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The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome was 62.7% in the presence of endometrial microbial colonization at baseline (any microbe) and 50% in the absence of colonization (RR = 1.25; 99% CI 0.42-3.7). Prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 61.9% with plasma cell endometritis, and 70.8% without; RR = 0.87 (0.50-1.5). There was a nonsignificant reduction in adverse pregnancy outcome in the absence of Gardnerella vaginalis or gram-negative rods with RR (95% CI) = 0.60 (0.3-1.2) and 0.66 (0.4-1.2), respectively. In the presence of these microbes, antibiotics appeared to increase adverse outcomes: RR = 1.5 (1.1-2.0) and 1.5 (1.1-2.1), respectively. This reversal of impact represents a crossover interaction.
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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in our area, and the reinfection rate at 6 months and 1 year of follow-up after successful eradication.
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Metronidazole, tetracycline HCl and famotidine are commonly used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer. In this paper, stabilities of these drugs and their combinations in solid and liquid states were studied as part of preformulation in the development of a combination drug delivery system. Solubility studies of metronidazole and tetracycline HCl were investigated, which indicated that both metronidazole and tetracycline HCl have high solubilities at and around pH 2.0. Metronidazole is relatively stable with little degradation in liquid phase. Tetracycline HCl in the dry state is stable when stored at room temperature regardless of exposure to light or humidity in the range of 20-65%. Enhanced temperature associated humidity effect was responsible for the instabilities of tetracycline HCl and famotidine to different extents. Elevated temperature accelerated the degradation of all the drugs in liquid phase but light exposure was not a factor for the degradation. The degradation processes of tetracycline HCl and famotidine were highly dependent on the pH of the solution, and relatively stable profiles were achieved at pH 4.0. No potential incompatibility between the drugs under storage conditions was observed in the development of a new multi-drug delivery tablet.
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The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates recovered from turkeys has increased dramatically. Monitoring the progress of this resistance becomes a growing public health issue. The aim of the present study was to provide information of the current status of antibiotic resistance patterns in Campylobacter jejuni from turkeys. Seventy-six C. jejuni isolates were recovered from 67 epidemiologically unrelated meat turkey flocks in different regions of Germany in 2010 and 2011. The isolates were typed by flaA genotyping and were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against 12 antibiotics by using a broth microdilution test as well as testing the genetic determination of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance. All isolates (n = 76) were sensitive to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. The numbers of isolates that were sensitive to streptomycin, erythromycin, neomycin, and amoxicillin were 69 (90.8%), 61 (80.2%), 58 (76.4%), and 44 (57.9%), respectively. Only one isolate was sensitive to all tested antibiotics. The emergence of a high resistance rate and multidrug resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents were observed. The resistance against sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, naladixic acid, and tetracycline was 58 (76.3%), 58 (76.3%), 53 (69.7%), 51 (67.1%), and 42 (55.3%), respectively. None of the isolates was resistant to all antibiotics. Multidrug resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents was found and ranged from 3.9% to 40.8%. Replacement of the Thr-86-->Ile in gyrA gene and detection of the tet(O) gene were the main resistance mechanisms for fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively, while the lack of mutation in position 2074 and 2075 on the 23S rRNA gene was responsible for macrolide resistance. The phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles were compatible in the case of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline but were not completely congruent with respect to erythromycin.
The results presented suggest the need to keep in mind that failure in eradication therapies based on metronidazole and rabeprazole could be due to an antagonism of the drugs.
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It can be concluded that amoxicillin/ metronidazole associated with nonsurgical therapy promotes an additional PPD reduction in the treatment of GAgP; however, this therapy did not promote additional benefits in the evaluated immunologic parameters.
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MMC were loaded onto PLGA biopolymer microspheres at a 1:1:1 ratio using the double emulsion technique. The morphology of microspheres was observed by a (SEM). The controlled release of antibiotics was evaluated over an 18-day period. The antibacterial efficacy of released antibiotics against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was evaluated by measuring the diameter of the growth-inhibition zone. The cytotoxicity of MMC-containing microspheres was also evaluated and compared using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. One-way anova was used for the data analysis.
Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.
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Porous titanium granules (PTG) may have potential as an osteoconductive bone graft substitute to treat peri-implant osseous defects. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and radiographic outcomes of peri-implant osseous defects after treatment with PTG.
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Pouchitis is one of the most common and debilitating complications of a restorative proctocolectomy. We aimed to analyze the features of pouchitis after restorative proctocolecomy and to determine the risk factors related to its development.
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We retrospectively analyzed 40 cases of SPKT performed between December 1999 and January 2010 in our center, including the survival rate, complications and the reasons of reoperation.
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In the present study, the Prevotella species are the most frequently isolated obligate anaerobes from periodontal abscesses. The current results show their alarmingly high resistance rate against clindamycin and roxithromycin; thus, the use of these antibiotics is unacceptable for the empirical therapy of periodontal abscesses. A brief prevalence of four resistance genes in the anaerobic bacteria that were isolated was also demonstrated.
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Two prospective pilot single center studies were performed in Thailand. H. pylori-infected subjects were randomized to 7- or 14-day regimens using a high-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy consisting of lansoprazole (60 mg) twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and long-acting clarithromycin MR 1 g once daily. H. pylori was defined as positive H. pylori culture; or two positive tests (rapid urease test and histology); CYP2C19 genotyping was performed. H. pylori eradication was evaluated by (13) C-UBT 4 or more weeks after treatment.
