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Lanoxin (Digoxin)

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Lanoxin is an effective medication which is used in treatment of certain types of fast heartbeats such as atrial fibrillation or fluttering arrhythmia and heart failure. It also treats angina. This drug can also be used after heart attack.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Digoxin.


Lanoxin target is struggle against certain types of fast heartbeats such as atrial fibrillation or fluttering arrhythmia and heart failure. It is also treats angina. This drug can also be used after heart attack. The effectiveness of Lanoxin is in keeping the heart rhythm under control and to make heart work better (regularly and strongly). It is cardiac (or digitalis) glycosides.

Generic name of Lanoxin is Digoxin.

Lanoxin is also known as Digoxin, Digitalis, Digitek, Lanoxicaps.

Brand names of Lanoxin are Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin, Cardoxin, Digitek, Lanoxin Elixir Pediatric.


Take Lanoxin tablets (0.25 mg), capsules and pediatric elixir (liquid) orally.

Elderly people (> 65 years) should take the lowest dose.

Take Lanoxin at the same time once a day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lanoxin suddenly.


If you overdose Lanoxin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lanoxin overdosage: confusion, irregular heartbeats, nausea, seizures, vomiting, extremely fast or slow heartbeats, hallucinations, tiredness, problems with vision, diarrhea, lack of appetite.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Lanoxin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Lanoxin if you are allergic to Lanoxin components.

Do not take Lanoxin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Lanoxin if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Lanoxin in case of taking medicines as a steroid medicine (prednisone (such as Deltasone), methylprednisolone (such as Medrol), prednisolone (such as Prelone, Pediapred), dexamethasone (such as Decadron)); a cancer chemotherapy drug; amphotericin B (such as Fungizone); indomethacin (such as Indocin); rifampin (such as Rifadin, Rimactane); cholestyramine (such as Questran, Prevalite) or colestipol (such as Colestid); a thyroid medication; a beta-blocker (atenolol (such as Tenormin), propranolol (such as Inderal), acebutolol (such as Sectral), metoprolol (such as Lopressor), carteolol (such as Cartrol), labetalol (such as Normodyne, Trandate) or nadolol (such as Corgard)); a diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide (such as HCTZ, HydroDiuril, others), chlorothiazide (such as Diuril), chlorthalidone (such as Hygroton, Thalitone), furosemide (such as Lasix), torsemide (such as Demadex), bumetanide (such as Bumex), ethacrynic acid (such as Edecrin), triamterene (such as Dyrenium, Maxzide, Dyazide), amiloride (such as Midamor), spironolactone (such as Aldactone), eplerenone (such as Inspra)); metoclopramide (such as Reglan); tetracycline (such as Broadspec, Emtet, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap); erythromycin (such as E.E.S., E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, PCE) or clarithromycin (such as Biaxin); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); another medicines for irregular heartbeats (quinidine (such as Quinidex, Quinora, Cardioquin), amiodarone (such as Cordarone) or propafenone (such as Rythmol)); itraconazole (such as Sporanox); a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem (such as Cardizem, Dilacor XR, Tiazac), amlodipine (such as Norvasc), felodipine (such as Plendil), nifedipine (such as Procardia, Adalat), verapamil (such as Verelan, Calan, Isoptin, Covera-HS)), an antacid or laxative that contains aluminum, magnesium or kaolin-pectin (such as Maalox, Rolaids, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia).

Be careful with Lanoxin if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Lanoxin if you suffer from or have a history of thyroid disease, cancer, kidney disease, heart arrhythmias.

Use Lanoxin with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Elderly people (> 65 years) should take the lowest dose.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Lanoxin suddenly.

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Capsaicin is the pungent component of hot chilli, a popular spice in many populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chronicity and reversibility of the modulating effect of capsaicin on both the P-gp expression and activity in the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Capsaicin at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 microM, which were found to be non-cytotoxic towards the Caco-2 cells, were observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [3H]-digoxin in the cells. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on the capsaicin concentration and duration of exposure, with abolishment of polarity of [3H]-digoxin transport attained at 50 microM of capsaicin. In contrast, longer term (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of the Caco-2 cells with capsaicin (50 and 100 microM) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by higher degree of [3H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. The induction of P-gp protein and mRNA levels was also influenced by capsaicin concentration and duration of exposure, with higher expression levels, in particular of the mRNA, seen at higher spice concentrations over prolonged period of incubation. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when capsaicin is to be consumed with drugs that are P-gp substrates. In particular, the oral bioavailability of these drugs may be influenced by the P-gp status of populations that rely heavily on hot chilli in their diets.

