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Imodium (Loperamide)
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Imodium

Generic Imodium is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of diarrhea, including Traveler's Diarrhea. Generic Imodium acts by slowing the activity of the intestines and affecting the movement of water and chemicals through the bowel.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Nexium, Motilium, Protonix, Prevacid, Prilosec, Maxolon, Aciphex, Reglan, Pepcid, Colospa

 

Also known as:  Loperamide.

Description

Generic Imodium is a perfect drug in struggle against diarrhea, including traveler's diarrhea.

Generic Imodium acts by slowing the activity of the intestines and affecting the movement of water and chemicals through the bowel.

Imodium is also known as Loperamide, Roko.

Generic name of Generic Imodium is Loperamide Hydrochloride.

Brand names of Generic Imodium are Imodium, Imodium A-D, Imotil, Kaopectate Caplet, Maalox Anti-Diarrheal.

Dosage

Generic Imodium is available in tablets and liquid forms.

Shake the liquid form of Generic Imodium before using.

Take Generic Imodium once or twice a day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Generic Imodium tablets and liquid form orally.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Imodium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Imodium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Imodium overdosage: urinating less than usual, severe stomach cramps, bloating, lightheadedness, feeling drowsy, vomiting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Imodium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Imodium if you are allergic to Generic Imodium components.

Be careful with Generic Imodium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Imodium can harm your baby.

Be careful when you are driving or operating machinery.

Keep Generic Imodium away from children and don't give it to other people for using.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Imodium suddenly.

imodium drug facts

Diarrhoeal diseases are the major cause of infant mortality in developing countries. Dehydration is the most common complication of diarrhoea, and severe dehydration causes up to 80% of diarrhoeal fatalities. For more than 100 years, physicians focused the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases on the symptom diarrhoea, and there were many 'antidiarrhoeal' drugs, such as water adsorbents (kaolin and pectin) and antiperistaltics (opium, paregoric elixir, diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulphate and loperamide). This approach focused on a non-dangerous symptom and diverted attention from the real killer, dehydration. A few decades ago, only severely dehydrated patients were treated by intravenous therapy. This treatment was prescribed by a group of professional health workers, administered intravenously by skilled nurses, and reserved for the few patients resident near health facilities. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), developed 20 years ago, has several advantages over intravenous therapy; it can be administered at home, at health clinics or in modern hospitals, by parents or by nurses or physicians. Most serum disturbances in dehydrated neonates, infants, children, adults and the elderly are resolved by this treatment.

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Dried whole plant parts of Ludwigia hyssopifolia were subjected to successive cold extraction with n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The methanol extract (LHM), obtained as 1% yield, showed significant antidiarrheal property by reducing diarrheal episodes in castor oil and serotonin induced diarrhea in laboratory mice at a dose of higher than 100 mg/kg body weight as compared to standard drug loperamide given at a dose of 66.67 microg/kg body weight. The percent reduction in diarrheal episode by 56.32 and 89.66 after castor oil challenge and 59.09 and 86.36 in serotonin induced diarrhea was observed at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. The extract LHM was also found to reduce the gastrointestinal motility by 53.8% at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight as compared to control, while no remarkable inhibition of gastrointestinal motility was seen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract.

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We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register of Trials, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 21 June 2012) and the reference lists of relevant articles.

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We investigated the possibility that loperamide might influence absorption and secretion in the human jejunum in vivo. Using a triple lumen tube perfusion technique in healthy normal volunteers we showed that loperamide did not affect net absorption of water or electrolytes under basal condition. When secretion was induced by prostaglandin E2, however, loperamide significantly reduced that secretion and in three out of six subjects secretion was abolished. Loperamide was effective when it was given either before or after secretion had been initiated. The results lend support to the suggestion that the antidiarrhoeal activities of loperamide may include an antisecretory effect.

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Infectious diarrhea is among the most common medical problems associated with military deployments and has been reported as a frequent problem for troops currently deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Lacking is information describing clinical presentation, risk behaviors, and treatment of travelers' diarrhea in this population.

