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Eulexin (Flutamide)
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Eulexin

Eulexin is a medication which belongs to a class of drugs known as antiandrogens. Eulexin is used along with drugs such as leuprolide. Eulexin blocks the effect of the male hormone testosterone. Taking Eulexin with leuprolide, which reduces the body's testosterone levels, you can treat prostate cancer.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Proscar, Avodart, Casodex, Cenestin, Eligard, Estrace, Lupron, Nilandron, Xtandi

 

Also known as:  Flutamide.

Description

Eulexin is a medication belongs to a class of drugs known as antiandrogens.

Eulexin is used along with drugs such as leuprolide to treat prostate cancer.

Eulexin blocks the effect of the male hormone testosterone. Giving Eulexin with leuprolide, which reduces the body's testosterone levels, you can treat prostate cancer.

Generic name of Eulexin is Flutamid.

Brand name of Eulexin is Eulexin.

Dosage

Take Eulexin orally.

Eulexin is best taken at evenly spaced intervals, and may be taken with or without food.

Eulexin daily dosage is 750 mg.

The recommended dosage of Eulexin: 2 capsules 3 times a day at 8-hour intervals.

This medicine is only for men.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Eulexin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Eulexin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdosage: loss of appetite, vomiting, slow breathing, decreased activity, trouble walking.

Storage

Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Eulexin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Eulexin if you are allergic to Eulexin components.

Be careful with Eulexin if you have blood disorders, liver problems.

Be careful with Eulexin if you smoke.

Be careful with Eulexin if you take mibefradil, warfarin, sleep medicine, sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-anxiety drugs, narcotic pain relievers (e.g., codeine), psychiatric medicine, anti-seizure drugs, muscle relaxants, certain antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine).

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

Avoid exposuring to sunlight or artificial UV rays (sunlamps or tanning beds).

Avoid laboratory tests (e.g., liver function) are needed while taking Eulexin.

Do not stop taking Eulexin suddenly.

eulexin capsules

This study shows that the androgen receptor agonistic potency is clearly concealed by the effects of androgen receptor antagonists in a total sediment extract, demonstrating that toxicity screening of total extracts is not enough to evaluate the full in vitro endocrine disrupting potential of a complex chemical mixture, as encountered in the environment. The anti-androgenic compounds were masking the activity of androgenic compounds in the extract with relatively high anti-androgenic potency, equivalent to 200 nmol flutamide equivalents/g dry weight. A two-step serial liquid chromatography fractionation of the extract successfully separated anti-androgenic compounds from androgenic compounds, resulting in a total androgenic potency of 3,820 pmol dihydrotestosterone equivalents/g dry weight. The fractionation simplified the chemical identification analysis of the original complex sample matrix. Seventeen chemical structures were tentatively identified. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a technical mixture of nonylphenol and dibutyl phthalate were identified to contribute to the anti-androgenic potency observed in the river sediment sample. With the GC/MS screening method applied here, no compounds with AR agonistic disrupting potencies could be identified. Seventy-one unidentified peaks, which represent potentially new endocrine disrupters, have been added to a database for future investigation.

eulexin dose

In order to study resistance to antiandrogens at the AR transactivation level we used a human AR (hAR) reporter assay system. In addition, we utilized an hAR deletion mutant to determine the functional domain responsible for the acquisition of resistance.

eulexin medication

Daily subcutaneous administration of 50 micrograms of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist [D-Trp6]LHRH ethylamide in adult dogs causes a transient increase in the serum testosterone (T) concentration which reaches a maximum at 200% above control on days 2-4 of treatment and progressively decreases to 7% of the pretreatment value on day 21, the last time interval studied. After a transient increase, the concentration of serum bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH) was progressively decreased on days 11 and 19, thus suggesting that in analogy with human findings, the loss of LH bioactivity is responsible for the inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis induced in the dog by LHRH agonists. Of major significance is the finding that the changes in serum T levels observed during the first 3 weeks of treatment, as well as the complete inhibition of the intratesticular concentration of sex steroids observed at the end of this period of treatment with the LHRH agonist were not affected by simultaneous administration of flutamide (125 mg per os every 8 h). Such findings indicate that at the dose used, the LHRH agonist is in full control of gonadotropin secretion, thus completely overcoming feedback influences. Since the administration of the antiandrogen flutamide does not decrease the efficacy of the LHRH agonist as blocker of testicular androgen biosynthesis, the present data support the use of a pure antiandrogen in order to neutralize the effect of the transient rise in testicular androgen secretion which always accompanies the first days of treatment with LHRH agonists in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

