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Pain is reported by nearly 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease. In some patients, it can be more debilitating than the motor deficits. In order to identify the appropriate treatment strategy for each patient, it is useful to categorize pain syndromes as follows: 1) low DOPA (end of dose wearing off, diphasic, or early morning) painful states are associated with inadequate levels of dopamine receptor stimulation; 2) high DOPA (peak dose) painful states occur at times of maximum levodopa efficacy; and 3) many patients report pain that has no obvious relation to dopaminergic medications or may even be caused by other conditions. Low DOPA painful states are best treated by trying to provide more continuous dopaminergic stimulation and thereby reduce or prevent the number and duration of "off" periods. Adding or increasing the dose of direct-acting dopamine receptor agonists or of catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors is the best first-line strategy. Other approaches include increasing the frequency of immediate-release levodopa preparations or using controlled-release preparations. More invasive approaches should be considered only when simpler methods fail. These include deep brain stimulation to the pallidum or the subthalamic nucleus, or direct duodenal continuous infusion of levodopa in patients who are unable to undergo surgery. Pain associated with excessive dopaminergic stimulation usually is a result of dystonia or severe chorea. Reduction of levodopa is the first step in attempting to diminish high DOPA states, followed by reduction or cessation of other dopaminergic agents such as selegiline, catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors, or direct-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Adding amantadine can reduce chorea significantly and it should be tried if the potential and actual side effects are tolerable to the patient. Deep brain stimulation is a good final option if medication adjustments are ineffective. Nonspecific pains of Parkinson's disease can be difficult to treat. The effective use of central pain suppressant or analgesics is anecdotal and difficult to verify. In untreated early disease, generalized pain or pain related to joint or muscle immobility may be reduced by effective treatment of the underlying Parkinson's disease.
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been shown to induce parkinsonism in man and non-human primates. Monoamine-oxidase B (MAO-B) has been reported to be implicated in both MPTP-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease, since selegiline (L-deprenyl), an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in numerous species including mice, goldfish and drosophyla. However, one disadvantage of this substance relates to its metabolism to (-)-methamphetamine and (-)-amphetamine. Rasagiline (R-(+)-N-propyl-1-aminoindane) is a novel irrevesible MAO-B-inhibitor, which is not metabolized to metamphetamine and/or amphetamine. The present study compared the effects of high doses of selegiline and rasagiline (10 mg/kg body weight s.c.) on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in a non-human primate (Callithrix jacchus) model of PD. Groups of four monkeys were assigned to the following six experimental groups: Group I: Saline, Group II: Selegiline/Saline, Group III: Rasagiline/Saline, Group IV: MPTP/Saline, Group V: Rasagiline/MPTP, Group VI: Selegiline/MPTP. Daily treatment with MAO-B-inhibitors (either rasagiline or selegiline, 10 mg/kg body weight s.c.) was initiated four days prior to MPTP-exposure (MPTP-HCl, 2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously, separated by an interval of 24 hours for a total of four days) and was continued until the end of the experiment, i.e. 7 days after the cessation of the MPTP-injections, when animals were sacrificed. MPTP-treatment caused distinct behavioural, histological, and biochemical alterations: 1. significant reduction of motor activity assessed by clinical rating and by computerized locomotor activity measurements; 2. substantial loss (approx. 40%) of dopaminergic (tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive) cells in the substantia nigra, pars compacta; and 3. putaminal dopamine depletion of 98% and its metabolites DOPAC (88%) and HVA (96%). Treatment with either rasagiline or selegiline markedly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MPTP at the behavioural, histological, and at the biochemical levels. There were no significant differences between rasagiline/MPTP and selegiline/MPTP-treated animals in respect to signs of motor impairment, the number of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra, and striatal dopamine levels. As expected, both inhibitors decreased the metabolism of dopamine, leading to reduced levels of HVA and DOPAC (by >95% and 45% respectively). In conclusion, rasagiline and selegiline at the dosages employed equally protect against MPTP-toxicity in the common marmoset, suggesting that selegiline-derived metabolites are not important for the neuroprotective effects of high dose selegiline in the non-human MPTP-primate model in the experimental design employed. However, unexpectedly, high dose treatment with both MAO-inhibitors caused a decrease of the cell sizes of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons. It remains to be determined, if this histological observation represents potential adverse effects of high dose treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Long-term treatment of parkinsonian patients with levodopa (plus decarboxylase inhibitor) leads to decreasing levodopa efficacy and increasing side-effects. Then main therapeutic problems are on-off phenomena, end-of-dose akinesia and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Deprenyl, a selective MAO-B inhibitor, has produced good therapeutic effects in combination either with levodopa alone or with levodopa plus decarboxylase inhibitor in the treatment of end-of-dose akinesia and on-off phenomena. In an open trial with 48 parkinsonian patients deprenyl was added to previous levodopa plus decarboxylase-inhibitor therapy. Good effects were achieved in respect of mild on-off phenomena and end-of-dose akinesia, minor success in the alleviation of dyskinesia and depression. In four further patients with a post-traumatic parkinsonian syndrome, no improvement of rigidospasticity and vigilance was demonstrable.