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Preoperative demographics were similar between 2 groups in age (13.5 ± 3.5 years -Ostomy, 14.3 ± 3 years +Ostomy), serum albumin (3.6 ± 0.7 -Ostomy, 3.6 ± 0.7 +Ostomy), body mass index (20.8 ± 6.9 -Ostomy, 21.3 ± 8.6 +Ostomy), and daily corticosteroid dose (22.4 ± 17.7 mg -Ostomy, 23.5 ± 13.7 mg +Ostomy). Operating time was less in -Ostomy with mean times of 6:22 ± 2:04 vs 9:07 ± 2:57. The -Ostomy group required fewer ileoanal anastomotic dilations per patient (0.4 ± 0.8 vs 1.4 ± 1.9). Functional outcomes were not significantly different regarding pouchitis episodes per patient (0.6 ± 1.1 -Ostomy, 0.6 ± 1.1 +Ostomy), daily bowel movements (5.5 ± 1.9 -Ostomy, 6.7 ± 4.0 +Ostomy), and daily postoperative loperamide dose (8.4 ± 4.3 mg -Ostomy, 6.8 ± 4.0 mg +Ostomy).

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P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump that limits the distribution of drugs to several organs of the body. At the blood-brain barrier, P-gp blocks the entry of both loperamide and its metabolite, N-desmethyl-loperamide (N-dLop), and thereby prevents central opiate effects. Animal studies have shown that (11)C-dLop, compared with (11)C-loperamide, is an especially promising radiotracer because it generates negligible radiometabolites that enter the brain. The purposes of this study were to determine whether (11)C-dLop is a substrate for P-gp at the blood-brain barrier in humans and to measure the distribution of radioactivity in the entire body to estimate radiation exposure.

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Enhanced sensitivity for determination of basic drugs in body fluids was achieved by in-line coupling of extraction across supported liquid membrane (SLM) to large electrokinetic injection and transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis (tITP-CZE) in commercial CZE instrument. Twelve cm long tITP plug of 300mM ammonium acetate was formed in the separation capillary just before the electrokinetic injection of acceptor solution containing nortriptyline, haloperidol and loperamide extracted across the SLM. The tITP plug ensured efficient stacking and preconcentration of the injected basic drugs due to the tITP action of ammonium and the drugs were then separated by CZE using 5.2M acetic acid as background electrolyte. No interferences were observed from highly-abundant body fluid species (NaCl and human serum albumin) due to the excellent clean-up properties of SLMs and analytical sensitivity increased up to 340 times compared to SLM extractions coupled in-line to CZE with standard hydrodynamic injections. The SLM-tITP-CZE method was characterized by good repeatability (RSDs of peak areas below 7.8%), linearity over two orders of magnitude (r(2) better than 0.994) and limits of detection (defined as 3×S/N) between 3 and 45μg/L. Interfacing of SLM extractions to CZE instrumentation was achieved by low-cost, disposable micro-extraction devices, which can be routinely prepared in every analytical laboratory. These devices eliminated sample carry-over, minimized the need for manual sample handling and ensured fully automated determination (including extraction, injection, preconcentration and separation) of the three basic drugs in 20μL of untreated body fluids.

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The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, expressed at high levels at the blood-brain barrier, exerts a profound effect on the disposition of various therapeutic compounds in the brain. A rapid and efficient modulation of this efflux transporter could enhance the distribution of its substrates and thereby improve central nervous system pharmacotherapies. This study explored the impact of the intravenous coadministration of two P-glycoprotein modulators, tariquidar and elacridar, on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of loperamide, a P-glycoprotein substrate probe, in rats. After 1 hour postdosing, tariquidar and elacridar, both at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg, increased loperamide levels in the brain by 2.3- and 3.5-fold, respectively. However, the concurrent administration of both P-glycoprotein modulators, each at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, increased loperamide levels in the brain by 5.8-fold and resulted in the most pronounced opioid-induced clinical signs. This phenomenon may be the result of a combined noncompetitive modulation by tariquidar and elacridar. Besides, the simultaneous administration of elacridar and tariquidar did not significantly modify the pharmacokinetic parameters of loperamide. This observation potentially allows the concurrent use of low but therapeutic doses of P-gp modulators to achieve full inhibitory effects.

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Comparatively little attention has been given to the role of gastrointestinal motility in the pathogenesis and treatment of diarrhoea. Here the relationship between motor activity and absorption in the small intestine has been assessed, as has that between small intestinal secretion and motility, and between colonic salvage and motility. It is suggested that diarrhoea should be considered as a disturbance of intestinal flow, involving disturbances in both motility and transport. The role of antimotility agents (particularly opiate-like agents such as loperamide) is reviewed. The most successful antidiarrhoeal agents are those that combine a reversal of epithelial secretion with an action on motility.

