine the in vitro (in situ)-in vivo correlation in intestinal transport. With an increase in oral dose (mumol/5 ml/kg) from 5 (low) to 50 (high), the intestinal absorption rate constant (ka), which was estimated by analysis of gastrointestinal disposition, decreased markedly, from 0.301 to 0.056 min-1. This decrease was ascribable to the saturability of intestinal membrane transport, of which the concentration dependency in the perfused intestine was similar in extent to the dose dependency in ka. However, the apparent absorption rate constant (ka'), which was estimated by analysis of plasma concentrations after oral administration, decreased only modestly from 0.037 to 0.023 min-1. This was associated with the result that, at the low dose, ka' was far smaller than ka and comparable with k(g) (gastric emptying rate constant), suggesting gastric emptying-limited absorption. At the high dose, where intestinal cefatrizine absorption was less efficient, ka' was closer to ka than k(g). It was also observed that the bioavailability was close to unity, independent of dose, suggesting that the intestinal transit time is long enough to achieve complete absorption, even at the high dose, where intestinal cefatrizine absorption is less efficient. Thus, it was found that the effect of saturability in the intestinal transport of cefatrizine is apparently attenuated in its overall gastrointestinal absorption because of the involvement of gastric emptying and intestinal transit time as additional physiological factors to define absorption. It was also found that a scaling factor is required to correlate the intestinal membrane transport between in vitro (in situ) and in vivo, though this remains to be verified to be utilized for developing oral drug delivery strategies and optimizing oral drug therapy.

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To investigate whether multiple peptide transporters mediate absorption of beta-lactams carrying different charges at physiological pH, we used the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cloned rabbit intestinal peptide transporter PepT1. Characteristics of transport of the anionic cefixime and the zwitterionic cefadroxil were assessed by 1) flux studies using radiolabeled compounds, by 2) measuring changes in pHin in cells and oocytes as a consequence of substrate-mediated proton influx and 3) by applying the two-electrode voltage clamp technique to assess the electrophysiological phenomena associated with beta-lactam transport in oocytes expressing PepT1. Both beta-lactams were rapidly taken up into Caco-2 cells and oocytes expressing PepT1 by a pH-dependent and saturable transport pathway. Mutual inhibition suggested that acidic and zwitterionic compounds may share a common transporter. Cefixime and cefadroxil caused a significant decline in intracellular pH as a consequence of proton coupled substrate influx. Uptake of cefixime and cefadroxil via PepT1 expressed in oocytes was electrogenic indicating that transport of both beta-lactams is associated with movement of net positive charge. The more acidic pH required for rheogenic cefixime uptake in both cell systems, when compared to cefadroxil uptake in both cell systems, when compared to cefadroxil uptake, and the concomitant faster intracellular acidification indicates that cefixime most likely is taken up only in its nonionized form with an additional proton being cotransported. This is supported by the observation that cefixime uptake at different pH correlated significantly with the percentage of the nonionized species being present. From our studies we conclude that a single peptide transport system can mediate electrogenic uptake of the neutral form of beta-lactam antibiotics into intestinal epithelial cells.

duricef suspension 250

Amorphous lactose and cefadroxil undergo recrystallization when the moisture level in the surroundings exceeds the threshold values specific to each compound. During the sorption phase, heat is evolved fairly linearly as a function of consumed moisture, and also after the recrystallization, the heats indicate linear behavior. The heat values for the desorption phase of amorphous lactose and the adsorption of crystalline lactose coincide. With the different anhydrous forms of theophylline, the hydration takes place more rapidly in the metastable form 1, and generally, the process is more energetic in form 1. In all cases, the gravimetric results agree with the water sorption uptakes calculated from the calorimetric data.