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Nonradioactive in situ hybridization offers a unique opportunity to study gene expression on samples with preserved histological information. This method makes it possible to locate not only where in a tissue a particular gene is expressed, but in many cases also in which specific cell type it is active. Here, we describe our current protocols for in situ hybridization on frozen sections or whole mounts of mouse embryos. The protocols included describe synthesis of a digoxigenin-labeled probe, tissue handling, hybridization of the probe to the mRNA expressed in the sample and signal detection.

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The isoprenoid pathway is a key regulatory pathway in the cell. It synthesizes digoxin, an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase inhibitor and modulator of synaptic transmission. The role of the isoprenoid pathway in lung diseases and its relation to hemispheric dominance was assessed in this study. The following parameters were measured in patients with (i) bronchial asthma, (ii) chronic bronchitis emphysemia, (iii) idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (iv) sarcoidosis, and (v) in individuals with right hemispheric, left hemispheric and bihemispheric dominance: 1. plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels, 2. tryptophan, tyrosine catabolic patterns, 3. free radical metabolism, 4. glycoconjugate metabolism, and 5. membrane composition. In patients with lung disease there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. The RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in the serum. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these patients. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric chemical dominance. An upregulated isoprenoid pathway and hyperdigoxinemia are characteristic of lung disease and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Right hemispheric chemical dominance is important in deciding the predisposition to lung disease.

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The level of endoxin was remarkably higher, ATPase activities in cell membrane were remarkably lower in hypoxic group and hypoxia-reoxygenation injury group than those of normal group; anti-digoxin antiserum could resume ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner.

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Some evidences suggest that the use of digoxin may be harmful inatrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The aim of the study was to investigate in a "real world" of AF patients receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the relationship between digoxin use and mortality.

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In total, 51 fetuses (median gestation age of 28.6 weeks) were included. The inclusion criteria were hydrops (n = 14), pericardial effusion (PE; n = 9), tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR; n = 8), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM; n = 7) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM; n = 7). Antenatal management was performed for 17 of 51 fetuses (33%): two abortions, nine digoxin administrations, three thoracocenteses, one pericardial puncture, one blood transfusion and one ascites centesis.

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Fetal aneuploidy could be diagnosed within 24 hours after the amniocentesis by FISH. FISH is a rapid, accurate and reliable method to detect fetal aneuphoidy in uncultured amniocytes.

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Alpha-thalassemia has been estimated to account for over 60% of hydrops fetalis cases in Taiwan. The most common genotypic lesion found in alpha-thalassemia-1 cases in Taiwan is deletion of a large segment of the alpha-globin gene cluster, termed the Southeast Asian-type deletion (-SEA/; further referred to as SEA-type deletion). Seven chorionic villus samples (CVS) from pregnancies of couples both heterozygous for SEA-type deletion were studied. Non-radioactive Southern-blot hybridization using the dig-alkaline phosphatase detection system was developed to fulfill this purpose. The results were compared with corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data to elucidate the effectiveness of these two protocols in the diagnosis of the SEA-type deletion. The data showed that of the seven CVS, three demonstrated a distinctive band pattern, indicating their homozygous status of SEA-type deletion, whereas two showed heterozygous patterns, and the other two were free of the deletion. Homozygosity of the deletion was confirmed by Southern-blot hybridization performed on DNA samples extracted from the abortus tissue. However, two of the three cases with SEA-type deletion showed heterozygous PCR results. Maternal cell contamination could be responsible for the artifacts in the PCR results, but the influence due to the contamination is minimal in non-radioactive Southern-blot hybridization. We concluded that PCR is suitable for screening of carrier adults with SEA-type deletion, and non-radioactive Southern hybridization is ideal for early prenatal diagnosis of the SEA-type deletion.

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The purpose of this study was to review the results of mitral valve replacement with mitral valve homograft, applying the method described by Acar, to determine if the method could be reproduced and was safe to use. Fourteen patients had replacement of the mitral valve with homograft. The diseased valve was excised and replaced with a cryopreserved homograft. The papillary muscles of the graft were attached to the papillary muscles of the patient in side-to-side fashion, using multiple stitches of fine monofilament suture. The annulus of the graft was attached to the patient annulus by continuous suture. The repair was supported by annuloplasty ring. All patients had intraoperative echocardiography. Patients were monitored clinically for up to 1.5 years. There were five men and nine women ranging in age from 16 to 70 years (mean = 43 years). Seven had rheumatic, six had degenerative, and one congenital morphology. Concomitant Maze III procedure was performed in three patients. All patients survived and are currently alive and in New York Heart Association functional class I. Thirteen patients have normal sinus rhythm. Only one patient has intermittent atrial fibrillation and is taking digoxin and warfarin. One patient had dehiscence of the recipient papillary muscle that required reoperation for mitral valve replacement with prosthesis. Three patients have moderate mitral valve regurgitation. Mitral valve replacement with homograft may be accomplished safely and reproducibly using the Acar method. Good short-term functional results and maintenance of normal sinus rhythm may be expected. Anticoagulant therapy should not be required.

