Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) method, 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified in 36 individuals of M. charantia. Across all the M. charantia samples, the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to eight. Seven primers successfully amplified in the four related species. •
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The activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase in response to dose and time; however, the activity of hepatic sulfotransferase increased at higher doses.
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This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per plant), number of seeds (30.2 per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.
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All single dose groups showed normal behavior after the dosing and no statistical changes were observed in blood parameters (p>0.05). Histological examinations revealed normal organ structures, however, the group treated for 7 days showed statistically a significant change in BUN (p=0.002) and a borderline significance in Cr (p=0.051).
Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon effects on metabolism enzymes and drug transporters. This has important implications, given that a large proportion of individuals, taking bitter melon based supplements/phytochemical extracts/food based home-remedies, are also likely to be taking conventional therapeutic drugs at the same time. Accordingly, the comprehensively reviewed information here could be prudently translated to the clinical implications associated with any potential concerns regarding bitter melon consumption by cancer patients.
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According to the findings; the total volume of new bone in the MC group was significantly increased in comparison to the Control group (P 0.05). Also; there was highly significant increase in terms of the total volume of fibrous tissue in the MC and ABS groups when compared with the Control group (P 0.01). Besides; there was highly significant difference between the MC and the Control groups (P 0.01) in point of total volume of vessel.
In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.
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Decorticated Momordica charantia seeds were extracted and processed by a method which was developed originally for the purification of insect and annelid insulins. Essentially, the method entailed HCl--ethanol extraction, neutralization with NH4OH, gel filtration on Sephadex G-50, ion exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose CL-6B and desalting on Sephadex G-10. Of the seven fractions collected, three fractions were obtained with antilipolytic and lipogenic activities in isolated adipocytes and one fraction with only lipogenic activity. The data indicate that molecules with insulin-like bioactivity are present in Momordica charantia seeds.
The aim of this research was to determine the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit aqueous extract on pancreatic histopathological changes in neonatal STZ-induced type-II diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in one day Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats using a single intrapretoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (85 mg/kg body weight) and monitored for 12 weeks thereafter. The diabetic rats were separated into three groups, as follows: the diabetic control group (i.e. nSTZ), the diabetic group (i.e. nSTZ/M) - which was orally given 20 mg/kg of MC fruit extract, and the diabetic group (i.e. nSTZ/G) - that was treated with glibenclamide, 0.1 mg/kg for a period of four weeks. At the end of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the saphenous vein to measure the blood glucose and serum insulin level. The pancreatic specimens were removed and processed for light microscopy, electron microscopy examination and immunohistochemical study. The results of this study showed that MC fruit aqueous extract reduced the blood glucose level as well as glibenclamide and increased the serum insulin level in the treated diabetic rats (P<0.05). The fruit extract of MC alleviated pancreatic damage and increased the number of β-cells in the diabetic treated rats (P<0.05). Our results suggest that oral feeding of MC fruit extract may have a significant role in the renewal of pancreatic β-cells in the nSTZ rats.
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Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.
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Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common vegetable grown widely in Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether wild bitter gourd possessed protective effects against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 4 weeks to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Meanwhile, mice were treated with ethanol extracts from four different wild bitter gourd cultivars: Hualien No. 1', Hualien No. 2', Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4'. The results indicated that the daily administration of 500 mg kg body weight(-1) of a Hualien No. 3' extract (H3E) or a Hualien No. 4' extract (H4E) markedly reduced the steatotic alternation of liver histopathology. In addition, the activation of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and the accumulation of hepatic TG content caused by alcohol were ameliorated. The hepatoprotective effects of H3E and H4E involved the enhancement of the antioxidant defence system (GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT and SOD), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the liver. Moreover, H3E and H4E supplementation suppressed the alcohol-induced elevation of CYP2E1, SREBP-1, FAS and ACC protein expression. These results demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4' have beneficial effects against alcoholic fatty liver, in which they attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
Ten healthy men undergoing evaluation for infertility provided 10 semen specimens.
Momordica charantia L. is a medicinal plant commonly used in the management of diabetes mellitus.
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Bitter gourd (BG, Momordica charantia) exerts proven blood glucose- and body weight-lowering effects. To develop an effective and safe application, it is necessary to identify the bioactive compounds and biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects in type 2 diabetes. A total of forty-five 4-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to five groups of nine each. The mice were given sterile tap water as a control, a whole fruit powder, the lipid fraction, the saponin fraction or the hydrophilic residue of BG at a daily oral dosage of 150 mg/kg body weight for 5 weeks, respectively. Weight gain was significantly decreased in all the BG-treated groups (P ≤ 0.05). Glycated Hb levels were the highest in the control mice compared with all the four BG-treated mice (P = 0.02). The lipid fraction had the strongest effect, and it tended (P = 0.075) to reduce glycated Hb levels from 9.3 % (control mice) to 8.0 % (lipid fraction-treated mice). The lipid and saponin fractions reduced lipid peroxidation of adipose tissue significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Additionally, the saponin fraction and the lipid fraction reduced protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) activity in skeletal muscle cytosol by 25 % (P = 0.05) and 23 % (P = 0.07), respectively. PTP 1B is the physiological antagonist of the insulin signalling pathway. Inhibition of PTP 1B increases insulin sensitivity. This is the first study to demonstrate that BG is involved in PTP 1B regulation, and thus explains one possible biochemical mechanism underlying the antidiabetic effects of BG in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
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In this study, the methanol extract of Momordica charantia fruit extract was administered to diabetic rats to assess the long term effect of the extract on the lipid profile and the oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment for 30 days showed a significant decrease in triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and a significant increase in high density lipoprotein level. A significant effect on oral glucose tolerance was also noted. Chronic administration showed an improvement in the oral glucose tolerance curve. The effect was more pronounced when the test was done in rats fed the extract on the day of the test compared with tests done in rats which were not fed the extract on the same day.