duricef sulfa drug

The new oral cephalosporins cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten demonstrate enhanced activity against Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to the established compounds as well (e.g. cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil). In addition, cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten include in their spectrum species hitherto resistant to oral cephalosporins (Proteus vulgaris, Providencia spp., Yersinia enterocolitica). Besides, the majority of these compounds demonstrate relevant activity (MIC50 equal to or below 2 mg/l) against Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, Serratia spp. and Morganella morganii. Ceftibuten is the most potent oral cephalosporin against most of the Enterobacteriaceae. Non-fermentative bacilli (Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp.) remain completely resistant to oral cephalosporins (except some Acinetobacter species against cefdinir and Pseudomonas cepacia against ceftibuten). Antistaphylococcal activity for oral cephalosporins is highest for cefdinir followed by BAY 3522, cefprozil, cefuroxime and cefpodoxime. Loracarbef, cefaclor and cefadroxil are about equally active, while the other compounds are only weakly active (cefixime) or inactive (cefetamet, ceftibuten). Enterococci are insensitive to new generation oral cephalosporins as they have been to established compounds. The most active oral cephalosporins against hemolytic streptococci are cefdinir and cefprozil. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus milleri and Streptococcus mitior are most susceptible to cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefuroxime and BAY 3522. Penicillin resistant pneumococci have to be regarded as resistant to all oral cephalosporins. Fastidious pathogens like Haemophilus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are more susceptible to cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten than to the other oral cephalosporins. The activity of oral cephalosporins is only weak against Listeria spp., Helicobacter pylori and anaerobic pathogens (except BAY 3522). Bordetella pertussis remains resistant to all absorbable cephalosporins. Progress in antibacterial activity of oral cephalosporins was mainly achieved by cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten against Enterobacteriaceae and the fastidious pathogens and against staphylococci and the nonenterococcal streptococci by cefdinir, BAY 3522, cefprozil and cefpodoxime.

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duricef pills 2016-10-23

The transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2 accept a broad spectrum of substrates including small, naturally occurring peptides and peptidomimetic drugs. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether these transporters are expressed and active in isolated cardiomyocytes. PEPT1/PEPT2 expression in rat kidney (positive control), guinea pig kidney and cardiomyocytes were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. L-Glycyl-L-[(14)C]sarcosine (Gly-sar) uptake was characterised using freshly isolated suspensions of adult male guinea pig cardiomyocytes. PEPT2-specific primers recognised mRNA of appropriate size and sequence in cardiomyocytes and kidney, whilst PEPT1 was expressed in the kidney only. The initial uptake (30 s) of 200 microM Gly-sar was dependent on extracellular pH with a maximum at pH 6.0 (237.8 +/- 12.2 pmol/microl) and a minimum at pH 8.0 (72.1 +/- 13.4 pmol/microl, n = 6 +/- SE, p < 0.01, T test). The K (m) and V (max) of Gly-sar uptake at pH 6.0 were 495.5 +/- 69.6 microM and 1470.5 +/- 69.6 pmol microl(-1) min(-1). The addition of 10 mM fosinopril, cefadroxil, carnosine, cyclacillin or a variety of L-amino acid containing dipeptides/ buy duricef tripeptides significantly reduced Gly-sar uptake. Gly-sar uptake was not affected by 10 mM D-ala-D-ala, glycine or sarcosine. These results support the presence of a functional dipeptide transporter in isolated cardiomyocytes, with accompanying expression of PEPT2.

duricef dosage chart 2015-04-21

Clarithromycin is a new macrolide analog of erythromycin with buy duricef activity against a number of dermatologic pathogens.

duricef capsules 500mg 2015-12-01

The thermal decomposition of cephalexine, cefadroxil and cefoperazone under non-isothermal conditions using the TG buy duricef , respectively DSC methods, was studied. In case of TG, a hyphenated technique, including EGA, was used.

duricef suspension 2016-09-23

Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 produce bacteriocins with activity against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both strains survived intestinal conditions simulated in a gastro-intestinal model (GIM) with infant milk formulations as substrate and prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA. The strains are inhibited by the antibiotics amoxicillin, cefadroxil, roxithromycin and doxycycline, anti-inflammatory medicaments containing meloxicam, ibuprofen and sodium diklofenak, and analgesics containing paracetamol, codeine phosphate and promethazine. Strain 423 is sensitive to vancomycin and does not contain genes encoding gelatinase, cell buy duricef aggregation substance (AS), adhesion to collagen (Ace), enterococcus surface protein (Esp), Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen (EfaAfs), cytolysin and non-cytolysin (beta-hemolysin III). Genes encoding AS, cytolysin and non-cytolysin (beta-hemolysin III) were amplified from the genome of strain ST4SA. Survival of strains ST4SA and 423 improved when used as combined cultures in the GIM and compared well with the survival of commercially available probiotics subjected to the same conditions.