eulexin cost

The present study is the second in a series aiming at a systematic inventory of specific toxic effects of oils. By employing a recombinant yeast stably transfected with human estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) or -beta (ERbeta) or androgen receptor (AR) and expressing yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein, the (anti-)estrogenicity and (anti-)androgenicity of 11 crude oils and refined products were studied. None of the oils tested had significant estrogenic effects in the ERalpha assay or androgenic effects in the AR assay. However, all oils were capable of inducing estrogenic responses in the ERbeta assay, with several responses being above even the maximal response of the standard 17beta-estradiol (E2). Based on the lowest effect concentrations, the potencies of oils in all the assays were between four and seven orders of magnitude lower than those of the standards E2 or testosterone (T). The potencies of the actual individual petrochemical agonists may, however, be relatively high, considering the complex composition of oils. Additive effects, antagonistic effects, and a synergistic effect were measured in the assays upon coexposure to a fixed concentration of standard (E2 or T) and increasing concentrations of oils. To investigate whether the observed effects were receptor-mediated, coexposures to the synthetic inhibitors ICI 182,780 (ERbeta assay) or flutamide (AR assay), a fixed concentration of standard, and various concentrations of oils were performed. The results suggested that the androgenic effects were receptor mediated, whereas the estrogenic effects may be only partially mediated via the receptor. The present study indicates that oils contain compounds with possible endocrine-disrupting potential, some of them acting via the hormone receptors.

eulexin 250 mg

It has been reported that blocking of testosterone production inhibits bladder carcinogenesis in various animal models. We investigated how testosterone acts on rat bladder carcinogenesis using an antiandrogen, flutamide, and a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

eulexin 50 mg

The present study describes the role of the ubiquitin ligase Siah-2 and corepressor N-CoR in controlling androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) signaling in an appropriate animal model (Fischer 344 female rats) of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), especially under conditions of anti-androgen therapy with flutamide. Furthermore, this study describes the mechanisms of a promising therapeutic alternative for NMIBC based on Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) intravesical immunotherapy combined with flutamide, involving the interaction among steroid hormone receptors, their regulators and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Our results demonstrated that increased Siah-2 and AR protein levels and decreased N-CoR, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and estrogen receptors levels played a critical role in the urothelial carcinogenesis, probably leading to escape of urothelial cancer cells from immune system attack. P-MAPA immunotherapy led to distinct activation of innate immune system TLRs 2 and 4-mediated, resulting in increase of interferon signaling pathway, which was more effective in recovering the immunosuppressive tumor immune microenvironment and in recovering the bladder histology features than BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) treatments. The AR blockade therapy was important in the modulating of downstream molecules of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway, decreasing the inflammatory cytokines signaling and enhancing the interferon signaling pathway when associated with P-MAPA. Taken together, the data obtained suggest that interferon signaling pathway activation and targeting AR and Siah-2 signals by P-MAPA intravesical immunotherapy alone and/ or in combination with AR blockade may provide novel therapeutic approaches for NMIBC.

eulexin dosage

The aim of our study is to elucidate whether experimental arterial thrombosis is regulated by physiological doses of androgen and its receptor via modulation of platelet activation.

eulexin 500 mg

We present a systems biology analysis of rat primary hepatocytes response after exposure to 10 μM and 100 μM flutamide in liver microfluidic biochips. We coupled an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model of flutamide to a system biology model of its reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging by the Nrf2 regulated glutathione production. The PK model was calibrated using data on flutamide kinetics, hydroxyflutamide and glutathione conjugates formation in microfluidic conditions. The parameters of Nrf2-related gene activities and the subsequent glutathione depletion were calibrated using microarray data from our microfluidic experiments and literature information. Following a 10 μM flutamide exposure, the model predicted a recovery time to baseline levels of glutathione (GSH) and ROS in agreement with our experimental observations. At 100 μM, the model predicted that metabolism saturation led to an important accumulation of flutamide in cells, a high ROS production and complete GSH depletion. The high levels of ROS predicted were consistent with the necrotic switch observed by transcriptomics, and the high cell mortality we had experimentally observed. The model predicted a transition between recoverable GSH depletion and deep GSH depletion at about 12.5 μM of flutamide (single perfusion exposure). Our work shows that in vitro biochip experiments can provide supporting information for complex in silico modeling including data from extra cellular and intra cellular levels. We believe that this approach can be an efficient strategy for a global integrated methodology in predictive toxicology.

