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Recent evidence suggests that higher doses of statins could improve clinical outcomes compared to conventional doses, but whether this benefit is due to "additional" pleiotropic effects is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that atorvastatin 80 mg/day would have beneficial effects on indices of matrix remodelling (matrix metalloproteinase-1, MMP-1, and its tissue inhibitor, TIMP-1) in high-risk cardiovascular disease. We studied 27 "high-risk" patients (inclusion criteria: severe triple vessel but rejected for by-pass for extensive coronary disease, severe effort angina after coronary artery by-pass and premature coronary disease with > or =3 risk factors) with an abnormal lipid profile despite atorvastatin 40 mg/day, at baseline and at 3 months after increasing the statin dose to 80 mg/day. Baseline results in patients were compared to 22 healthy controls. At baseline, patients had lower levels of MMP-1 compared to controls. When atorvastatin was increased to 80 mg/day, significant reduction in LDL-cholesterol was observed, whereas MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were increased. These, despite of atorvastatin 40 mg daily, 'high-risk' patients still demonstrated abnormal extracellular remodelling indices. Doubling the dose of atorvastatin resulted in significant improvement in extracellular remodelling indices.
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Medline/Ovid and EMBASE search and manual search of bibliography of key papers, on the effects of statins on bone metabolism including in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as clinical trials on the effects of statins on bone mineral density and fracture risk.
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with inflammation. The effects of atorvastatin on biomarkers of inflammation were assessed in CKD patients in the LORD trial.
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Statins do not always decrease coronary heart disease mortality, which was speculated based on increased serum plant sterols observed during statin treatment. To evaluate plant sterol atherogenicity, we fed low density lipoprotein-receptor deficient (LDLr(+/-)) mice for 35 weeks with Western diets (control) alone or enriched with atorvastatin or atorvastatin plus plant sterols or stanols. Atorvastatin decreased serum cholesterol by 22% and lesion area by 57%. Adding plant sterols or stanols to atorvastatin decreased serum cholesterol by 39% and 41%. Cholesterol-standardized serum plant sterol concentrations increased by 4- to 11-fold during sterol plus atorvastatin treatment versus stanol plus atorvastatin treatment. However, lesion size decreased similarly in the sterol plus atorvastatin (-99% vs. control) and the stanol plus atorvastatin (-98%) groups, with comparable serum cholesterol levels, suggesting that increased plant sterol concentrations are not atherogenic. Our second study confirms this conclusion. Compared with lesions after a 33 week atherogenic period, lesion size further increased in controls (+97%) during 12 more weeks on the diet, whereas 12 weeks with the addition of plant sterols or stanols decreased lesion size (66% and 64%). These findings indicate that in LDLr(+/-) mice 1) increased cholesterol-standardized serum plant sterol concentrations are not atherogenic, 2) adding plant sterols/stanols to atorvastatin further inhibits lesion formation, and 3) plant sterols/stanols inhibit the progression or even induce the regression of existing lesions.
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Adverse reactions in two patients who received HMG CoA reductase inhibitor therapy were reinvestigated because of their rarity. A case of permanent forearm myalgia was thought to be caused by atorvastatin. Closer evaluation and work-up revealed underlying lateral epicondylitis, and atorvastatin was not considered the cause of the disability. In another patient, rhabdomyolysis was suspected to be secondary to simvastatin. However, after an extensive review, the reaction was believed to be compartment syndrome of the anterior tibial area. An adverse drug reaction report requires careful and judicious assessment to assign the correct probability for the event.
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Compared with in the water group, the AUC(0,48 h) of atorvastatin acid significantly increased by 1.40 fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.92; P < 0.05) when atorvastatin was taken with GFJ. AUC(0,48 h) and C(max) of atorvastatin lactone significantly increased by 1.56 (95% CI 1.33, 1.83; P < 0.001) and 1.29 fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.51; P < 0.01), respectively, when atorvastatin was taken with GFJ. No significant changes were detected in any pravastatin pharmacokinetic parameter examined when pravastatin was taken with GFJ. However, AUC(0,24 h) of pravastatin lactone increased 1.31 fold (95% CI 1.01, 1.71; P < 0.05) with GFJ intake.
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This study found that the difference in adherence between treatment groups may have underestimated the true effect of the treatment differential. Usage of prospective randomized open label endpoint evaluation design should be carefully considered when well-known treatments are compared with rather new ones and especially in segments where patients could be more vulnerable, as in the elderly. Nonadherers in a clinical trial may be at especially high risk of fatal and nonfatal endpoints from various diseases and should be carefully monitored.