duricef drug 2016-04-25

The peptide transporter PEPT2 is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells. So far, however, no appropriate alveolar epithelial cell line for studying PEPT2 function has been known. In this buy duricef study, we examined the functional expression of PEPT2 in the human distal lung epithelial cell line NCl-H441 (H441).

duricef storage 2016-07-07

The fate of four antimicrobials (cefadroxil, CFD; metronidazole, METRO; trimethoprim, TRI; sulfamethoxazole, SMX) was studied in Lemna minor systems and the role of different mechanisms on their removal was evaluated. All micropollutants were significantly removed in batch experiments with active Lemna minor; the highest removal was observed for CFD (100% in 14 d), followed by METRO (96%), buy duricef SMX (73%) and TRI (59%) during 24 d of the experiment. Calculation of kinetic constants for hydrolysis, photodegradation, sorption to biomass and plant uptake revealed significant differences depending on the compound and the studied mechanism. For METRO, TRI and SMX the kinetic constants of plant uptake were by far higher comparing to those of the other mechanisms. The transformation products of antimicrobials were identified using UHPLC-QToF-MS. Two were the main degradation pathways for TRI; hydroxylation takes place during both phyto- and photodegradation, while demethylation occurs only in absence of Lemna minor. The operation of a continuous-flow duckweed system showed METRO and TRI removal equal to 71±11% and 61±8%, respectively. The application of mass balance and the use of published biodegradation constants showed that plant uptake and biodegradation were the major mechanisms governing METRO removal; the most important mechanism for TRI was plant uptake.

duricef drug interactions 2017-10-19

PEPT2 expression buy duricef has been established in brain and, in particular, mRNA transcripts and PEPT2 protein have been identified in choroid plexus. However, there is little evidence for the functional presence of this peptide transporter in choroid plexus tissue. In this study, we examined the in vitro uptake of a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar), with whole tissue rat choroid plexus in artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings are consistent with the known transport properties of PEPT2, including its proton dependence, lack of sodium effect, specificity, and high substrate affinity for dipeptides. Kinetic analysis showed saturable transport of GlySar with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 129 +/- 32 microM and a maximum velocity (V(max)) of 52.8 +/- 3.6 pmol/mg/min. GlySar uptake (1.88 microM) was not inhibited by 1.0 mM concentrations of amino acids (glycine, sarcosine, L-histidine), organic acids and bases (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, tetraethylammonium), or non-alpha-amino cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin). In contrast, di- and tripeptides (GlySar, glycylproline, glycylglycylhistidine), neuropeptides (carnosine), and alpha-amino cephalosporins (cefadroxil, cephalexin) inhibited the uptake of GlySar by 85 to 90% at 1.0 mM. These findings indicate that PEPT2 is functionally active in choroid plexus and that it might play a role in neuropeptide homeostasis of cerebrospinal fluid. The ability of PEPT2 to transport drugs at the choroid plexus also may be important for future drug design, delivery, and tissue-targeting considerations.

duricef mg 2015-09-12

Eleven new 7-[2-(dihydro-5- buy duricef substituted-6-thioxo-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-3( 4H)-yl)-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of cefadroxil monohydrate, formaldehyde and substituted potassium dithiocarbamate. Their structures have been elucidated by spectral data and elementary analysis. The title compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis), gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis) in comparison with cefadroxil monohydrate. The activity of compounds 1 and 10 against S. aureus (MBC: 37.5 micrograms/ml) and compound 1 against E. coli (MBC: 75 micrograms/ml) were found to be the same as cefadroxil monohydrate. Compounds 1 and 10 were more effective than cefadroxil monohydrate against S. faecalis with 25 and 37.5 micrograms/ml MBC values, respectively. None of the compounds and cefadroxil monohydrate proved to be effective against P. aeruginosa (MBC: greater than 100 micrograms/ml). While cefadroxil monohydrate had no activity against yeast-like fungi, compounds 9 and 10 were significantly effective against yeast-like fungi (MFC: 37.5 micrograms/ml).