eulexin tablets

In a prospective randomised study the effect of flutamide 750 mg daily was compared with that of stilboestrol 3 mg daily in the treatment of 40 previously untreated patients with advanced prostatic cancer. There was a good subjective response to both treatments. After 12 months, a response was demonstrated in 13 of 20 patients treated with flutamide and 8 of 20 patients treated with stilboestrol. The difference was not statistically significant. Treatment with stilboestrol caused more frequent, and more severe, side effects than flutamide.

eulexin drug

With a median follow-up time of 160 weeks, the combination of bicalutamide plus LHRH-A was well tolerated and had equivalent time to progression and survival compared with flutamide plus LHRH-A. Treatment with bicalutamide plus LHRH-A resulted in longer median survival than treatment with flutamide plus LHRH-A.

eulexin 125 mg

Niphtholid (25 mg/kg/dl for 60 days) significantly increases the LH and testosterone blood levels but has no marked effect on ++androstenedione and testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin levels in Chinchilla++ mature rabbits. The concentration of latter was elevated against a background of low testosterone and androstenedione and high LH levels in the castrated rabbits. The obtained results show that niphtholid exerts a continuous stimulating and pronounced effect on the rabbit pituitary-gonadal axis and simultaneously prevents the manifestation of suppressing androgen effect on testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin contents in the organism.

eulexin capsules

The charts of 1048 patients treated between 1991 and 1999 with transperineal realtime ultrasound-guided (103)Pd (Theraseed) implants were reviewed to assess the effects on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) values and tissue (biopsy). Of the 1048 patients, 780 had sufficient data for this report. Preoperative total androgen blockade (leuprolide and flutamide) was used selectively in patients whose prostate size was >50 cc and those whose tumors had a Gleason score of >7.

eulexin dose

This study was a single-blind clinical trial. The subjects were selected from a group of patient with PCOS and metabolic syndrome, who were referred to the midwifery clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital and Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A total of 111 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: metformin, flutamide plus OCs, and simvastatin groups. The measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 months of therapy. Paired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and chi-square test were applied in this study.

eulexin medication

To examine how androgens affect endocrine events associated with increased ovulation rate, gilts were injected with androgen receptor agonists, an antagonist, or a combination of both. Blood samples were collected hourly from Day 13 to estrus (Day 0 = onset of estrus) coincident with gilts (n = 6 per treatment) receiving daily treatments of vehicle (corn oil), 10 mg of testosterone, 10 mg of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (dihydrotestosterone), 1.5 g of flutamide (an androgen receptor antagonist), testosterone plus flutamide, or dihydrotestosterone plus flutamide. Treatment of gilts with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone alone increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of FSH in serum, and these effects were blocked by cotreatment with flutamide. Estradiol-17beta and androstenedione concentrations in serum were increased (P < 0.05) at 2 h after injection of testosterone or testosterone plus flutamide but not after dihydrotestosterone treatment, probably because of the role of testosterone as a substrate for estradiol-17beta and androstenedione synthesis. There were no effects of the six treatments on serum concentrations of progesterone during luteolysis, but treating gilts with testosterone shortened (P < 0.05) the proestrous period. Total embryonic loss by Day 11 in gilts treated with dihydrotestosterone was reversed when gilts were cotreated with dihydrotestosterone plus flutamide. Results of this experiment indicated that androgen actions both increased FSH secretion and reduced embryonic survival by a mechanism(s) dependent on the androgen receptor.

eulexin cost

Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy effectively reduces the volume of normal tissue exposed to high radiation doses in the majority of treated patients and decreases the potential morbidity of therapy.

eulexin 250 mg

Treatment with flutamide has been associated with clinical hepatotoxicty. The toxicity, metabolism,and transport of flutamide were investigated using cultured human hepatocytes. Flutamide and its major metabolite, 2-hydroxyflutamide, caused an inhibition of taurocholate efflux in human hepatocytes with an IC50=75 microM and 110 microM, respectively. Treatment of hepatocytes with flutamide or 2-hydroxyflutamide for 24 h resulted in time- and concentration-dependent toxicity as assessed by inhibition of protein synthesis. Toxicity was greater after 1 h than after 24 h of treatment. Recovery in inhibition of protein synthesis by 24 h was attributed to the decreased presence of flutamide due to its metabolism. Flutamide was metabolized by hepatocytes to several metabolites, and formation of reactive intermediates of flutamide, as evidenced by the presence of glutathione-related adducts, was observed. Inhibition of flutamide metabolism by 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) resulted in enhancement of flutamide toxicity, which was associated with sustained levels of nonmetabolized drug. ABT also prevented the formation of reactive intermediates of flutamide. There was an additive toxicity when cells were treated with a combination of flutamide and 2-hydroxyflutamide. Simultaneous treatment with flutamide and acetaminophen (APAP) resulted in additive to synergistic toxic effects. Flutamide and APAP were found to have significant effects on each other's metabolism. Flutamide inhibited glucuronidation and sulfation of APAP, resulting in greater amounts of APAP available for bioactivation. APAP inhibited the hydroxylation of flutamide, and subsequent sulfation and acetylation of 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl) aniline, a metabolite of flutamide. In summary, we suggest that inhibition of bile acid efflux by flutamide and its 2-hydroxy metabolite may play a role in flutamide-induced liver injury. Both flutamide and 2-hydroxyflutamide are responsible for cytotoxicity if not metabolized. The data also suggest a possible drug-drug interaction between flutamide and APAP, resulting in inhibition of flutamide metabolism and increased APAP bioactivation and toxicity.