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Biologic based therapies are frequently used as complementary medicines in diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify the commonly used herbal remedies and their preparations in Sri Lankan patients with Type 2 diabetes.
By reduction of AgNO3 in presence of NaBH4, silver nanoparticles were prepared. After mixing silver nanoparticles and extracts, coating was given on nanoparticles using polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual, UV, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM techniques, and TEM analysis.
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According to the World Health Organization malaria is one of the major public health problems in Brazil and all over developing countries, where 80% of the population use traditional medicine to solve their primary medical problems. Both treatment and control of this parasitosis have become difficult, because of parasite strains that are resistant to conventional drugs, such as chloroquine. That makes the search for new antimalarial drugs not only important but urgent. We aimed therefore at evaluating the effects of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. We used aquose and ethanotic extracts in a dose of 1000 mg/kg of body weight, orally, for five consecutive days (i.e. from day 2 to day 6 postinfection). We then followed up the parasitaemia during the course of infection. Although the population use this plant as an antimalarial, in our experimental conditions, M. charantia extracts have not shown such activity.
In PCOS women as a whole, PV at baseline was 1.249 ± 0.049 mm(2)/s (n = 66). After 6 months of treatment with an OC containing 35 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate, PV was increased to 1.268 ± 0.065 mm(2)/s (p = 0.038). The difference between PV before and after 6 months of treatment with an OC containing 35 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate (Δviscosity) was 0.01864 ± 0.071452 mm(2)/s. ΔViscosity was related to ?fibrinogen (r = 0.270, p = 0.046), to Δhematocrit (r = 0.514, p = 0.09) and to Δtriglycerides (r = 0.292, p = 0.021).
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Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs.
It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present article reviews the clinical data regarding the anti-diabetic potentials of M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects.
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Protein fractions (water-soluble/albumin, salt-soluble/globulin, alkali-soluble/glutelin, and alcohol-soluble/prolamin) were extracted from defatted ripe bitter melon seed (Momordica charantia) using water, 1 M sodium chloride solution, alkali/pH 11.0, and 70% ethanol, sequentially. The main protein fraction was albumin (49.3%), followed by globulin (29.3%) and glutelin (3.1%). No prolamin was detected, and 18.3% of the protein was nonextractable. The surface hydrophobicities of albumin, globulin, and glutelin were 757, 1,034, and 292, respectively. The molecular sizes of all the fractions were mostly about 45 and 55 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of albumin, globulin, and glutelin were 111.9, 117.3, and 133.6 degrees C, respectively. The levels of all essential amino acids in the bitter melon protein fractions met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU) with the exception of Thr. Bitter melon protein fractions with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.
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Human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells and Hep G2-bearing mice were used as in vitro and in vivo models to assess the efficacy and safety of MAP30, a natural component from Momordica charantia, as an anticancer agent against liver cancer. Molecular studies disclosed the contribution of both caspase-8 regulated extrinsic and caspase-9 regulated intrinsic caspase cascades in MAP30-induced cell apoptosis. The antitumor potential was also effective in Hep G2-bearing nude mice. Since bitter gourd is a staple in many Asian countries, MAP30 would serve as a novel and relatively safe agent for prophylaxis and treatment of liver cancer.
Momordica charantia (karela) is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent in Asian, Oriental and Latin American countries. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of long term feeding (10 weeks) of M. charantia fruit extract on blood plasma and tissue lipid profiles in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in STZ-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. A moderate increase in plasma (LPO) product, malonedialdehyde (MDA), and about two-fold increase in kidney LPO was also observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The treatment of diabetic rats with M. charantia fruit extract over a 10-week period returned these levels close to normal. In addition, karela juice also exhibited an inhibitory effect on membrane LPO under in vitro conditions. These results suggest that M. charantia fruit extract exhibits hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic rat.
Several electronic databases were searched, among these The Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to November 2009), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.
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The DNA sequence encoding MAP30 was cloned from the fresh seeds of Momordica charantia by PCR, the target DNA fragments were sequenced after T-A cloning. The expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the MAP30 fragment into vector pET30a. MAP30 was expressed in E.coli by addition of IPTG into final concentration of 1.0 mmol/L. The recombinant MAP30 was identified by SDS-PAGE, and the biological activity of MAP30 protein was evaluated by using MTT assay in cancer cells and normal cells following fluid-phase endocytosis.
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Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.
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We assessed the immunomodulatory activity of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd), a vegetable that has been reported to possess various bioactivities. We examined the effect of bitter gourd on intestinal immunity by monitoring the TGF-beta and IL-7 secretion from Caco-2 cells and the IL-10 and IL-12 secretion from THP-1 cells that are used as in vitro models of the intestinal epithelium and monocyte/macrophages, respectively. We also determined the in vivo immunological responses of rats fed on bitter gourd for 3 weeks. We found that bitter gourd induced a decrease in the intestinal secretion of IL-7 and an increase in the secretions of TGF-beta and IL-10, these effects reflecting the bitter gourd-induced changes in systemic immunity, i.e., a decrease in the number of lymphocytes, increases in the populations of Th cells and NK cells, and increase in the Ig production of lymphocytes. Dietary bitter gourd may therefore induce both intestinal and also systemic anti-inflammatory responses.
Effect of graded doses (100-400 mg/kg) of M. charantia on intestinal alkaline phosphatase showed decrease in activity at 48 hours, while the reductive effect was significantly expressed in the castor oil than in the control and extract treated groups. Disaccharidases (lactase, maltase and sucrase) activities were significantly reduced in the castor oil group when compared with the extract treated groups and the control. The reduction in protein concentration was also observed in the castor oil group compared to the control and extract treated groups.