duricef syrup 2015-02-19

To explore the feasibility of targeting human tumor cells via their transport systems, dipeptide uptake was studied in the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 and the human fibroblast cell line IMR-90 by the use of hydrolysis-resistant glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar). The uptake of [14C]Gly-Sar into HT1080 was time dependent. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of the initial rate of [14C]Gly-Sar uptake showed that a carrier-mediated transport system with a K(m) of 11.4 +/- 3.3 mM and V(max) of 26.8 +/- 4.0 (nmol/15 min/mg protein) and a nonsaturable component (k(d) of 0.80 microl/15 min/mg protein) were responsible for the dipeptide uptake by HT1080 cells. The optimal pH for the maximal uptake was around 6.0. [14C]Gly-Sar uptake was inhibited by various di- and tripeptides and peptide-mimetic drugs, such as bestatin and cefadroxil. [14C]Gly-Sar uptake was not affected by the presence of amino acids or tetra- or pentapeptides. The uptake of cefadroxil was reduced significantly by unlabeled Gly-Sar. Moreover, Gly-Gly and Gly-Leu produced an increase in the apparent K(m) of the uptake of Gly-Sar without altering V(max). On the other hand, dipeptide uptake by IMR-90, which is a buy duricef normal diploid cell line (not malignant), showed no saturable transport. These results suggest that HT1080 cells take up dipeptides via a pH-dependent transporter. This is the first report showing that a dipeptide transport system, which is similar but not identical to the well-characterized oligopeptide transporters PepT1 and PepT2, exists in fibroblast-derived tumor cells but not in normal fibroblasts. The present finding could be the basis of a novel strategy for the specific delivery of oligopeptide-mimetic anticancer drugs into tumor cells.

acne medication duricef 2016-01-26

Oral cefadroxil in buy duricef doses of 0-6-1-8 g per day given on twice or three times daily schedules was effective in the treatment of thirty-six patients with infections such as abscesses, carbuncles, cellulitis, furunculosis and impetigo. Staphylococcus aureus strains and beta-haemolytic streptococci, alone or in combination, were cultured from lesions before treatment. In vitro studies with test discs showed that all the organisms were sensitive to cefadroxil, but twenty-three of twenty-nine S aureus strains and one of the seven streptococci strains were resistant to penicillin G. Pre- and post-treatment laboratory tests of renal, hepatic and haematopoietic functions produced no evidence of drug toxicity. The cefadroxil dosage effective in this study is lower than that recommended for currently available oral cephalosporins, which must be given on a four times daily schedule.

duricef renal dosing 2017-11-23

The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique buy duricef based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method.

duricef uti dosage 2016-05-02

A partial surveillance of bacterial in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics, performed by a outpatient clinic, at Santiago, Chile, during year 2007, has yielded the following results: Staphylococcus aureus (n: 232) 3% of methicillin (oxacillin) resistance; Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 120) 6% of macrolides buy duricef resistance; Haemophilus influenzae nt (n: 60) 12% of ampicillin and 3% of chloramphenicol resistance; Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n: 170): 78% of penicillin, 56% of tetracyclin and 32% of ciprofloxacin resistance; Escherichia coli obtained from uriñe: (adults n: 3.066, children n: 260) 27-28% of sulpha-trimethoprim resistance, 15% (children) -21 % (adults) of cefadroxil resistance.