eulexin 50 mg

Outcomes of alternative (second-line) antiandrogen therapy in 112 patients with relapsing prostate cancer after first-line hormonal therapy were analyzed. A good response (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] decrease 50%) and a partial response (PSA decrease of 0–50%) by switching from bicalutamide (BCL) to flutamide (FLT) and from FLT to BCL were achieved in 35.4% (28/79) and 30.4% (24/79), and in 45.0% (9/20) and 20.0% (4/20) of cases, respectively. A good response and a partial response with the change from chlormadinone acetate (CMA) to a non-steroidal antiandrogen (FLT or BCL)and from a non-steroidal antiandrogen to CMA were obtained in 25.0% (2/8) and 37.5% (3/8), and in 20.0% (1/5) and 0% (0/5)of cases, respectively. In multivariate analyses, a second-line good response was significantly predictive of cause-specific survival from first therapy relapse to cancer death in all patients. Patients (52/112, 46.4%) with 30% decrease in PSA levels were associated with significantly better cause-specific survival as measured from the start of first-line treatment and first-line relapse.

eulexin dosage

Randomized, prospective clinical study.

eulexin 500 mg

Gender-specific disparities have been observed in myocardium exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). Male myocardium demonstrates greater loss in cardiac function in the presence of a given TNF level compared to female. In addition, we have previously demonstrated that estrogen has little influence on reducing TNF-caused myocardial dysfunction in female hearts, suggesting that male hormone - testosterone may be responsible for gender differences in TNF-mediated myocardial damage. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesize that endogenous testosterone plays a detrimental role in TNF-induced myocardial injury in male hearts.

eulexin tablets

Flutamide, sustained-release goserelin acetate, and a combination of these agents were effective in protecting the germinal epithelium of the rat during chemotherapy. A combination of flutamide and goserelin acetate provided the best protection. This study demonstrates for the first time the protective effect of flutamide and flutamide with goserelin acetate on the germinal epithelium during chemotherapy.

eulexin drug

The Deleted in AZoospermia (DAZ) gene family plays an essential role in spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals. This gene family contains two autosomal genes, BOULE and DAZL (DAZ-Like), and the DAZ gene cluster in the Y chromosome. CDC25A (a cell cycle regulator) has been proposed as a putative substrate for the RNA-binding proteins of DAZ family. However, mechanisms regulating DAZ gene expression have been poorly investigated. We analyzed immunohistochemical localization of DAZL, BOULE and CDC25A, as well as the involvement of testosterone (T) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in the modulation of mRNA expression for DAZL, BOULE and CDC25A in the adult mouse testes. It was found that DAZL was mostly immunolocalized in spermatogonia, while BOULE and CDC25A were detected in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Three-color immunofluorescence showed that DAZL-positive cells also expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro incubation of the testes showed that neither T nor IGF1 affected DAZL mRNA expression. However, either T or IGF1 increased BOULE mRNA expression. Antiandrogen flutamide abolished the T-induced increase in BOULE mRNA, but had no effect on the IGF1 induced increase in the mouse testes. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, prevented IGF1-induction of BOULE mRNA. It was found that IGF1 increased CDC25A mRNA expression and that U0126 - but not flutamide - abolished the IGF1-induced CDC25A mRNA expression. These results showed that IGF1 regulated the expression of BOULE and CDC25A mRNAs via ERK1/2 signaling and in T-independent pathway during spermatogenesis in the adult mouse testes.

eulexin 125 mg

Flutamide administration to FZDR resulted in the reversal of abnormal systemic and renal alpha-1-mediated vasoconstriction and enhanced nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation. Flutamide caused a paradoxic but specific increase in renal perfusion during ET-1 and TXA2 receptor activation, which could be renoprotective in females. The salutary effects of flutamide on vascular reactivity in the FZDR may be mediated by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. These results are compatible with the notion that endogenous testosterone may regulate systemic and renal microcirculation in the female sex and in the type 2 diabetic state.