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Several neuroleptics known to bind to calmodulin were tested for anti-diarrheal activity and were compared with the opiate anti-diarrheals loperamide and diphenoxylate. All inhibited the intestinal fluid secretion induced by 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 and castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats as a function of dose, the order of potency being loperamide approximately equal to diphenoxylate greater than chlorpromazine greater than promethazine greater than amitriptyline. The opiates loperamide and diphenoxylate were found to compete with [3H]trifluoperazine binding to calmodulin in the presence of calcium. These opiates were approximately 3 times more potent inhibitors of [3H]trifluoperazine binding than chlorpromazine. A positive correlation between calmodulin binding and anti-diarrheal activity was demonstrated.

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Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels underlie the pacemaker currents in neurons (I(h)) and cardiac (I(f)) cells. As such, the identification and characterization of novel blockers of HCN channels is important to enable the dissection of their function in vivo. Using a new IonWorks HT electrophysiology assay with human HCN1 and HCN4 expressed stably in cell lines, four HCN channel blockers are characterized. Two blockers known for their activity at opioid/Ca(2+) channels and K(+) channels, loperamide and CP-339,818 (respectively), are described to block HCN1 more potently than HCN4. The known HCN blocker ZD7288 was also found to be more selective for HCN1 over HCN4, while the HCN blocker DK-AH269 was equipotent on HCN4 and HCN1. Partial replacement of the intracellular Cl(-) with gluconate reduced the potency on both channels, but to varying degrees. For both HCN1 and HCN4, ZD7288 was most sensitive in lower Cl(-) solutions, while the potency of loperamide was not affected by the differing solutions. The block of HCN1 for all compounds was voltage-dependent, being relieved at more negative potentials. The voltage-dependent, Cl(-) dependent, HCN1 preferring compounds described here elaborate on the current known pharmacology of HCN channels and may help provide novel tools and chemical starting points for the investigation of HCN channel function in natively expressing systems.

imodium reviews

A total of 139 patients were randomly assigned, most of whom received fluorouracil- and oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens. The rate of diarrhea was 76.1% in the experimental group (n = 68) and 78.9% in the control group (n = 71). Treatment with octreotide LAR did not prevent or reduce the severity of CID. Treatment choices for diarrhea management included loperamide in the majority of patients. No benefit from octreotide LAR was identified in terms of need for diarrhea treatment, opioids, or intravenous hydration or in the rate of hospitalization or quality of life.

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In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, including 70 patients treated with radiotherapy of localized malignancies in the pelvis, the effects of prophylactic sucralfate in preventing bowel discomfort were evaluated. Radiotherapy was delivered in a conventional manner with high-energy photons in a total dose of 62-66 Gy (target dose, 1.8-2.2 Gy) during 6.5 weeks. Dose granules of sucralfate or placebo were given 2 weeks after irradiation started and continued for 6 weeks. All analyses were performed blindly. The patients in the sucralfate group had significantly less problems with acute (5 weeks) and chronic (66 weeks) bowel discomfort. The consumption of loperamide was also reduced in the sucralfate group, and the weight decrease was less pronounced. No adverse effects were seen. Thus, sucralfate seems to be beneficial in minimizing the problems of bowel discomfort during and after irradiation of malignancies in the pelvis. These results are discussed in relation to other related observations.

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Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control rats received normal saline. The constipated rats were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored.

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Of 64 patients evaluated, 33 were reconstructed using the double stapling technique (DST) and 31 were reconstructed using the intersphincteric resection (ISR) technique. The median Visual Analogue Scale at ISR was improved from 7 to 1.5 at 1 year after surgery. The median Wexner scores were 6.0, 6.0, 5.0 and 5.0 for DST and 14.5, 12.0, 10.0 and 8.0 for ISR for the first 4 years, respectively. The only independent predictor of a poor bowel function (Wexner score >10) according to a multivariate analyses was pelvic infection (OR 3.994, 95% CI 1.235-13.52, p = 0.021), while ISR was not a predictor.

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To evaluate therapies available for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, and provide consensus recommendations for their use, a total of 51 double-blind clinical trials using bulking agents, prokinetics, antispasmodics, alosetron, tegaserod and antidepressants were selected. The quality of studies was assessed using 5-point scale. Meta-analyses were performed on all studies, and on 'high-quality studies'. The efficacy of fibre in the global irritable bowel syndrome symptoms relief (OR: 1.9; 95% CI:1.5-2.4) was lost after exclusion of low-quality trials (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.0, P = 0.06). When excluding the low-quality trials, an improvement of global irritable bowel syndrome symptoms with all antispasmodics (OR: 2.1; 95% CI:1.8-2.9) was maintained only for octylonium bromide, but on the basis of only two studies. Antidepressants were effective (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9-3.5), even after exclusion of low-quality studies (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.7). Alosetron (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.6) and tegaserod (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5) showed a significant effect in women. We recommend the use of tegaserod for women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and alosetron for women with severe irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. Antidepressants can be beneficial for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea patients with severe symptoms. Loperamide can be recommended in painless diarrhoea. Evidence is weak to recommend the use of bulking agents in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