duricef suspension dosing 2016-11-23

Cefadroxil 1 g twice daily and amoxycillin 500 mg three times a day were compared in 111 patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Treatment was for seven days. Excellent or good clinical responses were found in 85 per cent of cases receiving cefadroxil and 81 per cent of patients taking amoxycillin. However, residual symptoms of cough and rhonchi were present to a statistically significantly greater extent in the amoxycillin group. Tolerance of both drugs was good with mild to moderate side effects reported in seven of 54 patients in the cefadroxil group and six of 56 patients taking amoxycillin. Severe nausea and vomiting in two cases in the amoxycillin group resulted in discontinuation of therapy. Microbiological examination of sputum samples showed pathogenic bacteria in 16 per cent, principally Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxycillin 500 mg tds and cefadroxil 1 g bd were equally buy duricef effective in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

duricef dosage 2015-11-13

We describe a young woman who had had treatment-refractory complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) for 6 years before receiving antibiotic treatment with cefadroxil (a cephalosporin derivative) for a minor infection. Cefadroxil reduced the patient's pain and motor dysfunction (dystonia and impaired voluntary movement) within days; the pain and motor disorder returned when cefadroxil was discontinued; and both again abated when cefadroxil was re-instituted. Minipress Pill The patient has now had symptom relief for more than 3 years on continuing cefadroxil therapy. We discuss this case in the context of previous reports of antibiotic treatment relieving neuropathic pain in experimental animals.

duricef generic name 2017-08-31

The effects of penicillin, macrolides (spiramycin and erythromycin), cephalosporins (cefaclor and cefadroxil), tetracycline (doxycycline) and quinolones (pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) on extracellular and cell-associated interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity from human adherent mononuclear leucocyte cells were investigated in vitro. When cells were treated with an antibiotic concentration of 10 mg/l, no apparent effect could be detected for penicillin, erythromycin, cephalosporins or quinolones, while a slight increase of extracellular IL-1 activity associated with a decrease of intracellular IL-1 activity was observed with spiramycin and doxycycline. When high antibiotic concentration were used, extracellular IL-1 activity was increased by macrolides and tetracycline, while both cell-associated and class II human monocyte antigen expression were decreased. A toxic effect may have been exerted by these antimicrobial agents, since cell viability was altered when they were used at high concentrations. In contrast, extracellular IL-1 activity was found to be decreased by quinolones and cephalosporins. Intracellular IL-1 activity was also decreased by cephalosporins, while quinolones did not modify either cell-associated IL-1 Zithromax Name Brand activity or class II human monocyte antigen expression. The effect induced by quinolones and cephalosporins occurred without modification of cell viability. IL-1 activity was shown to be affected by antibiotics over the same range of concentrations which are known to inhibit mononuclear leucocyte proliferation. Our data may help in defining the mechanism by which the mitogen-induced mononuclear proliferative response is suppressed by antimicrobial agents since this appears to involve the inhibition of IL-1 production or of its release.

duricef oral suspension 2017-01-12

A total of 1,527 clinically significant outpatient isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were prospectively collected in 30 different U.S. medical centers between November 1994 and April 1995. Overall, 23.6% of strains were not susceptible to penicillin, with 14.1% intermediate and 9.5% high-level resistant. The frequencies of recovery of intermediate and high-level resistant strains varied considerably between different medical centers and in different geographic areas. In general, intermediate and high-level penicillin resistance was most common with isolates of S. pneumoniae recovered from pediatric patients. The in vitro activities of 22 other antimicrobial agents were assessed against this collection of isolates. Ampicillin was consistently 1 twofold dilution less active than penicillin. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were essentially equivalent to penicillin in activity. The rank order of activity for cephalosporins was cefotaxime = ceftriaxone > or = cefpodoxime > or = cefuroxime > cefprozil > or = cefixime > cefaclor = loracarbef > cefadroxil = cephalexin. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Sixth Information Supplement (M100-S6), 1995] has established MIC breakpoints for resistance (i.e., > or = 2 micrograms/ml) with three cephalosporins versus S. pneumoniae, namely, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, Ceftin Oral Suspension and cefuroxime. The overall percentages of strains resistant to these three antimicrobial agents were 3, 5, and 12, respectively. The overall frequency of resistance was 10% with all three macrolides examined in this study, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin. The overall percentages of chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance were 4.3, 7.5, and 18, respectively. The resistance percentages among the cephalosporins, macrolides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were consistently higher among penicillin-intermediate strains than among susceptible isolates and even higher still among organisms expressing high-level penicillin resistance. Multiply resistant strains represented 9.1% of the organisms examined in this study. Finally, rifampin resistance was uncommon (i.e., 0.5%), and vancomycin resistance was not detected. The quinopristin-dalfopristin combination was consistently active at concentrations of 0.25 to 4 micrograms/ml, but rates of resistance could not be determined in the absence of established interpretive criteria for MIC results.