eulexin capsules

Flutamide has been used as an adjunct for decreasing the mortality from subsequent sepsis. Heatstroke resembles septic shock in many aspects. We hypothesized that heat-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and lethality could be reduced by flutamide therapy. In heatstroke groups, mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C, for 1h) in a controlled-environment chamber. The heat-stressed mice were returned to normal room temperature (24°C) after whole body heating. Mice still alive on day 4 of WBH treatment were considered survivors. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 2.5h post-WBH. Heatstroke mice were subcutaneously treated with flutamide (12.5-50mg/kg body weight in 0.05 ml) or vehicle solution (0.05 ml/kg body weight) once daily for 3 consecutive days post-WBH. We evaluated the effect of flutamide in heatstroke mice and showed that flutamide significantly (i) attenuated hypothermia, (ii) reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the hypothalamus, the spleen, the liver, and the kidney, (iii) attenuated the plasma index of toxic oxidizing radicals (e.g., nitric oxide metabolites and hydroxyl radicals), (iv) diminished the plasma index of the organ injury index (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase), (v) attenuated plasma systemic inflammation response molecules (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6), (vi) reduced the index of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the lung (e.g., myeloperoxidase activity), and (vii) allowed three times the fractional survival compared with vehicle. Thus, flutamide appears to be a novel agent for the treatment of mice with heatstroke or patients in the early stage of heatstroke.

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Up to 32% of cultured cells exhibited spontaneous elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). The frequency of these elevations was reduced by nifedipine (10 microM), ryanodine (1 microM), and the adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL 12,330A (20 microM). Compared to steroid-free cells, a 3-day incubation of cells with testosterone (only 3 nM) elevated basal, but not peak [Ca(2+)](i). In the presence of flutamide, all concentrations of testosterone tested elevated basal, but not peak [Ca(2+)](i). DHT (30 and 300, but not 3 nM) lowered peak and basal [Ca(2+)](i). Increased testosterone concentration dependently decreased resting cell cAMP (pIC(50): 7.64 +/- 0.29 nM).

eulexin medication

Ninety-two and 68 patients underwent biopsies at 12 and 24 months, respectively, after the end of radiation therapy. While 62% of control patients at 12 months in Group 1 disclosed residual neoplasm, only 30% and 4% showed residual disease in groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.00005). When looking at 24 months, 65, 28, and 5% showed residual cancer for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.00001). The PSA measurements indicate also at 12 months a difference between the three groups (p < 0.0001), except at 24 months, the difference between the group 2 and 3 is no longer significant.

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Six men being treated for advanced prostate carcinoma with flutamide/finasteride combination therapy developed painful gynecomastia, which was treated with tamoxifen 10 to 30 mg/day for 1 month. Clinical follow-up included breast measurements and determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), testosterone, and estradiol levels.

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eulexin 250 mg 2017-03-02

Increased cholangiocyte growth is critical for the maintenance of biliary mass during liver injury by bile duct ligation (BDL). Circulating levels of testosterone decline following castration and during cholestasis. Cholangiocytes secrete sex hormones sustaining cholangiocyte growth by autocrine mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone is an autocrine trophic factor stimulating biliary growth. The expression of androgen receptor (AR) was determined in liver sections, male cholangiocytes, and cholangiocyte cultures [normal rat intrahepatic cholangiocyte cultures (NRICC)]. Normal or BDL (immediately after surgery) rats were treated with testosterone or antitestosterone antibody or underwent surgical castration (followed by administration of testosterone) for 1 wk. We evaluated testosterone serum levels; intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) in liver sections of female and male rats following the administration of testosterone; and secretin-stimulated cAMP levels and bile secretion. We evaluated the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-HSD3, the enzyme regulating testosterone synthesis) in cholangiocytes. We evaluated the effect of testosterone on the proliferation of NRICC in the absence/presence of flutamide (AR antagonist) and antitestosterone antibody and the expression of 17β-HSD3. Proliferation of NRICC was evaluated following stable knock down of 17β-HSD3. We found that cholangiocytes and NRICC expressed AR. Testosterone serum levels decreased in castrated rats (prevented by the administration of testosterone) and rats receiving antitestosterone antibody. Castration decreased IBDM and secretin-stimulated cAMP levels and ductal secretion of BDL rats. Testosterone increased 17β-HSD3 expression and proliferation in NRICC that was blocked by flutamide and antitestosterone antibody. Knock down of 17β-HSD3 blocks the proliferation buy eulexin of NRICC. Drug targeting of 17β-HSD3 may be important for managing cholangiopathies.

