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A newly developed microdilution antimycobacterial susceptibility test, BrothMIC MTB (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was evaluated at multisites. The test method utilizes air-dried microplates containing serially diluted antimicrobial agents and the modified Middlebrook 7H9 broth. The eight antimycobacterial agents tested were rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The test plates were reconstituted by inoculation of 0.2 ml of cell suspensions (6 x 10(5) cells/ml) and were incubated at 36 degrees C in 5% to 10% CO2. The growth endpoints were visually read after 7-day and 10-day incubations. The reproducibility was evaluated with the four reference strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and were compared with the agar proportion method described in the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M24-T. Of the 1,022 testings of the reference strains, 1,020 (99.8%) of the MICs read after 7-day incubation fell within 3 log2 dilutions. The growth endpoints read after 7-day and 10-day incubations gave equal MIC ranges for the respective agents. The results obtained by the BrothMIC MTB for 93 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis compared well with those determined by the NCCLS method with 98% to 99% agreements, except for ethambutol. According to the comparative analysis with the agar proportion method, the interpretive MIC breakpoints to discriminate between the isolates susceptible and resistant against the respective agents were proposed. In conclusion, this newly developed microdilution test for M. tuberculosis is a practical, rapid, quantitative, nonradiometric alternative for the determination of MICs in clinical mycobacteriology laboratories.
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Of 12 patients, four died of B. cereus septicemia. In this study, the delayed administration of appropriate antibiotics (starting >24 hours after presentation), the presence of liver dysfunction and evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement tended to result in a fatal prognosis. All of the bacterial strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and quinolones (such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin), whereas many strains were resistant to clindamycin (76.9%) and imipenem (30.8%). In seven of 10 patients, central venous (CV) catheter tips were removed and routinely cultured. Catheter tip cultures were positive for B. cereus in three of seven patients.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear.
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The clinical presentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections included high body temperature, decreased platelet count, elevated white blood cell count, a high nosocomial origin and mortality, and onset in the late period after transplantation. According to our findings, piperacillin-tazobactam, levofloxacin, amikacin, and cefoperazone-sulbactam, alone or combination, are recommended to treat SOT recipients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.
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The strains were susceptible to aminoglycosides (MIC(90) values: gentamicin, 0.75 mg/L; and streptomycin, 6.0 mg/L), tetracyclines (MIC(90) values: tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L; and doxycycline, 1.0 mg/L), quinolones (MIC(90) values: ciprofloxacin, 0.047 mg/L; and levofloxacin, 0.023 mg/L) and chloramphenicol (MIC(90) value: 1.5 mg/L), i.e. antibiotics commonly used in therapy. Tigecycline (MIC(90) value: 0.19 mg/L) and rifampicin (MIC(90) value: 1.0 mg/L) were also active against F. tularensis strains, while resistance to erythromycin (MIC(90) value: >256 mg/L) and linezolid (MIC(90) value: 32 mg/L) was observed in all strains.
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We describe a clonal outbreak of quinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (QRHI) from an affiliated long-term care facility (LTCF-A); the outbreak was associated with the clinical use of levofloxacin, which was determined to be a risk factor for acquisition of QRHI. The minimum inhibitory concentration to which 90% of isolates were susceptible (MIC90), as determined by broth microdilution, was >4 microg/mL for levofloxacin, >2 microg/mL for moxifloxacin, >2 microg/mL for gatifloxacin, and 8 microg/mL for gemifloxacin. The MIC90, as determined by Etest (AB Biodisk), was >32 microg/mL for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. Having been a resident at LTCF-A and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significant risk factors for acquisition of QRHI at our 500-bed hospital (New York Hospital Queens). All QRHI isolates were found to be genetically related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, were nontypeable, were susceptible to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, and were negative for beta -lactamase production. Emphasis on patient contact and respiratory isolation and placing colonized or infected patients in cohorts yielded a marked reduction in the prevalence of QRHI at LTCF-A.
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To compare two second-line regimens with quadruple therapy.
We observed that linezolid exhibits antibacterial action, although slowly, in both situations. Quinolones with an 8-methoxy group exhibit greater activity than levofloxacin in logarithmic growth phases, whereas levofloxacin exhibits greater activity in stationary-phase growth.