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Clinical trials have demonstrated that exenatide improves glycemic control when added to sulfonylureas and metformin, and it may be an alternative to insulin glargine in patients requiring additional therapy. Hypoglycemia has been encountered in clinical trials of exenatide, especially upon initiation of therapy with sulfonylureas (not with metformin); close patient monitoring is therefore recommended. Further studies should assess the impact of exenatide on clinical outcomes such as micro- and macrovascular disease.

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The safety of digoxin (digitalis) therapy has greatly improved over the past three decades, but recent incidence rates for digoxin intoxication-related hospitalisation are not available. Recent literature suggests that women are at higher risk of digoxin toxicity.

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We studied 17 subjects with schizophrenia, 17 subjects with bipolar disorder, and 17 normal control subjects.

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An 8-month-old entire Miniature Dachshund, weighing 4.2 kg, was presented for examination following delvelopment of a cough. Ventricular septal defect had been diagnosed tentatively in its infancy on the basis of a cardiac murmur detected by auscultation and echocardiography. Echocardiography using a B mode right parasternal long-axis view showed a defect at the atrioventricular junction and a thickened cusp of the aortic valve prolapsing into the defect. Colour-flow Doppler showed shunt blood flow across the defect at the level of the atrioventricular junction, from left to right. The sinus of Valsalva was dilated, with turbulent blood flow. Aortic regurgitation was also observed. Cardiac catheterisation studies confirmed the diagnosis of a supracristal ventricular septal defect with aortic regurgitation. Despite medication with digoxin, enalapril and aminophylin, started from the first admission, left ventricular internal dimensions gradually increased, and fractional shortening of the left ventricle gradually decreased. Surgery, with the aid of extracorporeal circulation, to close the ventricular septal defect, was performed 1 year after the initial examination. The aortic valve was left untreated. Postoperatively, the systolic murmur disappeared. Shunt flow from the left to the right ventricle was no longer observed on echocardiography, however there was still a small amount of aortic regurgitation during diastole visualised with colour-flow Doppler echocardiography. The prolapse of the cusp of the aortic valve on B-mode echocardiography was no longer observed and thickening of the cusp had not progressed. Left ventricular function measurement using M mode echocardiography showed a reduced left ventricular volume overload with reduced left ventricular internal dimensions and increased fractional shortening. The cough was relieved and no follow-up medication was scheduled. Early surgical closure of the ventricular septal defect improved the patient's condition and controlled prolapse and thickening of the aortic valve.

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1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

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A population base of 6,367 in-patients from 28 general hospital wards was included in a nation-wide project aimed at documenting the extension and criteria of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). On randomly selected index days over a 3-month period details of age, clinical status, renal and liver function, diseases, drug therapies, and drug monitoring of all in-patients of eight different clinical specialties were recorded and analyzed. A total of 648 requests for 387 patients (16.3% of the population given drugs for which TDM was available in the hospital) was traced. Digoxin was the most frequently monitored drug (481 requests for 289 patients), accounting for 74% of the overall requests. This finding is consistent with the yearly activity of the laboratories of the same hospitals, which documented that 63% of the whole in-hospital analytical work (29,396 out of 46,692 requests) concerned digoxin. From a more qualitative point of view, data are provided that document a largely inappropriate use of TDM, which was employed only for 20% of patients who might have benefited from it.

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While it is relatively uncommon, an overdose of calcium-channel blockers, beta blockers, or digoxin has a significant morbidity and mortality rate, and its management can be complex. Digoxin toxicity can present with an acute overdose or as chronic toxicity while a patient is on therapeutic dosing, which has implications for diagnosis and management. While the patient's specific clinical presentation may depend on factors such as the time of exposure and the type of agent ingested, the differential diagnosis of the bradycardic and hypotensive patient is narrow, and toxicity from these agents must be considered. This review provides an evidence-based overview of the emergency department management of calcium-channel blocker overdose, beta blocker overdose, and digoxin toxicity.

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In acute heart failure, renal dysfunction is frequent and impacts prognosis. In this setting, the pharmacological interventions are significantly associated with changes in renal function and 6-month mortality.