eulexin tablets 2017-02-21

To observe the effects of flutamide (Flu) on the development of testicular germocytes in SD rats, and to establish a rat model for further researches buy eulexin on the maldevelopment of cryptorchidism gonocytes (Go).

eulexin capsules 2015-02-18

The efficacy and side effects of flutamide were compared with estramustine in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma. Thirty patients with metastatic cancers but with no serious cardiovascular (CV) conditions were randomly assigned to receive treatment either with flutamide (250 mg X 3) or with estramustine (280 mg X 2). Clinical examination, bone scan, laboratory measurements, including coagulation studies were performed prior to randomization, every three months during year one, and at six-month intervals thereafter. The two groups were comparable with respect to age and tumor characteristics. However, more patients presented with skeletal pain among those later treated with flutamide. During an observation period of between one and two and one-half years, flutamide was discontinued in 1 case (7%) because of icterus, and estramustine in 3 cases (20%) because of CV complications. Of the remaining 14 flutamide-treated patients, 13 responded initially. Eleven of them relapsed, and 5 died of cancer. In the corresponding group of 12 estramustine-treated patients, there were 11 primary responders. Of these, only 2 relapsed and died as did the only nonresponder. The difference between the two groups with regard to relapse is significant (P less than 0.01), but not with regard to mortality. All estramustine-treated patients lost buy eulexin their libido, whereas only 20 per cent of the patients treated with flutamide did so. In the present limited material there was an initial favorable response to flutamide without signs of CV complications and with maintained libido in most cases. However, due to significantly increased risk for relapse compared with estramustine, flutamide cannot be recommended as single therapy except in cases where estrogens are contraindicated or when interference with libido and potency is unacceptable.

eulexin 125 mg 2015-04-27

Daily administration of 100 micrograms of testosterone to unilaterally ovariectomized rats for 18 days caused a significant decrease in compensatory ovarian hypertrophy. The number of corpora lutea was markedly reduced and many cystic follicles were noticeable. Administration of graded doses (0.5, 1 and 3 mg daily) of flutamide over the same period did not cause any significant change buy eulexin in the weight and histology of the ovary in untreated unilaterally ovariectomized animals. However, treatment with the same doses of flutamide prevented the changes observed in the reamining ovary of testosterone-treated animals.

eulexin dose 2015-01-20

Prolactin secretion, apoptosis, FOXO1, and the free buy eulexin radical scavengers superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and SOD1 protein expression.

eulexin drug 2017-08-19

Inhibition of androgen action by flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, blocked testicular descent in 40% of the testes exposed to this agent continuously from gestational day 13 through postpartal day 28. By contrast, only 11% of the testes failed to descend when blocked by 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors during the same period. Flutamide administration over narrower time intervals (gestational day 13-15, 16-17, or 18-19) revealed maximal interference with testicular descent after androgen inhibition during buy eulexin gestational days 16-17. No significant differences in testicular or epididymal weights were evident between descended and undescended testes; furthermore, no correlation was detected between the presence of epididymal abnormalities and testicular descent. These findings indicate that androgen inhibition during a brief period of embryonic development can block testicular descent. The mechanism through which this inhibition occurs remains to be elucidated.

eulexin medication 2017-11-08

The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set for compounds that inhibited AR-TIF2 PPI formation or disrupted preexisting complexes. Eleven modulators of steroid family nuclear receptors (NRs) and 6 non-NR ligands inhibited AR-TIF2 PPI formation, and 10 disrupted preexisting complexes. The hits appear to be either AR antagonists or nonspecific inhibitors of NR activation and trafficking. Given that the LOPAC set represents such a small and restricted biological and chemical diversity, it is anticipated that screening a much larger and more diverse compound library will be required to find AR-TIF2 PPI inhibitors/disruptors. The AR-TIF2 protein-protein buy eulexin interaction biosensor (PPIB) approach offers significant promise for identifying molecules with potential to modulate AR transcriptional activity in a cell-specific manner that is distinct from the existing antiandrogen drugs that target AR binding or production. Small molecules that disrupt AR signaling at the level of AR-TIF2 PPIs may also overcome the development of resistance and progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer.

eulexin dosage 2017-02-26

We report an unusual case of bilateral choroidal buy eulexin masses developing in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer. Visual symptoms resolved and ocular mass lesions regressed after initiating total androgen deprivation. The natural history and management of choroidal metastatis originating from prostate cancer is discussed.