duricef tablet 2017-08-20

A rapid and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of cefatrizine and clavulanic acid in the plasma of beagle dog. The sample pretreatment procedure involved reaction of clavulanic acid with 1,2,4-triazole, which readily produced a derivative with its maximum UV absorption at 314 nm. This derivative was separated in a reverse-phase C-18 column without being interfered by other components present in plasma. Cefatrizine, however, was not derivatized and, therefore determined directly at 269 nm. Sulfanilamide was used as an internal standard. The retention times of sulfanilamide, the derivative, and cefatrizine were, 3.5, 4.9, and 6.0 min, respectively. The assay showed linearity from 2 to 100 microg/ml for cefatrizine and from 1 to 50 microg/ml for clavulanic acid. Precision expressed as R.S.D. ranged from 4.2 to 18.2% for cefatrizine and 5.5 to 15.8% for clavulanic acid. Accuracy ranged from 97.9 to 120% (lower limit of quantitation) for cefatrizine and from 97.7 to 119.2% for clavulanic acid. Extraction efficiencies for cefatrizine, clavulanic acid, and internal standard from dog plasma averaged 79.8+/-5.8%, 84.8+/- Neurontin Dosing 6.2%, and 89.0+/-3.8%, respectively. This method was employed successfully to follow the time course of the concentration of cefatrizine and clavulanic acid in beagle dogs following oral administration of cefatrizine and clavulanic acid.

duricef capsule 2015-04-18

Following previous observations of an increase in microbial sensitivity to the bactericidal beta-lactams ampicillin and imipenem in the presence of glycine, the aim of the presented study was to examine if such an effect is due to the antimicrobial mode of action of an Crestor Cost antibiotic and/or to its bactericidal or bacteriostatic capacity. Using growth curves as an experimental parameter the same synergistic glycine effect could be shown if tested concomitantly with a number of other antibiotics acting equally on bacterial cell wall formation as cefaclor, cefadroxil, or fosfomycin. This glycine effect is, therefore, associated with the antibiotic mode of action, but is independent of wether the antibiotics are beta-lactams or not (fosfomycin). In contrast, glycine had no particular effect in combination with antibiotics inhibiting protein synthesis (sisomicin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, oxy-tetracycline) or nucleic acid polymerase activity (ciprofloxacin, cinoxacin; rifampicin being a certain exception) as well as with those acting on cytoplasmic and external membrane as polymyxin B. The synergistic effect of glycine and cell wall active antibiotics was interpreted predominantly by an action on carboxypeptidases.

duricef dosage forms 2017-06-19

Cefatrizine (SK & F 60771; BL--S640), like most other phenylglycine-type cephalosporins, has a tendency to lose potency in aqueous solutions and in normal sera even at low temperatures. Cefatrizine can be stabilized during storage by sodium metabisulphite (Na2S2O5), a reducing agent partially in tap water, better in deionized water, and to a lesser degree in citric acid-phosphate buffer (pH 6). Although this partial stabilizing effect of sodium metabisulphite is temperature-dependent, storage at 4 degrees Reglan Dose C gives better results than storage in the frozen state (-20 degrees C). In these aqueous solutions and in sera, the potency of cefatrizine can be preserved even at room temperature for up to four weeks by the addition of 0.1 ml of 2 N hydrochloric acid to each 2 ml of aqueous solutions or sera.

duricef medication class 2016-04-23

Several bacteriological and serological variables were studied in connection with a clinical treatment trial in 212 patients with group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. Anaerobic incubation was not superior to incubation in 5% CO2 in air for the detection of group A streptococci. Saliva cultures were inferior Imodium 125 Mg to conventional throat cultures in detecting group A streptococci. No strains from patients with recurrences were found to be tolerant to penicillin. In several patients (all asymptomatic), group C and G streptococci were found in follow-up cultures. Group A streptococci serology was more often positive after two months than after one month, also in patients without recurrence.