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Heart failure is common, causes major disability and often shortens life. In the past, drugs such as diuretics and digoxin formed the mainstay of treatment. More recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have become a standard part of management. New developments in the drug treatment of heart failure include the possible addition of beta-blockers or spironolactone to diuretic and ACE inhibitor therapy. Also, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists have been proposed both as an alternative and as additional therapy to ACE inhibitors. Here, we discuss the place of these new approaches in the treatment of patients with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction.

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Predicting the risk of cardiac and all-cause death in patients with established coronary heart disease is important in counseling the individual and designing risk-stratified rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were thus completed on initial assessment data obtained from patients referred to an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation center.

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Voclosporin is a novel calcineurin inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between voclosporin and a CYP3A inhibitor, inducer and substrate and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor and substrate were evaluated.

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There was no significant difference in the cardioversion efficacy or in the risk of adverse events between flecainide and ibutilide in patients with AF of recent onset. In patients without contraindications to both medications, the physician's choice has to be governed by other factors.

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Differential display is an easily applied method for comparing gene expression in a variety of systems. We used a nonradioactive differential display technique to analyze X-ray-induced lymphomas derived from Emu-pim-1 transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Fragments of 11 differentially regulated genes were identified, three of which are novel sequences. One of the cloned fragments contained sequences of a mouse VL30 retroelement that was significantly overexpressed in a subset of lymphomas as compared with non-lymphomatous tissue. Interestingly, these lymphomas also displayed high levels of c-myc transcripts. An altered expression pattern of a glutathione S-transferase homologue was identified in several lymphomas. Moreover, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lipase appeared to be overexpressed specifically in lymphoma-containing spleen tissue, and the results suggest that it may be related to the endogenous immune response against lymphoma development.

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lanoxin drug class 2015-11-28

2186 patients with heart failure were seen (prevalence 7.1 per 1000 population, incidence 2.0 per 1000 population). The age and sex standardised incidence of heart failure increased with greater socioeconomic deprivation, from 1.8 per 1000 population in the most affluent stratum to 2.6 per 1000 population in the most deprived stratum (odds ratio 1.44, P = 0.0003). On average, patients were seen 2.4 times yearly, but follow up rates were less frequent with increasing socioeconomic deprivation (from 2.6 yearly in the most affluent subgroup to 2.0 yearly in the most deprived subgroup, P = 0.00009). Overall, 812 (80.6%) patients were prescribed diuretics, 396 (39.3%) angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 216 (21.4%) beta blockers, 208 (20.7%) digoxin, and 86 (8.5%) spironolactone. The wide discrepancies buy lanoxin in prescribing between different general practices disappeared after adjustment for patient age and sex. Prescribing patterns did not vary by deprivation categories on univariate or multivariate analyses.

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The EDLS concentrations in following samples: (1) villi in the 1st trimester (2) placenta, amnion and umbilical jelly of Wharton in the 3rd trimester, (3) plasma of normal non-pregnant women (4) maternal plasma in three trimesters, 24-48 buy lanoxin hours post partum, (5) maternal plasma and umbilical blood in labour, were determined by radioimmunoassay.

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Cardiotonic agents may differentially alter indices of the cytosolic [Ca2+]/left ventricular pressure (LVP) relationship when given before and after ischemia. We measured and calculated systolic- buy lanoxin diastolic [Ca2+], systolic-diastolic LVP, velocity ratios (VRs) d[Ca2+]/dtmax to dLVP/dtmax (VRmax), d[Ca2+]/dtmin to dLVP/dtmin (VRmin), and area ratio (AR, area Ca2+]/area LVP per beat) before and after 30 min global ischemia in guinea pig hearts.

lanoxin oral dosage 2017-08-10

Daunorubicin is an anthracycline anti-tumor agent; anthracycline chemotherapy in cancer can cause severe cardiomyopathy leading to a frequently fatal congestive heart failure; the first-line treatment is diuretics and digoxin. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to be effective in the treatment of such toxicity buy lanoxin . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) in a rat model of daunorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

lanoxin 150 mg 2016-05-30

Readmissions within 6 buy lanoxin months after discharge.

lanoxin 60 mg 2015-06-08

The gene and protein expression pattern of drug transporters in Caco-2 cells and jejunal tissue differed considerably. For some transporters culture-time dependent differences in mRNA expression and/or protein abundance could be determined. Finally buy lanoxin , none of the studied prototypical inducers showed an effect either on mRNA expression and protein abundance or on the function of ABCB1.