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New fluoroquinolones, as exemplified by levofloxacin, possess broad spectrum activity against many common pathogens, including the majority responsible for respiratory tract infections (RTIs), atypical pathogens and those resistant to other therapeutic regimens. Following administration, levofloxacin attains high intracellular and tissue levels. This, coupled with an exceptional pharmacodynamic profile, allows levofloxacin to be administered once daily. However, in certain circumstances, such as seriously ill patients or those with difficult-to-treat pathogens, higher doses may be required. Since the bactericidal effect of levofloxacin is concentration-dependent, it is possible to increase peak concentration by increasing the dose, resulting in even better tissue concentration (and a possible reduction in the development of resistance). High-dose levofloxacin is able to exploit these pharmacokinetic features to provide an effective treatment for severe infections. Data is now available confirming the efficacy of high-dose levofloxacin in a wide range of infections, including nosocomial pneumonia, meningitis and complicated skin and skin structure infections (CSSSIs). Not only is this regimen effective, it is also well tolerated and provides the physician with an additional therapeutic option to manage critically ill patients.
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Levofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. It is indicated for the treatment of respiratory, sinus, skin, and urinary tract infections. Although generic formulations of oral levofloxacin are marketed in Mexico, a literature search did not identify published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations; these data would be relevant to secure marketing of a test formulation in Mexico.
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We established the distribution of amino acid alterations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Japan and described the correlation of these alterations with serotypes determined by multilocus sequencing typing. Among 141 S. pneumoniae isolates, five levofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored mutations in both gyrA and parC and/or parE and were clonally unrelated. Among 136 levofloxacin-susceptible isolates, one isolate (MIC = 2 mg/l) had a first-step parC mutation at Asp78. Twenty isolates had Lys137Asp in parC and Ile460Val in parE and contained nine serotypes and eight clonal complexes (CCs), including all eight Colombia(23F)-26 (CC138) isolates. Eighty-one isolates had Ile460Val in parE alone and contained 14 serotypes and 16 CCs, including 36 of 37 Netherlands(3)-31 (CC180) isolates and all 22 Taiwan(19F)-14 (CC271) isolates. In contrast, seven of ten Taiwan(23F)-15 (CC242) isolates were wild-type. Although each QRDR genotype contained various serotypes and CCs, prevalent clones were mostly associated with a single QRDR genotype.
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We report an immunocompetent 53-year-old male farmer who presented with fulminant hepatic failure and acute renal failure. Empiric antibiotic treatment with intravenous penicillin G and levofloxacin were given, but hepatic and renal functions continued to deteriorate. A subsequent test of serum immunoglobulin M was positive for CMV, and administration of gancyclovir led to gradual recovery. A diagnosis of acute Q fever was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on paired serum samples to demonstrate a significant rise in antibody titers. Antibiotic treatment was adjusted accordingly.
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In this multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority study, ambulatory adult patients who had signs and symptoms for >7 to 21 days before the screening visit and radiographic findings consistent with acute rhinosinusitis were randomized to receive cefdinir 600 mg or levofloxacin 500 mg, each once daily for 10 days. Clinical and radiologic response rates were determined at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit, which took place 9 to 14 days after the completion of treatment.
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Mushroom extracts could decrease therapeutic doses of standard antibiotics and reduce micro-organism's resistance to those drugs.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of Salmonella and their association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Korea.
Totals of 427 patients (224 male, 203 female) and 350 patients (189 male, 161 female) were included in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations, respectively. Clinical success rates between males and females were not statistically different between antibiotic groups in either the mITT or ME populations at EOT or PT.
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Present study suggest that drug induced cutaneous eruptions are common ranging from common nuisance rashes to rare life threatening diseases like SJS and TEN, SJS/TEN typically occur 1-3 weeks after initiation of therapy. Aromatic AED's, LTG, oxicam NSAID's, sulfasalazine and levofloxacin have a tremendous potential to trigger SCARS's. To ensure safe use of pharmaceutical agents and better treatment outcomes post marketing voluntary reporting of severe rare and unusual reactions remains inevitable.