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Short bowel syndrome most commonly results after bowel resections for Crohn's disease. The normal human small intestinal length ranges from about 3 to 8 m, thus if the initial small intestinal length is short, a relatively small resection of the intestine may result in the problems of a short bowel. Two types of patient with a short bowel are encountered in clinical practice: those with their jejunum anastomosed to a functioning colon, and those with a jejunostomy. Both types of patient have problems absorbing adequate macronutrients, and both need long-term vitamin B12 therapy. Patients with a jejunostomy also have major problems with large stomal losses of water, sodium, and magnesium. This high-volume jejunostomy output is treated by restricting oral fluids, giving a glucose-saline solution to drink, and using drugs that either reduce gastrointestinal motility (loperamide or codeine phosphate) or secretions (H2 antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, or octreotide). Patients whose jejunal length is less than 100 cm, and whose stomal output is greater than their oral intake, benefit most from antisecretory drugs. In patients with a retained colon, bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrate in the colon results in energy being salvaged. However, they have increased oxalate absorption and a 25% chance of developing calcium oxalate renal stones. Thus patients with a colon are advised to eat a high-energy diet rich in carbohydrate but low in oxalate. Patients with a jejunostomy need a high-energy iso-osmolar diet with added salt. Both patient types have a 45% prevalence of gallstones. With current therapy most patients with a short bowel have a normal body mass index and a good quality of life.

imodium review

We examined the laxative effect of propolis on stool frequency by administering orally an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) or a water extract of propolis (WEP) at 10, 50, 100, or 500 mg/kg to normal mice. We then investigated the effects of propolis using constipation model mice induced by two types of drugs, loperamide (a μ opioid receptor agonist) and clonidine (an α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist). We also investigated the effects of WEP on gastrointestinal transit and contractional tension of the ileum to uncover the mechanism of action of WEP.

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36 volunteers completed the study. WGTT increased in those receiving loperamide and decreased in those receiving senna. The decrease in WGTT was not significant in those receiving wheat bran. Diets did not change. There were no changes in TBARS, cholesterol, triglyceride or TBARS adjusted for cholesterol and triglyceride, during any intervention.

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Cellular uptake and transcellular transport were determined after exposure to various concentrations of loperamide (2-50 microM) with and without the presence of active efflux protein inhibitors. Loperamide was detected at 214 nm using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) protocols.

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The review describes gastrointestinal receptors which are of therapeutic interest for the treatment of motility disorders. It updates the present knowledge on muscarinic, adrenergic, dopamine, opioid and dihydropyridine receptors, their subtypes, cellular sites and functional role as drug targets. On the basis of this pharmacological receptor concept, drugs like bethanechol, clonidine, lidamidine, metoclopramide, domperidone, cisapride, loperamide and nifedipine are evaluated in proven and potential indications. In view of the very complex regulation of motility, our understanding of receptors is still fragmentary and our tools to treat motility disorders do not fulfil all therapeutic requirements. This review tries to point out the areas of particular need for further basic research and the prospects of further drug development.

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imodium pediatric dosing 2016-01-13

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are responsible for the functional hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, playing an important role in pain processing. We found that the known analgesic loperamide inhibited I(h) channels in rat DRG neurons. Loperamide blocked I(h) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC(50) = 4.9 +/- 0.6 and 11.0 +/- 0.5 microM for large- and small-diameter neurons, respectively. Loperamide-induced I(h) inhibition was unrelated to the activation of opioid receptors and was reversible, voltage-dependent, use-independent, and was associated with a negative shift of V(1/2) for I(h) steady-state activation. Loperamide block of I(h) was voltage-dependent, gradually decreasing at more hyperpolarized membrane voltages from 89% at -60 mV to 4% at -120 mV in the presence of 3.7 microM loperamide. The voltage sensitivity of block can be explained by a loperamide-induced shift in the steady-state activation of I(h). Inclusion of 10 microM loperamide into the recording pipette did not affect I(h) voltage for half-maximal activation, activation kinetics, and the peak current amplitude, whereas concurrent application of equimolar external loperamide produced a rapid, reversible I(h) inhibition. The observed loperamide-induced I(h) inhibition was not caused by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors because the broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist naloxone did not reverse I(h) inhibition. Therefore we suggest that loperamide inhibits I(h) by direct binding to the extracellular region of the channel. Because I(h) channels are involved in pain processing, loperamide-induced inhibition of I(h) channels could provide an additional molecular mechanism for its buy imodium analgesic action.