eulexin 50 mg 2017-06-17

6 months' androgen deprivation given before and during radiotherapy improves the outlook of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Further follow-up is needed buy eulexin to estimate precisely the size of survival benefits. Increased radiation doses and additional periods of androgen deprivation might lead to further benefit.

eulexin 500 mg 2015-10-03

Several endpoints of different molecular complexity were studied in the Hershberger assay in order to evaluate the specificity and suitability of this test as a broad screening model. Androgen and estrogen receptors were activated or blocked, and expression of typical estrogen- or androgen responsive genes (complement C3, ERalpha, ERbeta, AR, TRPM-2, PBP C3, ODC, and IGF-1 mRNA) was analyzed in rat ventral prostate by real time RT-PCR. Administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) to castrated testosterone-treated rats had no effect on reproductive organ weights or gene expression levels and the anti-estrogen, ICI 182780, only affected ODC expression. Therefore, estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds would not be expected to seriously affect the outcome of a Hershberger test. However, EB given alone to castrated rats resulted in various effects. EB increased seminal vesicle weight, an effect reversed by ICI 182780, and affected TRPM-2, PBP C3, ODC, IGF-1, AR, and ERalpha mRNA levels. AR expression in the prostate seemed to be under regulation of both estrogens and androgens, as ICI 182780 inhibited the testosterone-induced AR expression, and flutamide inhibited the EB-induced AR expression. These data indicate that estrogens have various effects in castrated male rats and that expression of several genes is under multi-hormonal control in the ventral prostate. However, interactions between estrogens and buy eulexin androgens do not play a major role in the Hershberger assay, as simultaneous TP administration abolished the effects of EB. First choice of gene expression profiles in the Hershberger assay to study androgenic or anti-androgenic effects would be the traditional, TRPM-2 and PBP C3, supplemented with the new complement C3.

eulexin cost 2017-12-20

Predilection of juvenile angiofibromas in adolescent boys has prompted the hypothesis of hormone-dependent tumor growth. However, buy eulexin knowledge on expression and function of sex hormone receptors in juvenile angiofibromas is still sparse and inconsistent.

eulexin 250 mg 2017-05-07

In this study, the clinical revelance of pathological downstaging and the lower percentage of patients with positive margins in the neoadjuvantly treated group with a clinical T2 tumor is not confirmed by a lower PSA progression rate. However, this study indicates that there may be a trend that this advantage in favor of the NEO group directly translates into a better local control rate in clinical T2 tumors. Better local control in cT2 tumors is only going to be of relevance if subsequently you can show that there is a better survival for these patients. Unfortunately, this article reports a buy eulexin study which is not yet mature enough to show relevant information. Presently, neoadjuvant therapy should not be given outside clinical research settings.

eulexin tablets 2015-01-18

The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of perinatal androgens acting via the androgen receptor, as opposed to the estrogen receptor, for the differentiation of adult mounting and lordosis behavior in female rats. Female Wistar (W) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to the anti-androgen flutamide prenatally (days 11-22 of pregnancy) and/or neonatally (days 1-10). The females were ovariectomized in adulthood and repeatedly tested for mounting and lordosis behavior. Flutamide, given both pre- and neonatally to SD rats, reduced adult T-induced female mounting. Flutamide administered only prenatally or only neonatally did not lower adult mounting behavior of SD rats. Mounting behavior of female W rats, following pre- and/or neonatal flutamide treatment was not affected. Lordosis behavior was also not altered by perinatal flutamide treatment of either strain. The results of the present buy eulexin study, no effect of prenatal flutamide, do not support the hypothesis that female rats require prenatal androgen receptor-mediated actions of testosterone in the organization of neural tissues for the occurrence of adult mounting and lordosis behavior. Only in SD rats androgenic organization of adult mounting behavior via the androgen receptor seems to occur both pre- and neonatally. Since clear behavioral effects of prenatal flutamide treatment have been published earlier in Long-Evans females, we suggest strain differences in sensitivity for perinatal androgenization in female rats. Future research into that possibility is needed.

eulexin capsules 2015-09-29

Serum testosterone could play an important role when delayed maximal androgen blockade is indicated as the second-line treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Delayed maximal androgen blockade might be more beneficial in patients with a serum testosterone level buy eulexin of ≥ 5ng/dl.

eulexin 125 mg 2015-08-15

Flutamide does not affect ovulation improvement in PCOS patients undergoing induction ( Casodex High Dose Registration Number: IRCT 201105081141N10).

