kemadrin 5mg tab
A group of antiparkinson drugs (benactyzine, biperiden, caramiphen, procyclidine, and trihexyphenidyl) has been shown to possess both anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties, making these agents very well suited as anticonvulsants against nerve agents. The first purpose of this study was to make a comparative assessment of the anticonvulsant potencies of the antiparkinson agents when microinfused (1 microl) into the seizure controlling area tempestas (AT) of rats 20 min before subcutaneous injection of soman (100 microg/kg). The second purpose was to determine whether cholinergic and/or glutamatergic antagonism was the effective property. The results showed that only procyclidine (6 microg) and caramiphen (10 microg) antagonized soman-induced seizures. Cholinergic, and not glutamatergic, antagonism was likely the active property, since atropine (100 microg), and scopolamine (1 microg) caused anticonvulsant effects, whereas MK-801 (1 microg), and ketamine (50 microg) did not. Soman (11 nmol) injected into AT resulted more frequently in clonic convulsions than full tonic-clonic convulsions. AT may serve as both a trigger site for soman-evoked seizures and a site for screening anticonvulsant potencies of future countermeasures.
kemadrin drug classification
PPI of the human acoustic startle response is modulated by procyclidine. The use of anticholinergics needs to be considered in PPI studies in schizophrenia.
dose of kemadrin
The combined effects of physostigmine and procyclidine (antagonizing muscarinic, nicotinic, and NMDA receptors) were tested against various doses of soman. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) in combination with procyclidine doses of 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg effectively prevented the development of convulsions and hippocampally monitored seizures when the doses of soman were 1.3, 1.6, or 2 x LD50, respectively. Results from [(3)H]MK-801-binding experiments showed that procyclidine inhibits the phencyclidine site at the NMDA receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) and procyclidine in a dose of 1 mg/kg did not prevent convulsions or seizures when the soman dose was 1.6 x LD50. Subsequent treatment with scopolamine in doses of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg immediately after (3 min) seizure onset showed that only the highest dose produced a reliable termination. When scopolamine (1 mg/kg) was given later (10 min) after onset of seizures, no effect was obtained. The sustained seizures were subsequently treated with diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) and finally terminated 25 min after onset. In rats given inadequate prophylaxis, both modified convulsions and seizures were seen. It is suggested that moderate doses of prophylactics should be preferred to avoid adverse effects on cognitive functions because insufficient prophylaxis can be compensated for by adjunct treatment.
kemadrin tablet cost
The effects of clinically available drugs targeting muscarinic cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic receptors; intracellular calcium levels and/or the function of calcium-dependent biochemical pathways; ion channels; and cellular pumps were tested against a keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating A. castellanii with various concentrations of drugs in the growth medium for 48 h at 30°C. To determine amoebicidal effects, amoebae were incubated with drugs in phosphate-buffered saline for 24 h, and viability was determined using trypan blue exclusion staining. For controls, amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. Of the eight drugs tested, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed potent amoebicidal effects, as no viable trophozoites were observed (>95% kill rate), while amiodarone, procyclidine, digoxin, and apomorphine exhibited up to 50% amoebicidal effects. In contrast, haloperidol did not affect viability, but all the drugs tested inhibited A. castellanii growth. Importantly, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed compelling cysticidal effects. The cysticidal effects were irreversible, as cysts treated with the aforementioned drugs did not reemerge as viable amoebae upon inoculation in the growth medium. Except for apomorphine and haloperidol, all the tested drugs blocked trophozoite differentiation into cysts in encystation assays. Given the limited availability of effective drugs to treat amoebal infections, the clinically available drugs tested in this study represent potential agents for managing keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. and possibly against other meningoencephalitis-causing amoebae, such as Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri.
kemadrin injection dose
Atropine, pirenzepine, and himbacine prevent form-deprivation myopia (FDM) when administered intravitreously. The mechanisms and sites of action of these drugs against myopia are not clear. To shed further light on whether this mechanism is muscarinic, several other muscarinic antagonists were tested.
The protective effect of cholinolytics such as procyclidine and atropine, in combination with carbamate prophylactics, against diisopropylfluorophosphate poisoning was examined in mice. Doses of carbamates were optimized, based on the maximum sign-free dose, the time course of cholinesterase inhibition and the protective potential against diisopropylfluorophosphate poisoning. Centrally-active physostigmine was more toxic than centrally-inactive pyridostigmine and the toxic signs of carbamates appeared to be closely related to the level of inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. In combination with atropine, physostigmine was more effective than pyridostigmine in protecting mice intoxicated with diisopropylfluorophosphate. Moreover, centrally-active atropine sulfate was a more effective co-antidote to carbamates than centrally-inactive atropine methylnitrate. The most prominent protection was achieved with the combination of carbamates and procyclidine, a centrally-active cholinolytic showing anticonvulsion, which was also observed to prevent diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced convulsions (Kim et al., 1997). Taken together, it is suggested that procyclidine could be a possible substitute for atropine as an antidote to diisopropylfluorophosphate poisoning.