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Lesinurad interacted in vitro with OATP1B1, OCT1, and OAT1/3 transporters. Co-administration of lesinurad 200 mg did not significantly alter plasma exposure (maximum concentration [C max] and area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) of total atorvastatin (atorvastatin + hydroxyl-metabolites) or atorvastatin, while co-administration of lesinurad 400 mg increased the C max of total atorvastatin and atorvastatin by 17-26 %, but had no effect on AUC. Co-administration of lesinurad 400 mg had no effect on the plasma exposure of metformin. Furosemide plasma AUC was reduced by 31 % in the presence of lesinurad 400 mg, but furosemide renal clearance and diuretic activity were unchanged.
Seven trials involving 1529 patients were included. Pitavastatin reduced LDL-C level as effectively as atorvastatin (mean difference 0.97%, 95% CI -0.48% to 2.42%). The reductions in TC and TG levels were also comparable between the two drugs. The mean differences were 1.22% (95% CI -0.55% to 2.99%) and 2.3% (95% CI -1.06% to 5.65%), respectively. However, HDL-C levels increased significantly more with pitavastatin than with atorvastatin (mean difference 1.78%, 95% CI 0.20-3.36%, P=0.03).
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According to epidemiological studies, dyslipidaemia is the commonest risk factor of atherosclerosis in the Polish population. It is estimated that 18 million adult Poles are affected by dyslipidaemia.
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The most common side-effect of statins, mainly during dose titration, is liver toxicity, In these cases, sufficient control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HFH) becomes problematical. In patients with intolerance to resins as well, especially in the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), it is practically impossible to reach the LDL-C treatment goal. This study included seven HFH patients with CAD, who presented with alanine amino transferase levels greater than three times the upper normal limit during dose titration of atorvastatin or simvastatin of from 20 mg/day to 40 mg/day. They could not tolerate concomitant cholestyramine administration, and presented with LDL-C levels significantly higher than the treatment goal (100 mg/dl; 2.6 mmol/l). In these patients, a combination of two statins with different pharmacokinetics (20 mg/day of atorvastatin plus 40mg/day of pravastatin) was administered for a mean period of one year. Efficacy was compared with that of monotherapy with each drug alone and with that of 40 mg of atorvastatin in 13 patients, who could also not tolerate resin co-administration, and that of 40 mg/day of atorvastatin plus 12 g of cholestyramine in 30 patients, with similar pretreatment LDL-C levels. No increase in serum transaminases and no symptom or sign of myopathy was recorded during the administration of the combination of the two statins for a mean period of 12 months. The atorvastatin plus pravastatin regimen was more effective than both monotherapies and equally effective with the 40 mg of atorvastatin and the 40 mg of atorvastatin plus 12 g of cholestyramine regimens in reducing LDL-C (59% vs. 57% and 61%, respectively) and triglyceride levels (31% vs. 32% and 28%, respectively), while it also had a better effect on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (13% vs. 7% and 8%). The data suggest that the atorvastatin-pravastatin combination has a highly beneficial effect on all lipid parameters, without causing hepatotoxicity, in HFH patients with CAD who are sensitive to higher doses of statins in monotherapy. These results require confirmation in larger studies.
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The underlying disorder in the vast majority of cases of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, for which low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is recognized as a major risk factor. Data from epidemiologic studies have suggested that lower cholesterol levels are associated with a lower overall risk of morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease. Numerous clinical trials with lipid-lowering agents support these epidemiologic data. Of these, studies with the HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors, or statins, have shown the greatest lipid-lowering effects. Data from recent trials such as the Atorvastatin Versus Revascularization Treatment contribute to a growing body of evidence that suggests that aggressive reduction of cholesterol can yield additional clinical benefits above and beyond that observed with less robust treatment regimens. Aggressive cholesterol-lowering strategies have the potential therefore to have a significant impact on levels of atherosclerotic disease throughout the westernized world. Such effects argue in favor of renaming the entire class of drugs as anti- atherosclerotic rather than lipid-lowering agents.