duricef cost 2015-10-11

The steadily increasing and now high E. coli resistance levels in children to ampicillin and trimethoprim render empirical therapy with these drugs doubtful. The stable and low levels of resistance to pivmecillinam, cefadroxil and nitrofurantoin (< 2% in 2001) make these drugs reasonable alternatives in uncomplicated Amaryl 3 Mg lower urinary tract infections.

duricef 500mg capsules 2016-08-13

A one- Biaxin 250 Brand step immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was developed for the detection of seven kinds of cephems in milk. Polyclonal antibodies (PcAb) with group-specific to cephems were raised in rabbits after immunization with cephalexin-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate. The specificity of anti-sera was determined by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), and the 50% inhibitions (IC(50)) of cephalexin and cefadroxil were obtained at 1.5 ngmL(-1); IC(50) of cefatiofur, cefapirin, cefazolin, cefalothin and cefotaxine were 4, 3.7, 3.2, 4.5 and 5 ngmL(-1), respectively. The PcAb against cephems were conjugated to colloidal gold particles as the detection reagent for ICA strips to test for cephems. This method achieved semi-quantitative detection of cephems in <5 min, with high sensitivity to cephalexin and cefadroxil (both 0.5 ngmL(-1)). At the same time, cefatiofur, cefapirin, cefazolin, cefalothin and cefotaxine were detected at <100 ngmL(-1) in spiked processed-milk samples. This method was compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by testing 40 milk samples, and the positive samples were validated by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method, with an agreement rate of 100% for both comparisons. In conclusion, the method was rapid and accurate for the multi-residue detection of cephems in milk.

duricef 125 mg 2015-12-22

Several cases of renal involvement have been reported during the course of Kawasaki disease. They have been rarely documented by histological examination so that the vascular origin of changes has not been demonstrated. Myoglobinuria, as seen in muscular crush injury, and in our case possibly due to Voltaren 150 Mg malignant hyperthermia, may be responsible for the transient acute renal failure.

duricef drug class 2017-04-29

The results of previous work performed in our laboratory using an in situ perfusion technique in rats and rabbit apical brush border membrane vesicles have suggested that the intestinal uptake of valacyclovir (VACV) appears to be mediated by multiple membrane transporters. Using these techniques, it is difficult to characterize the transport kinetics of VACV with each individual transporter in the presence of multiple known or unknown transporters. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of VACV and the human intestinal peptide transporter using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) gene. VACV uptake was significantly greater in CHO cells transfected with hPEPT1 than in cells transfected with only the vector, pcDNA3. The optimum pH for VACV uptake was determined to occur at pH 7.5. Proton cotransport was not observed in hPEPT1/CHO cells, consistent with previously observed results in tissues and Caco-2 cells. VACV uptake was concentration dependent and saturable with a Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of 1.64 +/- 0.06 mM and 23.34 +/- 0.36 nmol/mg protein/5 min, respectively. A very similar Km value was obtained in hPEPT1/CHO cells and in rat and rabbit tissues and Caco-2 cells, suggesting that hPEPT1 dominates the intestinal transport properties of VACV in vitro. VACV uptake was markedly inhibited by various dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics, and Ki values Prograf 25 Mg of 12.8 +/- 2.7 and 9.1 +/- 1.2 mM were obtained for Gly-Sar and cefadroxil at pH 7.5, respectively. The present results demonstrate that VACV is a substrate for the human intestinal peptide transporter in hPEPT1/CHO cells and that although transport is pH dependent, proton cotransport is not apparent. Also, the results demonstrate that the hPEPT1/CHO cell system has use in investigating the transport kinetics of drugs with the human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1; however, the extrapolation of these transport properties to the in vivo situation requires further investigation.

duricef 1000 mg 2015-03-24

The effective permeability (P eff ) of cefadroxil was evaluated in wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice following in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions. The plasma concentration-time profiles of cefadroxil were also examined after oral gavage.