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A 30-year-old male was transferred to the intensive care unit with worsening sepsis of unknown origin and a known history of Crohn's disease. The patient presented with a five-day history of nausea, fever, and serous diarrhea. Clinical examination of the abdomen was unremarkable except for mild epigastric pain on palpation.
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Infections in the older person are common and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Infections of the urinary tract, skin and soft tissue infections including decubitus ulcers, antibiotics associated diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infections are particularly important in the elderly because of their frequency. While most initial antibiotic therapy is empiric, its important before treatment to try to document the etiology for better use of antibiotics. Infections of the urinary tract are frequently and potentially serious in the elderly, they must be separated from asymptomatic bacteriuria that requires no therapy. Upper and lower urinary tract infections are frequently caused by aerobic gram negative bacilli and or enterococci. Most authors prefer the use of fluoroquinolones to manage such infections. The elderly with decubitus ulcer presents a problem in management, since these are frequent polymicrobic infections in which anaerobes play an important role. The initial therapy usually involves the combination of a fluoroquinolone plus an antianaerobic agent like clindamycin. C. difficile diarrhea as frequent in nursing home residents as well as the older person with prior antibiotics. The treatment should be with metronidazole and avoid the use of vancomycin. Pneumonias in the elderly can be acquired in the community, the nursing home or during a hospitalization. The etiologic agents that predominate change from S. pneumoniae and atypicals in those from the community to an increase in gram negative pneumonia. The initial treatment as started by most authors as well as guidelines include the use of a new fluoroquinolone like gatifloxacin alone or in combination with a beta-lactamic agent like ceftriaxone. For those infections acquired in the hospital therapy with third or fourth generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, beta-lactams with betalactamase inhibitors alone or in combination with an aminoglucoside and or vancomycin if MRSA is suspected is accepted therapy.
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The present cases demonstrate that high-dose 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy not only induces a colitis but also may involve the upper small intestine tract. Consequently, it represents an increasing and serious adverse event of high-dose chemotherapy. The etiology of the enterocolitis (drug- or bacterial-induced) needs further investigations in order to find a causal therapy and/or prophylaxis.
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One hundred and thirty-five patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Sixty-eight patients received 30 mg of lansoprazole once daily, 500 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole thrice daily for 2 weeks (LAM group), while the other 67 patients received the same dosage of those agents plus 18,000 tyrosine units of pronase thrice daily for 2 weeks (LAMP group). Eradication was assessed 4-6 weeks after treatment by immunohistochemical tests and cultures. We also determined the in vitro activity of pronase against H. pylori, and evaluated the synergistic effects between pronase and the other three drugs. To investigate the effect of pronase on the structure of the SMGL, surgically removed stomachs obtained from patients who had taken pronase were examined histopathologically.
We studied 53 patients admitted to hospital with bleeding of the upper gastrointestinal tract due to peptic ulcer and positive urease test over a 12-month period. After endoscopic diagnosis, intravenous pantoprazole (40 mg/12 hours), metronidazole (500 mg/8 hours) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (1,000 mg/200 mg/8 hours) was administered for 72 hours. The efficacy of eradication therapy was evaluated by 13C-urea breath test at least 2 months after the end of treatment.
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H. pylori isolates from endoscopic specimens taken from patients enrolled at two medical centers were obtained between January 2008 and December 2009. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and Etest methods. Agar media of varying pH (pH 7.3, 6.0, or 5.0) were used to assess whether acidity influences the bactericidal effects of the agents tested. Time-kill assays were used to assess for synergism between different drug combinations.
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Topical tacrolimus is becoming an important cause of RD along with topical steroids.
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The objective of this study was to assess whether a minimally invasive protocol can be effective in the long-term control of necrotic areas and pain in patients suffering osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with the use of bisphosphonate drugs (BRONJ).
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Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease associated with Gram-negative strict anaerobes which are immersed in the subgingival biofilm. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is frequently detected in patients with chronic periodontitis. Although isolates of P. gingivalis tend to be susceptible to most antimicrobial agents, relatively little information is available on its in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of P. gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis and to assess antimicrobial susceptibility in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clinical isolates to metronidazole and tetracycline. A descriptive, observational study was performed including 87 patients with chronic periodontitis. Samples were taken from the periodontal pocket using paper points, which were placed in thioglycollate broth. Samples were incubated for 4 hours at 37°C in anaerobic conditions and finally replated on Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobic agar (Oxoid). Bacteria were identified using the RapIDTMANAII system (Remel) and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined with the M.I.C. Evaluator test (MICE, Oxoid). P. gingivalis was identified in 30 of the 87 patients with chronic periodontitis, which represents a frequency of 34.5%. All 30 isolates (100%) were sensitive to metronidazole, with MIC values ranging from 0015-4ug/ml. Regarding tetracycline, 27 isolates (90%) were sensitive, with MIC values ranging from <0.015 to 4 ug /ml, the remaining three isolates (10%) were resistant to tetracycline with MIC values of 8ug/ ml. There was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, pocket depth, clinical attachment level and severity of periodontitis between the group of patients with chronic periodontitis and P. gingivalis and the group of patients with chronic periodontitis without P. gingivalis. In conclusion, P. gingivalis was found at a frequency of 34.5% in patients with chronic periodontitis and clinical isolates were highly sensitive to metronidazole and tetracycline.
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The present study was undertaken with an objective to develop a simple, accurate, cost-effective and reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the estimation of metronidazole benzoate (MB) from pharmaceutical formulations.
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Between 2013 and 2015, 245 dental implants were placed in 116 patients (76 males and 40 females) with concomitant bone augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. The sinus lifting procedure was bilateral in 35 patients and unilateral in 81 patients (a total of 151 sinuses).