kemadrin tablets 5mg
The effects of nitric oxide-regulating compounds on convulsions and mortality of rats administered i.p. with diisopropylfluorophosphate was investigated. l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor possessing an anticholinergic action, markedly attenuated the intensity of convulsions and significantly reduced the mortality rate. A similar result was obtained with anticholinergic procyclidine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist. Noteworthy, l-N(G)-nitroarginine, another inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, significantly attenuated the seizure intensity when administered in combination with atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg), though either l-N(G)-nitroarginine or atropine sulfate was inactive alone. It is suggested that nitric oxide may be a proconvulsant or a convulsion-promoting factor in anticholinesterase poisoning, and both the reduction of nitric oxide level and blockade of cholinergic systems may be required for more effective protection of seizures.
The prophylactic efficacy of a combinational patch system containing physostigmine and procyclidine against soman intoxication was evaluated using dogs. Female beagle dogs (body weights 9-10 kg) were shaved on the abdominal side, attached with a matrix-type patch (7x7 cm) containing 1.5% of physostigmine plus 6% procyclidine for 2 days, and challenged with subcutaneous injection of serial doses (2-10 LD50) of soman. Separately, in combination with the patch attachment, atropine (2 mg/dog) plus 2-pralidoxime (600 mg/dog) or atropine plus 1-[([4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy)methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium (HI-6, 500 mg/dog) were injected intramuscularly 1 min after soman poisoning. The LD50 value of soman was determined to be 9.1 microg/kg, and high doses (> or = 1.4 LD50) of soman induced salivation, emesis, defecation and diarrhea, tremors and seizures, and recumbency of dogs, leading to 100% mortality in 24 h. The prophylactic patch, which led to mean 18.5-18.8% inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity by physostigmine and mean 7.9-8.3 ng/ml of blood concentration of procyclidine, exerted a high protection ratio (4.7 LD50), in comparison with relatively-low effects of traditional antidotes, atropine plus 2-pralidoxime (2.5 LD50) and atropine plus HI-6 (2.7 LD50). Noteworthy, a synergistic increase in the protection ratio was achieved by the combination of the patch with atropine plus HI-6 (9 LD50), but not with atropine plus 2-pralidoxime (5 LD50). In addition, the patch system markedly attenuated the cholinergic signs and seizures induced by soman, especially when combined with atropine plus HI-6, leading to elimination of brain injuries and physical incapacitation up to 6 LD50 of soman poisoning. Taken together, it is suggested that the patch system containing physostigmine and procyclidine, especially in combination with atropine and HI-6, could be a choice for the quality survival from nerve-agent poisoning.
kemadrin tab 5mg
Based on potencies relative to scopolamine, the potency of the drugs could be ranked as follows: scopolamine > trihexyphenidyl > biperiden > azaprophen > procyclidine > benactyzine > atropine > aprophen. The comparison of drug effects on activity may be useful in selecting anticholinergic drug therapies with a minimal range of side effects. In addition, these data may reduce the number of anticholinergic drugs that need to be tested in comparison studies involving more complex behavioral tests.
kemadrin generic name
A 56-year-old lady was admitted with complaint of involuntary muscle twitching around the eyes, face and neck for two days. She had a history of low grade non-hodgkin lymphoma with completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Her medication on presenting consisted of Ondansetron 8 mg two times a day and Metoclopramide 10 mg three times a day (TDS). She started taking these medications 24 hours before having the above symptoms. She was clinically diagnosed with acute dystonic reactions and was also secondarily treated with anti-emetic medications. She was given IV procyclidine 10 mg stat followed by per oral (PO) procyclidine 2.5 mg TDS. Within an hour of administering IV procyclidine her symptoms began to gradually settle down. Acute dystonic reactions are not a very rare clinical presentation in the daily practice. The above case is a good example for the clinicians dealing with acute medical admissions.
Seven psychotic inpatients (two women and five men) aged between 18 and 74 years, treated with neuroleptic and antiparkinson drugs, participated in a double-blind study with 1/3 DDD (Defined Daily Dose) of procyclidine, orphenadrine, or trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride against placebo. Euphoric effects were scored on a self-rating scale and extrapyramidal side-effects on the Simpson-Angus rating scale at drug administration and 1, 3 and 6 h thereafter. With regard to euphoric effect, there was a significant (P less than 0.02) difference between start and end point (0 and 6 h) for placebo but not for the active antiparkinson drugs. There was no significant difference in extrapyramidal side-effects. No preference of drug was found, and it was not possible to recognize the patient's own drug among the tested drugs. Side-effects from the antiparkinson drugs were also measured prior to the administration. Five patients did not return to their earlier antiparkinson drugs after the study.
kemadrin 5 mg
Four schizophrenic patients are reported in whom the acute development of dystonic muscle spasms, usually involving gaze deviation, was accompanied by the exacerbation or appearance of psychotic symptoms. In all cases the relationship between the neurological and psychiatric phenomena was close, and sometimes the presentation was bizarre or dramatic. The similarity of these states to the complex neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in post-encephalitic Parkinsonism is emphasised.