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Gastrointestinal adverse effects contribute significantly to drug attrition as well buy imodium as reduced patient compliance. Determination of gastrointestinal liability early in a compound's preclinical development would be a valuable tool. We evaluated the non-invasive faecal pellet method in the rat, assessed the feasibility of adding the endpoint to other study types and investigated correlation with the charcoal meal method.

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To develop a functional food from the dietary fiber fraction of germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (GBF), lactic acid fermentation was attempted using Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus. The quality characteristics of the lactic acid-fermented product and its effect on gastrointestinal function in an animal model were examined. The anaerobic fermentation of 1% and 2% GBF yielded lactic acid bacteria at 8.9 +/- 1.0 x 10(8) and 1.6 +/- 0.2 buy imodium x 10(9) colony-forming units/mL, and it was considered acceptable for consumption by sensory assessment. To determine the effect on gastrointestinal function, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three types of diets: a normal chow diet and chow diets supplemented with 10% lactic acid bacteria or a yogurt fermented with 2% GBF (GBFY). The rats fed GBFY for 6 weeks gained less body weight, excreted more fecal mass, and had improved gastrointestinal transit as examined with barium sulfate. The effect of GBFY on colonic epithelial proliferation was investigated through loperamide (LPM)-induced constipation in rats. The rats fed with GBFY for 6 weeks were intraperitoneally administered LPM twice daily for 7 days. GBFY supplementation decreased fecal excretion and moisture content in feces and depleted goblet cells as observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain. However, the rats supplemented with GBFY prior to the LPM administration had enhanced bowel movement, mucin secretion, and production of short-chain fatty acids compared with values for the LPM-alone group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the GBFY supplement increased the numbers of nuclei stained positively for Ki-67 and extended from the base to the middle zone of crypts. These results indicate that GBFY alleviates constipation via the proliferation of the colonic crypts in LPM-administered rats.

imodium review 2017-09-21

Intensive, high-dose loperamide was used in an attempt to control or downstage CPT-11-induced diarrhea and thus permit the use of higher buy imodium dose intensities of CPT-11.

imodium white pill 2016-08-27

This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the buy imodium membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics.

imodium recommended dosage 2017-02-19

The purpose of this paper is to report five patients with chronic secretory diarrhea (maximum stool volume greater than 1 liter per day, duration 6 weeks to 8 years) in whom we could find no evidence of an endocrine tumor or of surreptitious laxative ingestion. All except one had severe hypokalemia. There was apparent improvement after treatment with prednisone in two patients and loperamide in one. The diarrhea resolved spontaneously in three patients and has undergone several temporary remissions in one buy imodium patient. The last patient died after a severe unremitting illness. Extensive investigations failed to establish the etiology, but intestinal perfusion (carried out in four of the five patients) revealed secretion or abnormally low absorption of water and electrolytes in the jejunum and abnormally low absorption in the colon. The management of patients with chronic watery diarrhea is discussed.

imodium dosing pediatrics 2016-09-07

Isolated preparations of human colonic mucosa were set up in Ussing chambers. Noradrenaline reduced basal short-circuit current, morphine did not nor did loperamide except at the highest concentration tested. Electrically evoked increases in short-circuit current were unaffected by morphine but reduced by loperamide, by a naloxone-insensitive mechanism. Unidirectional fluxes of 22sodium and 36chloride buy imodium were unaffected by morphine. It is concluded that loperamide but not morphine has an anti-secretory effect on human colonic mucosa.

imodium pill dosage 2016-08-23

The peripheral immune-derived opioid analgesic pathway has been well established as a novel target in the clinical pain management of a number of painful pathologies, buy imodium including acute inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, and rheumatoid arthritis.