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As in other fields of medicine, potentially hazardous medication combinations are utilized in psychiatry after cautiously weighing the danger of the treatment against the morbidity and risk of not adequately addressing the illness. Particularly, as the potential arrival of the apparently safer transdermal selegiline may increase the use of MAOIs, we feel this combination deserves additional controlled study.
Chronic low dose deprenyl treatment in rats causes an increase in striatal extracellular dopamine level, without significant reduction in deaminated metabolite formation. This effect could be the result of increased endogenous levels of the MAO-B substrate beta-phenylethylamine, which is both a releaser of dopamine as well as an inhibitor of the neuronal membrane active dopamine uptake. In guinea pigs, however, striatal extracellular dopamine was not increased either by deprenyl or by clorgyline. Local infusion of the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909 caused a greater increase in striatal dopamine in microdialysate in rats than in guinea pigs. Intra-species differences in synaptic architecture or in density of dopamine transporter expression may account for these differences.
Complex pharmacological effect of l-deprenyl cannot be explained by its MAO-B inhibitory action only. In contrast to other parent MAO inhibitors (J-512, J-516, LK-63, U-1424) l-, and d-deprenyl inhibit the hypothalamic noradrenaline and striatal dopamine (DA) reuptake without influencing the uptake of serotonin, both in rat and in human brain. Long-term treatment 19 x 0.25 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg, sc with l-deprenyl elicits 37 +/- 2.8 and 43 +/- 3.2% inhibition, respectively, of DA reuptake capacity in the rat striatal cell-free homogenate. To compare the potencies of deprenyl isomers on DA and DOPAC levels of rat striatum drugs were given 0.25, 2 and 8 mg/kg ip and their effects measured 4 and 48 h after treatment. DA content was increased only by 8 mg/kg d-deprenyl 4 h after its injection, but DOPAC level was decreased by both isomers. After 48 h, actions of d-deprenyl terminated but the effect of l-deprenyl was still present.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects. Parkinson's disease neuropathology is characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, with widespread involvement of other central nervous system (CNS) structures and peripheral tissues. Pathogenic mechanisms associated with genomic, epigenetic and environmental factors lead to conformational changes and deposits of key proteins due to abnormalities in the ubiquitin-proteasome system together with dysregulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Conventional pharmacological treatments for PD are dopamine precursors (levodopa, l-DOPA, l-3,4 dihidroxifenilalanina), and other symptomatic treatments including dopamine agonists (amantadine, apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (entacapone, tolcapone). The chronic administration of antiparkinsonian drugs currently induces the "wearing-off phenomenon", with additional psychomotor and autonomic complications. In order to minimize these clinical complications, novel compounds have been developed. Novel drugs and bioproducts for the treatment of PD should address dopaminergic neuroprotection to reduce premature neurodegeneration in addition to enhancing dopaminergic neurotransmission. Since biochemical changes and therapeutic outcomes are highly dependent upon the genomic profiles of PD patients, personalized treatments should rely on pharmacogenetic procedures to optimize therapeutics.
First line antidepressants are the so-called SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), e.g. fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and escitalopram. Unfortunately, these drugs mostly do not provide full symptom relief and have a slow onset of action. Therefore other antidepressants are also being prescribed that inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (e.g. reboxetine, desipramine) or the reuptake of both serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (e.g. venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran). Nevertheless, many patients encounter residual symptoms such as impaired pleasure, impaired motivation, and lack of energy. It is hypothesized that an impaired brain reward system may underlie these residual symptoms. In agreement, there is some evidence that reuptake inhibitors of both norepinephrine and dopamine (e.g. methylphenidate, bupropion, nomifensine) affect these residual symptoms. In the pipeline are new drugs that block all three monoamine transporters for the reuptake of 5-HT, norepinephrine and dopamine, the so-called triple reuptake inhibitors (TRI). The working mechanisms of the above-mentioned antidepressants are discussed, and it is speculated whether depressed patients with different symptoms, sometimes even opposite ones due to atypical or melancholic features, can be matched with the different drug treatments available. In other words, is personalized medicine for major depression an option in the near future?