A case of procyclidine abuse is described in which the clinical presentation was indistinguishable from mania. The patient was a long-standing poly-drug abuser and was obtaining the drugs from medical sources. Controlled exposure on the ward to drugs of abuse, including a double-blind comparison with placebo, confirmed that procyclidine caused a manic response in this patient.
There is great interest in testing neuroprotectants which inhibit the neurodegeneration that results from excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. As an alternative to in vivo testing in animal models, we demonstrate here the use of a complex in vitro model to compare the efficacy and toxicity of NMDA receptor inhibitors. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were used to compare the effectiveness of the Alzheimer's disease drug, memantine, the Parkinson's disease drug, procyclidine, and the novel neuroprotectant, gacyclidine (GK11), against NMDA-induced toxicity. All three drugs are non-competitive NMDA receptor open-channel blockers that inhibit excitotoxic injury, and their neuroprotective capacities have been extensively investigated in vivo in animal models. They have also been evaluated as potential countermeasure agents against organophosphate poisoning. Quantitative densitometric image analysis of propidium iodide uptake in hippocampal regions CA1, CA3 and DG, showed that, after exposure to 10microM NMDA for 24 hours, GK11 was the most potent of the three drugs, with an IC50 of about 50nM and complete protection at 250nM. When applied at high doses, GK11 was still the more potent neuroprotectant, and also the least cytotoxic. These findings are consistent with those from in vivo tests in rodents. We conclude that the slice culture model provides valuable pre-clinical data, and that applying the model to the screening of neuroprotectants might significantly limit the use of in vivo tests in animals.
kemadrin maximum dose
This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics.
After intraperitoneal administration of procyclidine, eight metabolites were isolated from rat urine. They were identified as 1-(4-oxocyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, 1-(cis-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, 1-(trans-4-hydrocyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol , (1R,3R,4S,7R)- and (1R,3R,4S,7S)-1-(cis-3,cis-4-dihydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-py rrolidinyl)- 1-propanol, (1R,3R,4R,7R)- and (1R,3R,4R,7S)-1-(cis-3,trans-4-dihydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl- 3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, and one of both (1R,3S,4R,7R)- or (1R,3S,4R,7S)- 1-(trans-3,trans-4-dihydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl )-1-propanol by comparative TLC, GLC-MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.
Results from studies based on microinfusions into seizure controlling brain sites (area tempestas, medial septum, perirhinal cortex, posterior piriform cortex) have shown that procyclidine, muscimol, caramiphen, and NBQX, but not ketamine, exert anticonvulsant effects against soman-induced seizures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether levetiracetam (Keppra(®)) may enhance the anticonvulsant potency of the above drugs to become optimally effective when used systemically. Levetiracetam has a unique profile in preclinical models of epilepsy and has been shown to increase the potency of other antiepileptic drugs. The rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1mg/kg) to enhance survival and received anticonvulsants 20 min after onset of seizures evoked by soman (1.15 × LD(50)). The results showed that no single drug was able to terminate seizure activity. However, when levetiracetam (LEV; 50mg/kg) was combined with either procyclidine (PCD; 10mg/kg) or caramiphen (CMP; 10mg/kg) complete cessation of seizures was achieved, but the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine was needed to induce full motor rest in some rats. In a subsequent experiment, rats were pretreated with HI-6 (125 mg/kg) to enhance survival and treatment started 40 min following seizure onset of a soman dose of 1.6 × LD(50). LEV (50mg/kg) combined with either PCD (20mg/kg) or CMP (20mg/kg) terminated seizure activity, but the survival rate was considerably higher for LEV+PCD than LEV+CMP. Both therapies could also save the lives of rats that were about to die 5-10 min after seizure onset. Thus, the combination of LEV and PCD or CMP may make up a model of a future autoinjector being effective regardless of the time of application.
In recent years, the complex treatment of schizophrenia has been extended by the neuroleptic large-dose therapy. Our investigations carried out so far, which reflect the experiences gained in several years with this form of treatment, include 30 schizophrenic patients admitted in an acute psychotic condition. They were treated for six days running with 40 to 120 (average 65) mg of Haloperidol daily. The results of our studies show that the large-dose therapy with Haloperidol as an initial phase of a combined pharmaco-therapy represents a safe, rapid and effective method.