imodium 2mg dosage 2015-11-08

The present study was designed to examine sex differences in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and sex differences in opioid antinociception and anti-hyperalgesia. Female rats developed inflammation and hyperalgesia faster and exhibited greater peak hyperalgesia than male rats. In arthritic (CFA-treated) rats, lower thresholds were observed during estrus and proestrus, and in nonarthritic (vehicle-treated) rats, lower thresholds were observed during proestrus. Morphine and oxycodone were more potent in male than female arthritic rats, and butorphanol was more potent and effective in male than female arthritic rats. The potency of morphine was increased in arthritic rats, although to a greater magnitude in males. The potency of oxycodone was increased buy imodium in male but not female arthritic rats. The potency of butorphanol was increased in arthritic male rats and the maximal antinociceptive effect of butorphanol was increased in arthritic female rats, but it did not result in greater than 20% antinociception. Morphine, oxycodone, and butorphanol all produced antihyperalgesic effects (returning thresholds of arthritic rats to the thresholds of nonarthritic rats) with greater potency in males than females. The peripherally acting opioid agonist loperamide produced intermediate levels of antinociception in male and female arthritic rats and no antinociception in nonarthritic rats. Loperamide was more potent in male than female arthritic rats at producing antihyperalgesia. These data demonstrate sex differences in arthritis-induced hyperalgesia and responsiveness to opioid analgesics. In arthritic rats, the antinociceptive effects of opioid agonists are most probably mediated by both central and peripheral opioid receptors, whereas their antihyperalgesic effects are mediated primarily by actions at peripheral opioid receptors.

6 mg imodium 2016-01-20

The potency order of opiate agonists at decreasing the rate of peristalsis in the rat isolated buy imodium ileum was: difenoxin > loperamide > DADLE (D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin) > morphine > DSLET (D-Ser2,Leu5-Thr6-enkephalin). U-50488 (trans 3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) cyclohexyl) benzeneacetamide methane sulphonate) was inactive at 300 nM. Naloxone (400 nM) caused a significant 1.52-fold increase in the rate of peristaltic contractions and inhibited the effects of the active opiate agonists. The apparent pA2 values of naloxone were similar using difenoxin, loperamide and morphine as agonists, but the value was slightly, though significantly lower when DADLE was the agonist. It is suggested that the previously identified delta-opiate receptors of the rat small intestine have a functional role in suppressing the peristaltic reflex. The same response is subserved by mu-opiate receptors and either of these opiate-receptor subtypes could be activated by endogenous enkephalins.

imodium ad dosage 2016-12-16

LOP and LOP + SIM significantly accelerated gastric emptying (P < 0.03) and buy imodium reduced SBWC during the late phase (135-270 min after mannitol ingestion), P < 0.009, while delaying arrival of fluid in the ascending colon (AC). The relaxation time T2 of the contents of the AC was reduced by both drugs (P < 0.0001).

imodium generic name 2015-11-26

In STC patients, BDNF expression and nerve fibre density were decreased, and mucosal nerve fibre ultrastructural degenerations were demonstrated. Gut motility was decreased in vivo and in vitro in BDNF(+/-) and constipation mice, with BDNF dose-dependently increasing gut motility. In BDNF(+/-) mice, α-SMA expression and nerve fibre density were decreased, and nerve fibre, NMJ and SMC ultrastructural degenerations were observed. Finally, TrkB- buy imodium PLC/IP3 pathway antagonists dramatically attenuated BDNF's excitatory effect on gut motility, and exogenous BDNF induced an obvious increase in IP3 expression.

imodium 6 capsules 2017-11-29

A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg), TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all buy imodium HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group.

imodium overdose constipation 2017-09-26

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as defined by Rome III diagnostic criteria, affects 10-20% of the general population, with women 20-40 years old accounting for the majority of patients. Although variable and intermittent, IBS symptoms may persist for many years. Repeated referrals for medical consultation and diagnostic studies generate huge healthcare costs. Since there is no evidence that IBS leads to more severe gastrointestinal disorders, in absence of alarm symptoms or buy imodium signs, an invasive diagnostic algorithm is not indicated. Optimal treatment for IBS still needs to be defined. The clinical approach is based on treatment of the prevalent symptom. When pain predominates, antispasmodics are the first choice. In case of diarrhea, loperamide is useful for reducing bowel frequency. Soluble fiber represents the first option in subjects with IBS and constipation or mixed IBS. Dietary integrators composed of probiotics and serotonin precursors are a promising therapeutic option.

imodium max dose 2017-10-21

Forty patients were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013; 78% of patients had previous whole-brain radiotherapy. Three women achieved a partial response (CNS objective response rate, 8%; 95% CI, 2% to 22%). The median number of cycles received was two (range, one to seven cycles), with a median progression-free survival Cordarone Brand Name of 1.9 months. Five women received six or more cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 event was diarrhea (occurring in 21% of patients taking prespecified loperamide prophylaxis and 28% of those without prophylaxis). Patients in the study experienced a decreased quality of life over time.