duricef 125 dosage 2015-07-14

Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are rapidly increasing as multidrug resistant strains worldwide. In nosocomial settings because of heavy exposure of different antimicrobials, resistance in these pathogens turned into a grave issue in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antibiotic synergism of combinations of β-lactam-β-lactam and β-lactam-aminoglycoside against clinical isolates of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Synergy was determined by checkerboard double dilution method. The combination of amoxicillin and cefadroxil was found to be synergistic against 47 S. aureus isolates, in the FICI range of 0.14-0.50 (81.03%) followed by the combination of streptomycin and cefadroxil synergistic against 44 S. aureus isolates in the FICI range of 0.03-0.50 (75.86%). The combination of streptomycin and cefadroxil was observed to be synergistic against 39 P. aeruginosa isolates in the FICI range of 0.16-0.50 (81.28%). Further actions are needed to characterize the possible interaction mechanism between these antibiotics. Moreover, the combination of streptomycin and cefadroxil may lead to the development of a new and vital antimicrobial against simultaneous infections of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

duricef and alcohol 2016-09-23

Cefatrizine, a new orally administered cephalosporin, was tested against 400 clinical isolates. Cefatrizine had excellent activity against gram-positive cocci, inhibiting all except enterococci at minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1 mug/ml. Cefatrizine inhibited the majority of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella at concentrations below 12.5 mug/ml. Although cefatrizine was not hydrolyzed by many beta-lactamases, it did not inhibit a number of strains of Enterobacter, Serratia, or indole-positive Proteus. Cefatrizine was more active than cephalothin or cephalexin against E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. Its overall activity was less than that of cefoxitin against strains resistant to cephalothin, but its activity against cephalothin-susceptible strains was equivalent to that of cefamandole.

duricef liquid dosage 2015-09-19

Six weeks after treatment, 32 (82%) of 39 women treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were cured compared with 22 (61%) of 36 treated with nitrofurantoin (P = .04 vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 21 (66%) of 32 treated with cefadroxil (P = .11 vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), and 28 (67%) of 42 treated with amoxicillin (P = .11 vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Persistence of significant bacteriuria was less common with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (3%) and cefadroxil (0%) compared with nitrofurantoin (16%; P = .05 vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and amoxicillin (14%; P = .11 vs trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Persistence of bacteriuria was associated with amoxicillin-resistant strains in the amoxicillin group but nitrofurantoin-susceptible strains in the nitrofurantoin group. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was more successful in eradicating Escherichia coli from rectal cultures soon after therapy and from urethral and vaginal cultures at all follow-up visits compared with the other treatment regimens. Adverse effects were reported by 16 (35%) of 46 patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 18 (43%) of 42 receiving nitrofurantoin, 12 (30%) of 40 receiving cefadroxil, and 13 (25%) of 52 receiving amoxicillin. The mean costs per patient were less with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ($114) and amoxicillin ($131) compared with nitrofurantoin ($155) and cefadroxil ($155).

duricef pediatric dose 2017-05-21

A pharmacokinetic model incorporating saturable rate of absorption of the Michaelis-Menten type was recently developed to fit cefatrizine (CFZ) plasma concentrations with time following oral administration of 500-mg capsules to humans. This model (MM) was statistically superior to models incorporating either first-order or zero-order absorption. However, the MM model does not predict the reduction in extent of absorption with dose observed in vivo. In this study, a model is proposed in which a time constraint, delta t, is added to the MM model. This new model (MM-delta t) is tested with data following doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg of CFZ. When delta t is set to 1.5 hr, the predicted relative changes with dose in bioavailability, F, peak plasma concentration, Cmax, the time at which the peak concentration occurs tmax, and the mean absorption time, MAT, are generally in good agreement with the experimental data. The time interval of 1.5 hr is compatible with passage by a limited region within the small intestine where drug is absorbed by a facilitated transport mechanism. Influence of each absorption model parameter (Vmax, Km, and delta t) on total area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC), F, Cmax, and tmax, is assessed by simulation. The MM-delta t model is able to summarize the nonlinerity observed in both rate and extent of absorption.