We found 19 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Since the degree of tachypnoea, tachycardia, and bowel hypotonia closely paralleled the severity of the muscle rigidity, it is suggested that these autonomic features of NMS result from sustained muscle contraction rather than a direct effect of neuroleptic drugs on the central nervous system.
improvement was observed in cases of grand mal as well as temporal lobe seizures in 70% of patients, EEG improvement was found in 50% of patients. Side effects including oral dryness, accomodation disturbances developed in 17 patients but were usually slight and transient, in only 4 cases they were sufficiently severe as to justify reduction of dosage. Improvement of mood and contact with surroundings was noted in 60% of cases.
CGN were grown on large coverslips (60 x 24 mm) and measurements made with a designed mountable multiwell in 48 regions on 4 coverslips at a time. The UV ratiometric probe fura-2 was used to measure glutamatergic calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) responses induced by NMDA. The IC(50) of NMDA receptor antagonists was determined from inhibition curves with 6 doses and 8 parallels per experiment.
Other than atropine and pirenzepine, only oxyphenonium caused full rescue from FDM (goggled versus control; mean +/- SD; refraction differences: -9.50 +/- 0.22 D vs. 0.83 +/- 0.31 D, P < 0.001; wet weight differences: 75.67 +/- 3.84 mg vs. 2.33 +/- 6.14 mg, P < 0.001; axial length differences: 0.80 +/- 0.05 mm vs. 0.03 +/- 0.04 mm, P < 0.001). Oxyphenonium-treated retinas showed no damage. Of the other compounds, several elicited partial rescue and/or damaged the retina, whereas others had no effect.
kemadrin 5mg tab
Drugs that act at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex have the ability to terminate nerve agent-induced seizures and modulate the neuropathologic consequences of agent exposure. Drugs with mixed anticholinergic and anti-NMDA properties potentially provide an ideal class of compounds for development as anticonvulsant treatments for nerve agent casualties. The present experiment evaluated the potential NMDA antagonist activity of 11 anticholinergic drugs by determining whether pretreatment with the compound was capable of protecting mice from the lethal effects of NMDA. The following anticholinergic drugs antagonized NMDA lethality and are ranked according to their potency: mecamylamine > procyclidine = benactyzine > biperiden > trihexyphenidyl. The anticholinergics atropine, aprophen, azaprophen, benztropine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), and scopolamine failed to show NMDA antagonist properties. In addition, and unexpectedly, diazepam, ethanol, and pentobarbital were also shown to be capable of antagonizing NMDA lethality over a certain range of doses. The advantages and limitations of using antagonism of NMDA lethality in mice as a bioassay for determining the NMDA antagonist properties of drugs are also discussed.
kemadrin drug classification
All autopsy samples received at the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology during the years 1986-1996 which contained anticholinergic antiparkinsonian drugs were reviewed. Of a total of 69 cases, orphenadrine was present in 57 (83%), biperiden in 8 (12%), procyclidine in 3 (4%), and trihexyphenidyl/benzhexol in 1 (1%) of the subjects. The measured concentrations were assessed in light of previously published data. Of 21 cases where causality between drug ingestion and death was classified as either highly probable (18/21) or possible (3/21), all subjects tested positive for orphenadrine. In the autopsy samples from these patients, orphenadrine concentrations in the 4.5-600 mumol/l range (mean 62.5 mumol/l, SD 126.5 mumol/l) were determined. Because of a low national autopsy rate, there is reason to believe that the actual numbers of drug-related deaths in this period may have been significantly higher. It is concluded that orphenadrine is responsible for a disproportionally high number of overdose deaths.
dose of kemadrin
A 51-year-old gentleman was admitted with a history of severe depression with marked agitation in the background of cocaine abuse. He had multiple medical problems like deep vein thrombosis, hepatitis C and tardive dyskinesia. Besides him being on antidepressant medication, risperidone was prescribed by his previous physician for a period of 2 years. Since commencement on this medication, he developed tardive dyskinesia that was never recognised and managed. This side effect caused additional anxiety to the patient and affected his social life. Upon admission, his medications were reviewed, risperidone was gradually withdrawn and procyclidine 2 mg twice daily was added. After being discharged from hospital, he was regularly seen in the out patient clinic. Within 3 months, his tardive dyskinesia improved tremendously, his quality of social life got better and by virtue of this, there was a faster remission in his depression and anxiety symptoms.
kemadrin tablet cost
This study determined the effects of procyclidine, an anticholinergic drug, on PPI in healthy male volunteers, employing a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design.
kemadrin injection dose
Neuroleptic medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. However, it is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders. Because of this, many acutely psychotic patients being treated with neuroleptic medication also receive anticholinergic drugs in order to reduce some of the associated movement side-effects.