lanoxin overdose antidote 2017-02-24

The effect of the C3435T mutation at exon 26 of the MDR1 buy lanoxin gene on the expression levels of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was evaluated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction in 51 biopsy specimens of duodenum obtained from 13 healthy Japanese subjects. The mRNA levels of MDR1 were 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.14, and 1.13 +/- 0.42 (mean value +/- SE) in the subjects with the homozygote of wild-type allele (C/C), compound heterozygote with mutant T allele (C/T), and the homozygote of the mutant allele (T/T), respectively, reasonably explaining the lower digoxin serum concentration after administration of a single oral dose to subjects harboring a mutant T allele. Good correlation (r =.797; P <.01) was observed between the mRNA concentrations of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in the individual biopsy specimens. This finding suggested a lower plasma concentration of the substrates for CYP3A4 in subjects harboring the C3435T mutation of the MDR1 gene.

lanoxin 250 mg 2016-01-22

The data from animal and human in-vivo studies suggest that cardiac function is dependent in part on the normal function of the GH/IGF-1 axis (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1). The syndrome of heart failure appears to be associated with a perturbation of the GH/IGF-1 axis. So far encouraging results from phase II clinical trials evaluating the effects of long-term growth hormone treatment in patients with moderate to severe chronic congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy have been published. In these studies growth hormone (i.e., DNA-derived recombinant human growth hormone) was not used alone but in addition to standard optimal therapy for chronic heart failure. The following rationale is the basis of this new approach for the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. According to Laplace's Law, cardiac wall stress(i.e., the force acting per unit of cross-sectional area of the ventricular wall) is directly related to intraventricular pressure and ventricular radius and inversely related to ventricular wall thickness. Cardiac (ventricular) wall stress if increased in dilated cardiomyopathy (mainly because of the dilatation of the ventricles and to a minor extent because of the relative reduction in ventricular thickness). Growth hormone seems to be capable of increasing ventricular wall thickness in dilated cardiomyopathy, thus, reducing cardiac wall stress which in turn leads to an improvement in systolic cardiac performance. Recombinant human growth hormone as a pharmacologic treatment is not only an expensive but also risky therapeutic modality (e.g., potential risk of inducing colonic carcinoma, de- buy lanoxin novo leukemias, relapses of leukemias and central nervous system tumors). Given these prerequisites and a receptivity for cost effectiveness and risk-benefit analyses, it seems as if subcutaneous recombinant human growth hormone-as an additional therapeutic substance in conjunction with one of the widely accepted drugs for end-stage chronic congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy-e.g., angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, nitrates, digoxin, and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (Carvedilol) could either become a bridge to transplantation (i.e., supporting patients awaiting transplantation) or an alternative to the very expensive cardiac transplantation. There are three reasons for this hypothesis. First, the fact that end-state dilated cardiomyopathy along with ischemic heart disease are the main indications for heart transplantation in adults; second, the worldwide small supply of human donor organs for heart transplantation; and, third, the urgent need to find alternative cost-effective and risk-beneficial therapeutic modalities.

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Ninety-five percent of patients received digoxin for appropriate indications; buy lanoxin 75 percent had confirmed supraventricular arrhythmias (27 percent also had CHF) and 20 percent with normal sinus rhythm had documented systolic dysfunction. However, physicians had difficulty in the clinical assessment of left ventricular function; 18 percent of patients with sinus rhythm and CHF by the Framingham scoring system and 20 percent of those with supraventricular arrhythmias and CHF had preserved systolic function. An S3 was present in 15 percent of patients with preserved ejection fraction and CHF and in 69 percent with low ejection fraction; hypertension was significantly more common in the former group. Noninvasive assessment of systolic function was obtained in 97 percent of patients independent of this study, yet some patients without supraventricular arrhythmias and with documented preservation of systolic function continued to receive the drug.

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By reaching out to GPs and maintaining contact with them, this quality intervention appears to have positively impacted physicians' awareness and prescribing behaviour, which led to significant reductions in PIM buy lanoxin exposures and likely translated to significant population health benefits among their older patients. Similar interventions tailored to target specific PIMs or focus on certain subpopulations of GPs may further improve prescribing quality among older people.

lanoxin prices 2015-05-25

Atrial fibrillation (AF) with a rapid ventricular response was induced by intravenous (i.v.) aminophylline during treatment for symptomatic pulmonary disease in three patients who had no evidence of underlying heart disease or previous cardiac arrhythmia. Serum theophylline concentration was therapeutic in two patients and toxic in the third. Previous reports of AF related to aminophylline have underscored its association with toxic serum theophylline concentration. Conversion to sinus rhythm occurred at a time buy lanoxin interval (9-14 hours) appropriate to the serum decay of aminophylline, after its cessation. A shortened atrial refractory period and dispersed recovery of excitability consequent to aminophylline may engender multiple reentrant circuits and lead to AF. i.v. diltiazem was more effective than digoxin in the ventricular rate control of AF prior to conversion to sinus rhythm.