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A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of oral selegiline augmentation of antipsychotic medication was carried out. Outpatients were chosen who did not manifest severe positive symptoms at baseline, who did not meet criteria for coexisting major depression, and who had been maintained on a stable regimen of antipsychotic medication.
A fatality due to ingestion of a reversible inhibitor of monoamine-oxidase A (MAO-A) is reported. Moclobemide is generally considered as a safe drug far less toxic than tricyclic anti-depressants. However, severe intoxications may result from interactions with other drugs and food such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), anti-Parkinsonians of the MAOI-type (e.g. selegiline) or tyramine from ripe cheese or other sources. In the present case, high levels of moclobemide were measured in peripheral blood exceeding toxic values reported so far in the scientific literature. The body fluid concentrations of moclobemide were of 498 mg/l in peripheral whole blood, 96.3 mg/l in urine while an amount of approximately 33 g could be recovered from gastric contents. The other xenobiotics were considered of little toxicological relevance. The victim (male, 48-year-old) had a past history of depression and committed one suicide attempt 2 years before death. Autopsy revealed no evidence of significant natural disease or injury. It was concluded that the manner of death was suicide and that the unique cause of death was massive ingestion of moclobemide.
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Time from randomization to the onset of disability that necessitated levodopa therapy (end point), as judged by the enrolling investigator.
After extended follow up (mean 6.8 years) until the end of September 1995, when arm 2 was terminated, the hazard ratio for arm 2 compared with arm 1 was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.79). For subjects who were randomised from arm 3 the hazard ratio for arm 2 was 1.54 (0.83 to 2.87). When all subjects were included the hazard ratio was 1.33 (1.02 to 1.74) and after adjustment for other baseline factors it was 1.30 (0.99 to 1.72). The excess mortality seemed to be greatest in the third and fourth year of follow up. Cause specific death rates showed an excess of deaths from Parkinson's disease only (hazard ratio 2.5 (1.3 to 4.7)). No significant differences were found for revised diagnosis, disability rating scores, autonomic or cardiovascular events, other clinical features, or drug interactions. Patients who died in arm 2 were more likely to have had possible dementia and a history of falls before death compared with those who died in arm 1.
The present study investigated oxidative damage and neuroprotective effect of the antiparkinsonian drug, L-deprenyl in neuronal death produced by intranigral infusion of a potent mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor, rotenone in rats. Unilateral stereotaxic intranigral infusion of rotenone caused significant decrease of striatal dopamine levels as measured employing HPLC-electrochemistry, and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the perikarya of ipsilateral substantia nigra (SN) neurons and their terminals in the striatum. Rotenone-induced increases in the salicylate hydroxylation products, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid indicators of hydroxyl radials in mitochondrial P2 fraction were dose-dependently attenuated by L-deprenyl. L-deprenyl (0.1-10mg/kg; i.p.) treatment dose-dependently attenuated rotenone-induced reductions in complex-I activity and glutathione (GSH) levels in the SN, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum or SN as well as striatal dopamine. Amphetamine-induced stereotypic rotations in these rats were also significantly inhibited by deprenyl administration. The rotenone-induced elevated activities of cytosolic antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase showed further significant increase following L-deprenyl. Our findings suggest that unilateral intranigral infusion of rotenone reproduces neurochemical, neuropathological and behavioral features of PD in rats and L-deprenyl can rescue the dopaminergic neurons from rotenone-mediated neurodegeneration in them. These results not only establish oxidative stress as one of the major causative factors underlying dopaminergic neurodegeneration as observed in Parkinson's disease, but also support the view that deprenyl is a potent free radical scavenger and an antioxidant.
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The noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitory potency of deprenyl, the highly selective and irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, methamphetamine enantiomers, and some other MAO inhibitors (clorgyline, J-508, J-511, J-512, J-516, LK-63, U-1424, 2-HxMP) was compared. In vitro hypothalamic NA reuptake was inhibited by (+)-, and (-)-methamphetamine, (+)- J-508 and (+)-deprenyl (IC50: 0.35, 3.5, 17.0 and 17.8 mumol/l, respectively), and U-1424, J-512, J-516, LK-63 and 2-Hx-MP showed IC50 > 1000 mumol/l. Striatal DA reuptake was inhibited by (+)-, and (-)-methamphetamine, (+)-, and (-)-deprenyl and clorgyline with IC50 of 0.6, 42.0, 24.0, 98.6 and 27.0 mumol/l, respectively, however the other compounds were ineffective. Hippocampal 5HT reuptake was slightly inhibited by clorgyline (IC50 205.0 mumol/l), while the other MAO-inhibitors were devoid of potency. Data suggest that potency and selectivity of MAO inhibition and reuptake inhibition are independent features of the compounds, and metabolism of deprenyl results in increased noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibition.