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The total number of patients included in this study was 60. In 83.3% there was a predisposing factor. In 43 cases the diagnosis was made in spring and summer months. The exacerbation of COPD was the most frequent diagnosis (61.7%). The most frequently isolated organism was Pseudomonas spp. (41.7%). In our hospital the most commonly used antimicrobials in the initial treatment are levofloxacin (36.7%) and amoxicillinclavulanate (26.7%). The antibiotics with the highest percentage of antibiotic resistance were ciprofloxacin in E. coli (66.7%) and Pseudomonas spp. (60%), penicillin for S. pneumoniae (100%).
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Differences in fluoroquinolone costs (AWP, 50% AWP, or when matched as the same daily price) among the populations were found. When considering same daily prices, differences among populations ranged from about 35,000 dollars with intravenous gatifloxacin to more than 51,000 dollars for intravenous levofloxacin (all fluoroquinolones, p>0.05). Within a population, differences in costs among the intravenous fluoroquinolones ranged from 47,000-99,000 dollars. Rank orders of the drugs and population costs of therapy were affected by the pricing structure used and varied by the specific population and drug. Differences among the fluoroquinolones or populations were much smaller (<2100 dollars) when considering oral regimens. Costs potentially incurred by failing to adjust dosing for renal function were substantial.
Sixty percent (9/15) of S. cohnii, 33% (3/9) of S. hominis, and 50% (3/6) of S. sciuri isolates were categorized as weak producers of biofilm. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. All 3 species showed a high resistance (> 66%) to ampicillin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ceftriaxone, and the majority of the isolates were methicillin-resistant. PFGE revealed that the S. cohnii isolates comprised 1 dominant clone.
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The SIGNIFICANT (Simple Investigation in Neutropenic Individuals of the Frequency of Infection after Chemotherapy +/- Antibiotic in a Number of Tumours) trial reported a reduction in febrile episodes (FEs) among 1,565 patients with solid cancers and lymphomas receiving cyclical, myelosuppressive chemotherapy (causing grade 4 neutropenia) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of levofloxacin (P = .01). In response to concerns that increased antibacterial prescribing selects for microbial resistance, we examined our data to explore the rationale for more limited prophylaxis.
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Increased MICs of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (to a lesser extent) and increased expression of patA and patB were seen for all resistant strains; these were reduced in patA or patB disruptants or in the presence of reserpine. Exposure to any of the five fluoroquinolones caused a reversible increase in expression of patA and patB, but not of pmrA. Mitomycin C, an inducer of the competence system in S. pneumoniae, also induced patA and patB expression in the two strains tested.
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A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤1 antibiotic versus ≥2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively.
Penicillin-resistant pneumococci are of concern in respiratory tract infections. Currently, nearly all of the "penicillin resistance" to Streptococcus pneumoniae is relative resistance which indicates decreased antibiotic activity in terms of the MIC, but these isolates are still susceptible to sensitive antibiotics given in the usual/high doses. The emergence of highly resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae may be minimized by preferentially using antibiotics known to have a high degree of antipneumococcal activity with a low resistance potential, e.g., doxycycline, cefprozil, levofloxacin, cefepime or meropenem. While vancomycin is useful to treat highly resistant strains, its use should be decreased to minimize the emergence of VRE and strains of Staphylococcus aureus with intermediate vancomycin sensitivity.
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A high rate of AB prescriptions in admitted patients correspond to empirical infection treatment, being ceftriaxone and levofloxacin the most used AB. Inadequate empirical and/or directed treatment is associated to clinical or microbiological failure and death.
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Many practitioners use antimicrobials as a first-line agent, particularly a fluoroquinolone, such as levofloxacin. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is another medication alternative, with comparable response rates. Many afflicted men will have significant improvement on a 4- to 6-week regimen of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Second-line pharmacotherapy includes alpha-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and anti-inflammatories for men with urinary symptoms or pain as a predominant symptom domain. Other pharmacotherapy includes steroids, glycosaminoglycans and phytotherapy. Surgical options are generally not recommended for CP/CPPS. Despite the lack of curative therapies, effective symptom management can be achieved with knowledge of the classes of pharmacotherapy. Therapeutic decisions can be based on the symptoms of the patient. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a useful second-line therapy in the author's opinion, but randomized controlled trials and standardization of technique for CP/CPPS are needed before recommendations can be substantiated.
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Case report and review of the medical literature