lanoxin tab 2016-09-01

Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used in atrial fibrillation. The demonstration of severe pro-arrhythmic effects in recent years has led to the reappraisal of their indications in this pathology. Antiarrhythmic agents have three roles: reduction of the fibrillation, maintenance of sinus rhythm and, in case buy lanoxin of failure, control of the ventricular response. In the first indication, although intravenous injection of Class Ic antiarrhythmics is effective in 70% of cases, there is an alternative: electrical cardioversion, which is effective in 90% of cases with the transthoracic method when a certain number of technical conditions are respected. The success rate is even better with endocavitary defibrillation. Sinus rhythm is sustained in only 25% of patients at one year with placebo and in 50% of patients with antiarrhythmic therapy. The alternatives in this indication are few at present and consist in right atrial pacing in cases of vagal fibrillation and biatrial pacing for resynchronizing the activation of the two atriae when there is a major interatrial conduction defect. The control of the ventricular response, in cases of permanent atrial fibrillation, is usually reserved to digitalis, betablockers, amiodarone and some calcium antagonists. They are often inadequate and an alternative is radiofrequency catheter ablation of the atrioventricular node, which requires permanent ventricular pacing. In conclusion, there are a few alternatives to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in atrial fibrillation, but they are relatively ineffective in maintaining sinus rhythm.

lanoxin renal dose 2015-07-27

Six clones of RHODIOLA ROSEA, obtained from plants originating from widely different areas in Norway, were investigated for their IN VITRO inhibitory potential on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-gp efflux transport activity. Presumed active constituents in the ethanol extracts of the different clones were quantified. C-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4 Cordarone Y Alcohol and Caco-2 cells were used for inhibitory assays, and as positive control inhibitors ketoconazole and verapamil were applied, respectively. A validated HPLC methodology was used to quantify the formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone and scintillation counting was used to quantify the transport of (3)H-digoxin in Caco-2 cells. All clones showed potent inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp activities, with IC (50) values ranging from 1.7 to 3.1 microg/mL and from 16.7 to 51.7 microg/mL, respectively, being below that reported for other herbs and some known classic drug inhibitors, such as St. John's wort and fluoxetine. RHODIOLA ROSEA might thus be a candidate for clinically relevant drug interactions. The concentration of presumed biologically active constituents in the different clones varied considerably, but this variation was not related to the clones' inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 or P-gp activities. Other constituents might thus be responsible for the observed inhibitory properties. The place of origin seemed to be of minor importance for CYP3A4 or P-gp inhibition.

lanoxin en alcohol 2016-12-04

In view of the high binding ability of cardiac glycosides to the myocardial Na,K-ATPase, radioiodinated digoxin derivatives were surveyed as candidates for myocardial imaging, with particular emphasis on the noninvasive monitoring of cardiac glycoside therapy. Among the radioiodinated digoxin derivatives surveyed, 125I-digoxin-iodohistamine(bis(O-carboxymethyloxime)) showed the highest accumulation in the myocardium and similar binding ability to Na,K-ATPase as digoxin itself against ouabain displacement, as indicated by in vivo and in vitro studies. Based on these results, 123I labeling of digoxin-histamine(bis(O-carboxymethyloxime)) and imaging in a dog demonstrated Paxil Missed Dose uptake in the myocardium.

lanoxin 25 mg 2016-06-08

Low bioavailability of etoposide in monkeys is due to poor intestinal uptake resulting from low influx Valtrex Prophylactic Dose from the apical side, rather than secretion via P-gp.

lanoxin cost 2016-05-21

Danish Avapro Vs Generic nationwide national registers.

lanoxin tablets dose 2016-10-07

Population-based, prospective cohort study conducted from 1984 through Lasix Dose 1996, with a follow-up of up to 12.3 years.

lanoxin suspension 2017-10-20

Aberrant activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is the underlying cause of retinal neovascularization, one of the Arcoxia Dosage most common causes of blindness worldwide. The HIF pathway also plays critical roles during tumor angiogenesis and cancer stem cell transformation. We have recently shown that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of the HIF pathway in a number of cancer and retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. Here we evaluate the safety and efficacy of honokiol, digoxin, and doxorubicin, three recently identified HIF inhibitors from natural sources. Our studies show that honokiol has a better safety to efficacy profile as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. Further, we show for the first time that daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol starting at postnatal day (P) 12 in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model significantly reduced retinal neovascularization at P17. Administration of honokiol also prevents the oxygen-induced central retinal vaso-obliteration, characteristic feature of the OIR model. Additionally, honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. Since honokiol suppresses multiple pathways activated by HIF, in addition to the VEGF signaling, it may provide advantages over current treatments utilizing specific VEGF antagonists for ocular neovascular diseases and cancers.