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A prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial involving 108 participants with hypercholesterolemia was conducted. Participants received 20 mg atorvastatin daily, 400 mg etidronate daily, or both drugs daily. The primary end point was the percent change in maximal vessel wall thickness of atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic and abdominal aortas as measured by magnetic resonance imaging after 12 months of treatment. In both the combination therapy and atorvastatin groups, maximal vessel wall thickness of the thoracic aorta was reduced by 13.8% (95% confidence interval, -16.4 to -11.3) and 12.3% (95% confidence interval, -14.9 to -9.7), respectively. These reduction rates were comparable between groups (P=0.61). Meanwhile, in the etidronate group, maximal vessel wall thickness of the thoracic aorta remained unchanged (2.2%; 95% confidence interval, -0.3 to 4.8). Conversely, maximal vessel wall thickness of the abdominal aorta was reduced more effectively in the combination therapy group (-11.4%) than in the atorvastatin group (-0.9%; P<0.001) and the etidronate group (5.5%; P=0.006).
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Seventy-two consecutive patients including 48 women with primary hypercholesterolemia, were assigned prospectively to treatment with atorvastatin (10mg/day) for 3 months. We measured fasting lipid concentrations, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as marker of lipid peroxide, fibrinolytic parameters, and endothelial function by flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery (FMD), at baseline and after 3 months of therapy. We assessed the impact of gender on temporal differences in these parameters. In men, atorvastatin decreased total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and small, dense LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and increased FMD after 3 months. In women, atorvastatin decreased TBARS, triglyceride, and total, LDL, small, dense LDL, and remnant-like lipoprotein particle-cholesterol concentrations, and increased FMD after 3 months. Fibrinolytic parameters did not change significantly in either men or women. With respect to the percent change in those parameters after 3 months, TBARS (-17.6+/-12.4 vs. -0.4+/-18.8%, p<0.01) and small, dense LDL-cholesterol (-96.7+/-8.3 vs. -68.6+/-29.7%, p<0.01) decreased to a greater degree in women, although the relative changes in other parameters were similar between men and women.
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This Phase 3 study will randomize approximately 18,000 patients to receive biweekly injections of alirocumab (75-150 mg) or matching placebo beginning 1 to 12 months after an index hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Qualifying patients are treated with atorvastatin 40 or 80 mg daily, rosuvastatin 20 or 40 mg daily, or the maximum tolerated and approved dose of one of these agents and fulfill one of the following criteria: LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL, or apolipoprotein B ≥ 80 mg/dL. The primary efficacy measure is time to first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, acute myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or ischemic stroke. The trial is expected to continue until 1613 primary end point events have occurred with minimum follow-up of at least 2 years, providing 90% power to detect a 15% hazard reduction. Adverse events of special interest include allergic events and injection site reactions. Interim analyses are planned when approximately 50% and 75% of the targeted number of primary end points have occurred.
These data suggest that the effect on apoA-I levels observed with atorvastatin at higher drug doses in humans may be caused at least in part by enhanced HDL apoA-I catabolism, which is not entirely offset by a concomitant increase in apoA-I production. Whether this finding results from an effect of atorvastatin on HDL particle composition or on receptors involved in circulating HDL holoparticle clearance will require further study.
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A parallel group, randomized, PROBE, multicenter study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 10 mg/d atorvastatin with that of 10 mg/d simvastatin and 20 mg/d simvastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. After a 6-week diet-placebo lead-in period, 272 patients with LDL cholesterol > or = 160 mg/dL and triglycerides < or = 300 mg/dL were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin 10 mg (109 patients), simvastatin 20 mg (109 patients), or simvastatin 10 mg (54 patients). In the main analysis, which tested the equivalence of atorvastatin 10 mg and simvastatin 20 mg, the mean percent change in LDL cholesterol for atorvastatin 10 mg (-37.0%) was greater than and not equivalent to simvastatin 20 mg (-33.8%). In the secondary analysis, which compared the efficacy of atorvastatin 10 mg with that of simvastatin 10 mg, the mean decrease in LDL cholesterol was significantly greater (P < .001) for atorvastatin 10 mg than for simvastatin 10 mg (-37.0% vs. -28.9%). The two drugs were well tolerated, with an incidence of clinical and biochemical side effects similar among the 3 treatment groups.
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The administration of conventional doses of atorvastatin plus trimetazidine three days before PCI is able to protect the perioperative patients from myocardial injury.
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Steady-state rivaroxaban did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of steady-state digoxin (n = 17). Digoxin did not significantly influence the pharmacokinetic profile of single-dose rivaroxaban and had minimal effects on rivaroxaban-induced inhibition of Factor Xa activity and prolongation of clotting time. Similarly, steady-state atorvastatin did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile or the pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban and vice versa (n = 19). All drugs (alone or in combination) were well tolerated.