eulexin dose 2015-12-13

Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of DHEA and delta 4-dione similar to those found in adult man on sensitive and specific markers of androgen action in the rat ventral prostate. In addition to ventral prostate weight, we have measured the steady state levels of the mRNAs encoding the C1 component of rat prostatic binding protein (PBP-C1) and spermine-binding protein (SBP) using 35S-labeled cDNA probes for in situ hybridization. One week after castration, ventral prostate weight fell 84%, while prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen-dependent mRNAs were undetectable. When administered via Silastic implants to castrated adult rats for 1 week, plasma concentrations of 1.37 +/- 0.06 ng/ml DHEA or 0.43 +/- 0.08 ng/ml delta 4-dione independently caused increases in ventral prostate weight to 33% and 65% of normal values, respectively. The same plasma levels of DHEA and delta 4-dione resulted in high intraprostatic levels of DHT to 1.19 +/- 0.34 and 3.66 +/- 0.89 ng/g tissue, respectively. Furthermore, DHEA caused an increase in the steady state levels of PBP-C1 and SBP mRNAs to 50% and 57% of the normal state, respectively, while delta 4-dione caused increases corresponding to 80% and 119% of control values, respectively. Castrated adult rats receiving testosterone at a Lanoxin Dose Range concentration of 1.66 +/- 0.37 ng/ml plasma maintained normal ventral prostate weight and gene expression levels. The present results demonstrate that circulating levels of the adrenal steroids DHEA and delta 4-dione comparable to those found in man cause an important stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression in the rat, probably after their conversion to DHT in the prostatic tissue itself.

eulexin drug 2015-11-12

Improvement of hirsutism was assessed using the Ferriman-Gallwey hair density index. Side effects of drug therapy (deterioration of menses and dry skin) were explored. Androgen parameters included testosterone (T Suprax Cefixime Cost ), sex hormone-binding globulin, bound, nonbound, and free T, androstanediol glucuronide, and others.

eulexin medication 2017-07-23

Idiopathic Cefixime Drug Study hirsutism (IH) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most common causes of hirsutism which affects 5-10% of all women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of flutamide plus diane 35 in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome.

eulexin dosage 2015-10-11

Histological examination showed no nodal involvement in all cases. The tumor could not be identified (Po) in two of the four patients who received hormone therapy. The other two patients were staged down; the Gleason score remained unchanged in one and increased in the other. The patients who did not receive preoperative hormone therapy showed concordant clinical and pathological stages, except one in whom infiltration of the prostatic capsule was observed. No difference was found concerning the facility in performing surgery Cozaar Mg between the treated and untreated patients.

eulexin 50 mg 2015-04-12

Flutamide is an antiandrogen used for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. Its principal side-effect is represented by liver toxicity. Cutaneous side-effects of flutamide are uncommon; three cases Nexium Dosage Otc of photo-allergic dermatitis have been described, and we report with our observation, the third case of cutaneous pseudoporphyria induced by flutamide.

eulexin 500 mg 2017-12-18

The anaemia associated with androgen deprivation is significant and occurs routinely in men receiving CHB. It is normochromic, normocytic, temporally-related to the initiation of androgen blockade and usually resolves after CHB is discontinued. We suggest Triphala Benefits Reviews that patients receiving CHB undergo haematological testing at baseline, 1-2 months after initiating CHB and periodically thereafter. Patients developing anaemia should be questioned about symptoms reflecting physiological compromise (e.g. angina, dyspnoea on exertion). In the absence of other causes, CHB should be suspected in the development of anaemia in patients receiving this treatment.

eulexin cost 2017-04-30

The Harderian gland (hg) is a gland which occupies a large portion of the orbital cavity. In many species, a sexual dimorphism occurs, which suggests a gonadal steroid control of the hg. The present study examines, in primary cultures of hamster hg cells, the regulation of the androgen receptor mRNA (AR mRNA) expression. In dose-response experiments measuring the expression of AR mRNA, testosterone (T) (10(-12) M) induced a 1-fold increase of AR mRNA compared with unexposed cells, and this effect reached its zenith (6.2-fold) when cells were exposed to 10(-8) M T. In other experiments, cells were exposed or not to different drugs [T, T + flutamide (F), F, T + cycloheximide (Cy), Cy] for different times (up to 96 hr). These experiments showed a time-dependent increase of AR mRNA in the cells exposed to T, while in the cells exposed to F, T + F, T + Cy, Cy, and control (unexposed), a time-dependent decrease of AR mRNA was observed. The size of the hamster AR mRNA in these in vitro experiments was similar to that observed in other mammals (9.5 kb). It is concluded that primary cultures of hamster hg cells are a valuable model for studying hg cell activity and that in this system T autoinduces its own receptor.