lanoxin drug indication 2016-04-03

The paper summarizes the knowledge on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in WPW syndrome. The peculiarities, ECG features, risk markers of sudden cardiac death, pharmacologic and non farmacologic therapy and prevention of Periactin Drug Information this arrhythmia are presented. Potentially dangerous effects of drugs such as digoxin, verapamil, adenosine and betablockers are emphasized.

lanoxin drug study 2016-01-20

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of endogenous digoxin-like substances on the interpretation of excessive concentrations of digoxin in children. After the development of a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for digoxin in our laboratories, we analyzed sera of children in whom the fluorescence polarization immunoassay identified potentially toxic concentrations of the glycoside (greater than 3 nmol/L; 2.3 ng/ml). Sixteen of them were receiving long-term digoxin therapy, and one had an accidental overdose. The immunoassay yielded significantly higher concentrations (4.1 +/- 1.2 nmol/L; 3.2 +/- 0.9 ng/ml) than the HPLC method (3.3 +/- 1.6 nmol/L; 2.6 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; p less than 0.01). In five cases (30%) these differences were clinically significant because administration of digoxin had been discontinued in the presence of true digoxin concentrations within the therapeutic range and the lack of clinical toxic effects. These data suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring using immunoassays of digoxin may be too inaccurate to detect potential toxic effects, and that much more weight should be focused on clinical monitoring. The HPLC method for assay Sporanox With Alcohol of digoxin is extremely meticulous and will not become clinically available; therefore the development of better immunoassays should be encouraged.

lanoxin medication 2016-06-08

In managing atrial fibrillation, the main therapeutic strategies include rate control, termination of the arrhythmia, and pr vention of recurrences and thromboembolic events. Rate control with digoxin, b-blockers, verapamil, and diltiazem may be preferred in drug refractory and sedentary patients with markedly dilated left atrium and atrial fibrillation of long duration. Drugs useful in the maintenance of sinus rhythm include quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide, sotalol, amiodarone, dofetilide, flecainide, and propafenone. In patients with structural heart disease, the class III antiarrhythmics are the initial drugs of choice, given their neutral effects on survival in a post-myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure population. Due to high recurrence rates with pharmacologic therapy, nonpharmacologic options of therapy include atrioventricular junction ablation, atrial defibrillators, catheter ablation of pulmonary vein foci, and attempts to perform an atrial Maze procedure using Lanoxin Overdose Effects catheters. Hybrid therapy using drugs in combination with nonpharmacologic approaches will be used more frequently in the future for refractory patients.

lanoxin drug medication 2016-07-20

In MEIC, all 50 reference chemicals were tested in 61 in vitro assays. To provide a background to the in vitro/in vivo evaluation, mouse LD(50) values were compared with human lethal doses, resulting in a good correlation (R(2) 0.65). To study the relevance of in vitro results, IC(50) values were compared with human lethal blood concentrations (LCs) by linear regression. An average IC(50) for the ten 24-hour human cell line tests predicted peak LCs better (R(2) 0.74) than other groups of tests. When IC(50) values for 32 chemicals which rapidly enter brain were divided by a factor of 3.2 and 48-hour IC(50) values were compared with 48-hour human LCs for 10 slow-acting chemicals, the prediction improved considerably. Human toxicity was clearly underpredicted for only four chemicals, namely digoxin, malathion, nicotine and atropine, indicating a high relevance of the human cell line toxicity. All chemicals entering the brain induced a CNS depression, explaining this syndrome as a cytotoxic effect. Multivariate analysis was used to select an optimal combination of assays, resulting in a battery of three 24-hour human cell line tests (endpoints: protein, ATP and morphology/pH) with good direct prediction of human peak LCs (R(2) 0.77).

lanoxin drug classification 2015-08-18

A new method is described for the characterization of RNA binding domains of a protein and applied to the study of the interaction between proteins and nucleic acid of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV). The method uses synthetic peptides coated onto an ELISA plate and tested for their ability to bind digoxigenin-labelled RNAs. RNA binding is quantified with peroxidase-conjugated anti-digoxigenin. The hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is an RNA-binding protein that specifically binds HDV RNAs. In a previous study, it was shown that HDAg sequences corresponding to residues 2-27 and 79-107 bound to both genomic and antigenomic strands. Further investigations are reported on HDAg/HDV RNA binding, using additional HDAg peptides and the full-length HDV genomic and antigenomic strands. In order to validate the method, the efficiency of peptide coating onto the ELISA plate was assessed with human antibodies against HDAg. The two arginine-rich motifs potentially involved in the RNA-binding activity (97-107 and 136-146) were explored and the residues 2-27 and 79-211 were mapped using synthetic peptides. Only peptides corresponding to residues 2-17, 2-27, 79-107 and 84-126 of the HDAg bound to the genomic and antigenomic strands. The second arginine-rich motif represented by peptides 130-144 and 128-152 did not bind to HDV RNAs in this assay. This second arginine-rich domain may be involved in this interaction without a direct ability to bind HDV RNAs.