dosage of imodium 2015-09-06

Met-enkephalin and beta-endorphin levels were determined in the pituitary and brain of rats after treatment for several weeks with either agonists of high receptor affinity, such as levorphanol and etorphine, or with the narcotic antagnoist naloxone. Long-term activation of opiate receptors failed to change the endorphin levels in restricted areas of brain and pituitary, although a high degree of tolerance/dependence is apparent in those animals. Chronic blockade of opiate receptors by naloxone also fails to affect endorphin levels in the pituitary, but selectively increases metenkephalin levels Trileptal 1500 Mg in the striatum. The present data do not support the notion of negative feedback mechanisms to regulate endorphingergic functions during the development of opiate tolerance/dependence.

imodium medication 2016-01-20

A series of 4-amino-2,2-diarylbutyronitriles (3) prepared for testing as inhibitors of gastrointestinal propulsive activity did not show any enhancement over such existing agents as diphenoxylate and loperamide. However, conversion of the nitrile group to a 2-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl function led to compounds 5g and 5j, statistically equipotent to diphenoxylate and loperamide in the mouse and Glimepiride Amaryl Generic showing a very low order of analgesic activity. Structural modifications determined that the best separation of antipropulsive and analgesic effects was obtained when the amino group was bicyclic and the oxadiazole ring had a 2-methyl substituent. The most potent compounds were and analogues of diphenoxylate and loperamide where the oxadiazole ring was present, but these compounds had marked analgesic activity.

imodium tablets 2017-06-20

Patients Nolvadex Online Uk with ulcerative colitis experience various impairments. The pharmacological treatment of the disease comprises 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids as well as immunomodulatory and biological agents. Little self-reported data exist on the prescription of these drugs.

imodium dosage child 2015-04-01

With the dose chosen in this trial, lactose did not have any laxative effect in lactose tolerant persons. Laxative effect Prograf 1mg Cost was mild with lactulose and most pronounced with bisacodyl.

imodium drug 2015-07-22

The complexity and diversity of irritable bowel syndrome's (IBS) presentation make treatment difficult. Although there are reviews and guidelines for treating IBS, they focus on the efficacy of medications for IBS symptoms using high-priority endpoints, leaving those of lower priority largely unreported. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the efficacy of medications to treat IBS symptoms, reported by Duphaston Tab Indication IBS subtype, including secondary symptom endpoints that are often underreported.

imodium medicine 2016-07-04

We have shown previously that loperamide, an opiate analogue, inhibits cholera-toxin- and prostaglandin E2-induced secretion Crestor 10mg Generic in the rat small intestine. In these studies loperamide modified secretion induced by partially purified Escherichia coli, heat-stable enterotoxin in infant mice. The drug was effective whether administered before or after established secretion. These experiments provide further suggestive evidence that loperamide has a broad spectrum of antisecretory activity.

imodium chewable tablets 2016-07-02

Two cases of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) occurring in infants beyond the neonatal period were reported. They did not have any predisposing factors to NEC but both had paralytic ileus after loperamide therapy for their mild diarrhoea prior to the onset of NEC. The possible role of loperamide in the pathogenesis of NEC was discussed Micronase Drug Class .

imodium mg 2015-01-01

Certain drugs such as dalargin, loperamide or tubocurarine are not transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore exhibit no effects on the central nervous system. However, effects on the central nervous system can be observed when these drugs are loaded onto polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA)-nanoparticles and coated Singulair Off Brand with polysorbate 80. The mechanism by which these complexed nanoparticles cross the BBB and exhibit their effects has not been elucidated. Cultured microvessel brain endothelial cells of human and bovine origin were used as an in vitro model for the BBB to gain further insight into the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles. With cells from these species we were able to show that polysorbate 80-coated nanoparticles were taken up by brain endothelial cells much more rapidly and in significantly higher amounts (20-fold) than uncoated nanoparticles. The process of uptake was followed by fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results demonstrate that the nanoparticles are taken up by cells and that this uptake occurs via an endocytotic mechanism.