In this observational case report, we share our experience of achieving >40% LDL cholesterol reduction in four Chinese homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia children below 8 years of age with a triple combination of atorvastatin, probucol, and ezetimibe for >6 years. Within a follow-up duration of 6-13 years, this triple therapy achieved significant reduction of LDL cholesterol as well as an impressive regression of xanthomas in all paediatric cases. All the children remained free from treatment-related adverse responses and cardiovascular events throughout follow-up.
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The primary endpoint was the difference in the percent change of ApoB/ApoA1 at 12 weeks, and secondary endpoints were changes in lipid profiles, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and C-reactive protein.
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To investigate the genotoxic potential of atorvastatin on human lymphocytes in vitro standard comet assay was used in the evaluation of basal DNA damage and to investigate possible oxidative DNA damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) Fpg-modified version of comet assay was also conducted. In addition to these techniques the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test were applied for more complete detection of baseline damage in binuclear lymphocytes exposed to atorvastatin 80 mg/day in different time periods by virtue of measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. All parameters obtained with the standard comet assay and Fpg-modified comet assay were significantly higher in the treated than in control lymphocytes. The Fpg-modified comet assay showed a significantly greater tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in all treated lymphocytes than did the standard comet assay, which suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible for DNA damage. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanism is also involved. In addition to the comet assay, a total number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were significantly higher in the exposed than in controlled lymphocytes. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between the results obtained by the comet (Fpg-modified and standard) and micronucleus assay. Overall, the study demonstrated that atorvastatin in its highest dose is capable of producing damage on the level of DNA molecule and cell.
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Patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease who are treated with aggressive lipid lowering have improvement of symptom status and ischemia that appears to reflect improved vascular function but not atheroma burden.
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common postoperative arrhythmias in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative atorvastatin on postoperative atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass (CCABG). One hundred consecutive patients undergoing elective CCABG, without history of AF or previous statin treatment, were enrolled and randomly assigned to a statin group (atorvastatin 20 mg/d, n = 49) or a control group (placebo, n = 51) starting 7 days preoperatively. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of postoperative AF. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were assessed in all selected patients before surgery and every 24 hours postoperatively until discharge from hospital. Atorvastatin significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative AF and postoperative peak CRP level versus placebo (18% versus 41%, P = 0.017; 129.3 ± 24.3 mg/L versus 149.3 ± 32.5 mg/L, P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier curves confirmed a significantly better postoperative atrial fibrillation-free survival in the statin group (χ(2) = 7.466, P = 0.006). Logistic regression analysis showed preoperative atorvastatin treatment was an independent factor associated with a significant reduction in postoperative AF (OR = 0.235, P = 0.007), whereas high postoperative CRP levels were associated with increased risk (OR = 2.421, P = 0.015). Preoperative atorvastatin administration may inhibit inflammatory reactions to prevent atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.
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Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been widely used to treat various malignant tumors including human non-small-cell-lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). However, the tumor-inhibitory effect of IFN-γ displays not satisfactory in NSCLC treatment due to the lack of immunogenicity of NSCLCs. This study demonstrated that inhibition of RhoA activity led to significant inhibition of NSCLC cell growth accompanied by decreased expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 and increased levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and peptide transporter protein 1 (TAP1) which are involved in tumor immunity. Combination treatment of atorvastatin and IFN-γ resulted in a synergistic inhibition of NSCLC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Though IFN-γ alone exerted minimal inhibitory effect on RhoA activity, additional administration of atorvastatin could result in a significant inhibition of RhoA activity, thus substantially suppressing NSCLC cell growth. Specifically, atorvastatin could induce specific deposition of endogenous IFN-γ in tumors while not in other normal tissues in LLC-harbored mice. In conclusion, atorvastatin can enhance IFN-γ sensitivity in NSCLCs both in vitro and in vivo, probably through induction of a synergistic inhibitory effect on RhoA activity. This study also suggests a potential alternative of combination of atorvastatin and IFN-γ in clinical therapy against NSCLCs.
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Atorvastatin can inhibit leptin release and mRNA expression, and reduces serum leptin level in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
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Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This paper tests the hypothesis that atorvastatin may attenuate the severity of myocardial ischemic injury by restoring the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators.
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All patients aged 66 or older without diabetes who started treatment with statins from 1 August 1997 to 31 March 2010. The analysis was restricted to new users who had not been prescribed a statin in at least the preceding year. Patients with established diabetes before the start of treatment were excluded.