lanoxin recommended dose 2016-07-25

The mean age at the time of testing was 57 +/- 12 years (+/- SD) and they were followed up for a mean of 6.6 years. There were 544 all-cause deaths, with 206 of the deaths being due to cardiovascular causes (38%). When the study group was classified into subsets based on age, exercise capacity (in metabolic equivalents [METs]) was chosen by the Cox hazard model most consistently in the age groups using either end point. Even when age was added to the Duke treadmill score, prediction of death did not improve in those > 70 years of age because of the nonlinear relationship between age, the exercise test variables, and time to death. The most important age cut points for clinically important differences in exercise test predictors appeared to be 70 years and 75 years of age. In the patients 70 to 75 years of age, peak METs was the only variable predictive of all-cause mortality, and exercise-induced ST-segment depression was the only predictor of cardiovascular death; in the patients > 75 years of age, none of the exercise test responses were predictive of either death outcome.

lanoxin reviews 2017-09-10

Concomitant ketoconazole administration resulted in a 6.8-fold increase in lurasidone Cmax and a 9.3-fold increase in lurasidone AUC; concomitant diltiazem administration resulted in 2.1- and 2.2-fold increases, respectively. Rifampin decreased lurasidone Cmax and AUC (one-seventh and one-fifth of lurasidone alone, respectively). Steady-state dosing with lurasidone increased Cmax and AUC0-24 (AUC from time 0 to 24 h postdose) of digoxin by 9% and 13%, respectively, and of midazolam by 21% and 44%, respectively. There were no significant interactions between lurasidone and lithium, valproate, ethinyl estradiol, or norelgestromin (the major active metabolite of norgestimate).

lanoxin overdose effects 2015-03-25

Analyses of inhibition curves showed that the experimental curves for all combinations were superimposed on the theoretical additive curves indicating that an additive effect occurs among distinct cardenolides and bufadienolides combinations on the human α1β1 Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protomer.

lanoxin generic 2017-03-03

The applicability of a recently developed non-radioactive DNA labelling and detection method, which uses the digoxigenin (DIG) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, for the detection of viral infections in pathology specimens by in situ hybridisation, was examined. Its efficacy was compared with that of biotin and radioisotope labelling methods. Three cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, two of verruca vulgaris, and seven cases of laryngeal papilloma were studied. The sensitivity of the DIG labelled probe was almost the same as that of a 35S-labelled probe in the dot-blot hybridisation test. Using in situ hybridisation with 35S-labelled and DIG labelled probes, the levels of the hybridised signals detected were similar. The biotin labelled probe was less sensitive, particularly in the cases of laryngeal papilloma. The DIG labelling and detection method was highly sensitive and applicable to the detection of viral infection by ISH, and is preferable to a radiolabelled probe, especially when in situ hybridisation is done in the pathology laboratory.

lanoxin generic substitution 2016-07-03

Asian and Siberian ginsengs contain glycosides with structural similarities to digoxin. We studied potential interference of ginseng in 5 digoxin immunoassays in 3 Asian (2 liquid extracts, 1 capsule) and 3 Siberian ginseng preparations (1 liquid extract, 2 capsules). With the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), we observed apparent digoxin activity in 1 Asian liquid preparation and in the liquid extract and 1 capsule form of Siberian ginseng. In mice fed ginseng, we observed digoxin activities in the serum (Asian, 0.48-0.68 ng/mL [0.6-0.9 nmol/L]; Siberian, 0.20-0.47 ng/mL [0.3-0.6 nmol/L]), indicating that such interferences also occur in vivo. Serum pools prepared from samples from patients receiving digoxin and then supplemented with Asian or Siberian ginseng showed falsely increased digoxin values using the FPIA (e.g., for Asian ginseng, 1.54 ng/mL [2.0 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.10 ng/mL [1.4 nmol/L]) and falsely decreased values using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA; 0.73 ng/mL [0.9 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.04 ng/mL [1.3 nmol/L]). Digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLISs) showed synergistic effects with ginsengs in interfering with the FPIA and MEIA for digoxin. No interference was observed with 3 other digoxin assays, even in the presence of elevated DLISs.