Previous studies have demonstrated impaired complex I activity in platelets from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who were receiving levodopa and other medications for their disease. Eleven patients with early PD underwent three sequential plateletphereses: while on no medication, after receiving carbidopa/levodopa for 1 month, and after receiving carbidopa/levodopa plus selegiline for 1 additional month. As expected, carbidopa/levodopa and selegiline significantly improved motor function in these patients. Treatment with carbidopa/levodopa alone and carbidopa/levodopa plus selegiline did not affect the activities of complexes I, II/III, and IV and citrate synthetase. These observations support the hypothesis that impaired complex I activity in PD patients is a characteristic of the disease and not due to medications.
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The development of pharmacogenetic-based clinical practice guidelines for the use of anti-Parkinson's disease drugs requires, as a pre-requisite, the identification and validation of genetic biomarkers. These biomarkers are then used as surrogate endpoints. This review analyzes potential genetic biomarkers which can be used to improve anti-Parkinson's disease therapy.
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Eight female subjects, of whom four were using oral contraceptives, ingested a single dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of selegiline HCl in an open four-period randomized study. Concentrations of selegiline and desmethlylselegiline in serum were measured by gas chromatography for 5 h. As it became evident that the use of oral steroids had a drastic effect on selegiline concentrations, the pharmacokinetic analyses were performed separately for oral contraceptive users and those not receiving any concomitant medication.
We considered randomized trials comparing antidepressant drugs to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. For the meta-analysis, we excluded trials with less than six months follow-up.
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Pretreatment with the MAO-inhibitors iproniazid, clorgyline, or deprenyl abolishes the effects of LSD on the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) in rats. The effects of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) are greatly potentiated by these substances. Brain levels of LSD are not affected by MAO inhibition whereas levels of 5-HT and 5-MT are significantly elevated. It is postulated that the decreased behavioral response to LSD is the result of 'MAO inhibitor-induced' changes whereas the increased response of 5-HT and 5-MT results from increased brain levels of these compounds.
Microsomal oxidation of exogenic compounds yields efferent metabolites with small molecular size. N-demethylation results in formaldehyde generation in addition to the nor-compound. Interesting changes in the level of formaldehyde elimination were observed after a single dose of either ( )-deprenyl or (+)-deprenyl. Urine elimination of the generated formaldehyde was determined using thin-layer chromatography after derivatization with dimedone.
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The diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease in the elderly is complicated by the common presence of multiple pathology and age related changes in drug handling. Accurate diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion combined with careful assessment before and after a trial of therapy. A multidisciplinary approach is required to help the patient, and their carer, cope with the fundamental disabilities resulting from Parkinson's disease. The elderly are more susceptible to side effects from antiparkinsonian medication and close supervision is therefore essential.
We evaluated the effect of l-deprenyl, a drug that increases the availability of endogenous dopamine, on the plasma levels of prolactin and growth hormone in 10 female patients with migraine and in 10 control subjects matched for age and menstrual phase. The patients showed a significant decrease in prolactin levels at 30, 60 and 120 min after the oral administration of 5 mg of l-deprenyl when compared with the values obtained in controls (p < 0.001). The effects of l-deprenyl on growth hormone plasma levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. These data suggest that l-deprenyl inhibits prolactin release in migraine patients, but not in control subjects. This differential sensitivity could be explained by dopamine receptor supersensitivity in migraine patients.
We investigated the antidepressant efficacy of l-deprenyl (selegiline), a selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor (MAOI), in a six-week open trial of 17 patients with atypical depression. Such patients have previously been shown to benefit from nonselective MAOIs such as phenelzine sulfate. Ten patients (59%) responded to l-deprenyl, but nine required dosages above the 10 to 20 mg/day used in previous investigations. l-Deprenyl was superior to six weeks of placebo administered to diagnostically similar patients in a separate double-blind study. In contrast with previous findings with pheneizine, responders to l-deprenyl differed from nonresponders by having lower baseline anxiety ratings. Even at high dosages, there appeared to be fewer side effects with l-deprenyl than with nonselective MAOIs.
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Oral selegiline, 2.5 mg, or placebo twice/day initiated 1 week before the quit day, followed by 5 mg oral selegiline or placebo twice daily for 26 weeks, plus active nicotine skin patch to all participants for the first 8 weeks only. Measures of continuous abstinence rates up to 52 weeks, withdrawal symptoms, blood pressure and adverse events incidence.