imodium tabs 2016-02-03

Case Study  Mr. D., a 55-year-old male, presented to the medical oncology service with a diagnosis of stage III adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. He presented 7 weeks post sigmoid colectomy with lymph node resection and was initiated on adjuvant chemotherapy with CAPOX (capecitabine [Xeloda] and oxaliplatin [Eloxatin]). Standard dosing was used: oxaliplatin at 130 mg/m(2) on day 1 and capecitabine at approximately 2,000 mg/m(2)/day (rounded to the nearest 500-mg tablet size) for 14 days on and 7 days off (1 cycle = 21 days). A capped body surface area of 2.4 m2 was used, due to the patient's body habitus. Adverse Effects  Mr. D. did not report any complications of therapy during cycle 1, days 1-7, other than grade 1 diarrhea, which was amenable to diphenoxylate/atropine when taken. The next week, he reported significant malaise and fatigue associated with persistent diarrhea occurring every 30 minutes for 5 days. Mr. D. was instructed to go to the emergency room for an immediate evaluation, but he refused. Mr. D. presented to the clinic in poor condition on day 14 of cycle 1. His diarrhea had increased to grade 3 and was not controlled with either loperamide or diphenoxylate/atropine, though he was not taking his medications as directed. He had been instructed to take two 2-mg loperamide tablets after the first loose stool, followed by 1 tablet of diphenoxylate/atropine 2 hours later. He could then alternate this with loperamide every 2 hours as needed, not to exceed 8 tablets of loperamide per day. Instead, he had taken 2 tablets of loperamide after the first loose stool, but either waited 6 hours to take 1 tablet of diphenoxylate/atropine or otherwise chose not to alternate the medications at all despite continued diarrhea, depending on the day. Mr. D.'s timing in taking his supportive medications was inconsistent, and his explanations of this timing were not exact. He also reported persistent grade 3 nausea with vomiting for 5 days, which did not improve with ondansetron and prochlorperazine, though he again did not take these consistently. He was advised to alternate ondansetron and prochlorperazine every 4 hours as needed, but only took one or the other medication approximately 3 times per day. According to Mr. D., his adverse effects initially began on day 9 of cycle 1. He had lost approximately 14 kg (31 lb) during cycle 1. Clinically, he was found to have grade 2 mucositis and grade 1 hand-foot syndrome. At the time of this visit, his absolute neutrophil count was 3,000/ìL, his hemoglobin was 14.4 g/dL, his hematocrit 42.2%, and his platelet count was 139,000/ìL. His kidney function was within the normal range. Mr. D. refused hospitalization despite the primary team's recommendation. He also refused to undergo stool sampling for Clostridium difficile. He was given IV fluids along with adjustments in supportive medications, including a prescription for 10% tincture of opium. He was instructed to use 0.6 mL every 6 hours in addition to alternating loperamide with diphenoxylate/atropine as noted previously. He was advised to rinse his mouth with a baking soda solution for relief of his grade 1 mucositis, and alternation of antiemetics every 4 hours was reiterated. He was to return prior to initiation of cycle 2 for further evaluation. Worsening Symptoms  The next day, Mr. D.'s wife called the clinic to report that her husband's diarrhea continued despite the use of tincture of opium and that it was associated with hematochezia. He was also experiencing a worsening of his mucositis, with an associated swelling of the tongue. He was instructed to present to the emergency center, which he did on day 16 of cycle 1. By then, he was found to be febrile at 39.5°C. He was tachycardic, with a heart rate of 126, and he was experiencing significant abdominal pain associated with the diarrhea. The mucositis was worsening, with new odynophagia. At this time, Mr. D.'s absolute neutrophil count had dropped dramatically to 160/ìL, his hemoglobin was 13.1 g/dL, his hematocrit was 39.2%, and his platelet count was 68,000/ìL. He was admitted to the inpatient service and started on empiric antibiotics. His blood cultures remained negative during hospitalization, but stool cultures were positive for C. difficile. His antimicrobial regimen was deescalated to oral vancomycin once his stool volume decreased. He was treated with an institutional compounded mouthwash of diphenhydramine, aluminum/magnesium hydroxide, and viscous lidocaine for the mucositis, which also slowly improved. He was given a dose of growth factor. Neutropenia eventually resolved, with an absolute neutrophil count of 4,820/ìL on the day of discharge. He was discharged 26 days after initiating cycle 1, at which time his myelosuppression and mucositis were also resolved. Throughout his course, he did not report any neurotoxicity. DPD Testing  Due to his severe symptoms of neutropenia, mucositis, and diarrhea, Mr. D. was tested for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. Testing confirmed a heterozygous IVS14+IG>A mutation. For this reason, all further adjuvant therapy was withheld, and he was followed on clinical surveillance only.

imodium capsules 2016-07-24

To compare the efficacy and safety of a loperamide hydrochloride-simethicone combination product with those of loperamide alone, simethicone alone, and placebo in treating acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort.