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The effects on memory and learning of fluvoxamine 50 mg twice a day were compared with those of mianserin 20 mg twice a day and placebo, each given for 8 days in a double-blind cross-over design to nine healthy human volunteers. At least 1 week was left between the 8-day courses of drugs. Subjects were given a learning task (three trial recall of categorisable word lists) before and 3.5 h after a morning dose on day 1 and before their morning dose on day 8. Delayed recall was assessed on days 1, 4 and 8. Fluvoxamine had no effect on memory performance. Mianserin reduced learning and recall after a single dose but had no effect on day 8 of treatment. The single dose of mianserin had no retrograde effect on memory, affected primacy and middle position items but not recency in the serial position curve, and was seen in reduced inter-trial subjective organisation of recall. Subjects' performance on the first trial of the memory task correlated significantly with their performance on a simple reaction time task, with finger tapping speeds and with their subjective ratings of alertness. It was concluded that the impairments of memory produced by one dose of mianserin are partially by-products of the sedative effects of the drug. Tolerance to both memory impairments and sedative effects built up over the 8-day treatment of mianserin.
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It is important to predict a response to an antidepressant in early time after starting the antidepressant. We previously reported that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in responders to treatment with antidepressants were increased, whereas, those in nonresponders were not. Therefore, we hypothesized that the changes in serum levels of BDNF from baseline (T0) to 4 weeks (T4) after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) predict the response to the treatment at 8 weeks (T8) in depressed patients. To confirm the hypothesis, we measured serum BDNF at T0, T4, and T8 during the treatment with SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine).
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Central serotonin dysfunction is thought to be involved in the etiology of major depression. Serotonergic challenge studies before and after treatment of depressed patients have yielded conflicting results; however, these studies have not focused on the effect of antidepressant treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on serotonergic challenge studies.
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Meta-analyses of remission rates from randomised controlled trials, and cost and quality-of-life data from published sources.
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Degree of delusionality did not predict fluvoxamine response, and delusionality significantly improved. These findings are preliminary and require confirmation in controlled trials. The implications of these findings for other types of delusions requires investigation.
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Our results suggest that NR1D1 does not play a major role in the therapeutic response to fluvoxamine in Japanese MDD patients. However, because our sample was small, a replication study using another population and a larger sample will be required for conclusive results.
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Randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.
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The autoinhibitory control of electrically evoked release of [3H]-dopamine and the properties of that induced by nicotinic receptor (nAChR) stimulation were studied in slices of the human neocortex. In both models [3H]-dopamine release was action potential-induced and exocytotic. The selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist (-)-quinpirole reduced electrically evoked release of [3H]-dopamine, yielding IC50 and I(max) values of 23 nM and 76%, respectively. Also, the effects of several other subtype-selective dopamine receptor ligands confirmed that the terminal dopamine autoreceptor belongs to the D2 subtype. The autoinhibitory feedback control was slightly operative under stimulation conditions of 90 pulses and 3 Hz, with a biophase concentration of endogenous dopamine of 3.6 nM, and was enhanced under blockade of dopamine reuptake. [3H]-dopamine release evoked in an identical manner in mouse neocortical slices was not inhibited by (-)-quinpirole, suggesting the absence of dopamine autoreceptors in this tissue and underlining an important species difference. Also, nAChR stimulation-induced release of [3H]-dopamine revealed a species difference: [3H]-dopamine release was evoked in human, but not in rat neocortical slices. The nAChRs inducing [3H]-dopamine release most probably belong to the alpha3/beta2subtype, according to the potencies and efficacies of subtype-selective nAChR ligands. Part of these receptors may be located on glutamatergic neurons.
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We used data from all randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose trials comparing fluoxetine or paroxetine as standard drugs with any other active antidepressants as monotherapy in the acute phase treatment of unipolar depression. We calculated the ratio of the mean doses for each study and weighted it by the total sample size to find the weighted mean ratio for each drug, which was then used to define the drug׳s dosage equivalent to fluoxetine 40mg/d.
Acute and chronic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been widely reported to disrupt sleep in laboratory studies. This study examines the naturalistic, longitudinal effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine on sleep quality in the home setting.
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The expression of ICAM1, VCAM1, COX2, and iNOS was significantly decreased by fluvoxamine in endothelial cells, macrophages, and in rat carrageenan-induced paw edema. Our finding also confirmed that IP injection of fluvoxamine inhibits carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paw edema.
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The brief global measures reported here proved adequate to the task of assessing treatment outcome. Results indicate that treatments including cognitive behaviour therapy can be effective in the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care.
We gave 12 healthy male volunteers single doses of 50 mg fluvoxamine, 100 mg fluvoxamine, 75 mg dothiepin, and placebo in a double-blind crossover study. Subjects completed a test battery that was sensitive to the behaviourally toxic effects of psychoactive drugs prior to dosing, and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after dose. The test battery included tasks of choice reaction time, tracking, critical flicker fusion threshold, and memory scanning. Subjective feelings were assessed using the line analogue rating scales and the Milford-Epworth sleepiness scale. Daytime activity was recorded by means of wrist actigraphy. The results show that the positive internal control (dothiepin) had a sedative effect in that it impaired performance in the majority of the tests and also reduced daytime activity. Both doses of fluvoxamine remained relatively neutral throughout and did not impair psychomotor performance or cognitive ability in any of the tests. These results indicate that fluvoxamine may be a safe and efficacious antidepressant for outpatients who wish to carry on with the tasks of everyday life without being sedated.
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Pain, including arthritic pain, has a negative affective component and is often associated with anxiety and depression. However, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) show limited effectiveness in pain. The amygdala plays a key role in the emotional-affective component of pain, pain modulation and affective disorders. Neuroplasticity in the basolateral and central amygdala (BLA and CeA, respectively) correlate positively with pain behaviors. Evidence suggests that serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2CR in the amygdala contributes critically to anxiogenic behavior and anxiety disorders. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT2CR in the amygdala accounts for the limited effectiveness of SSRIs in reducing pain behaviors and that 5-HT2CR blockade in the amygdala renders SSRIs effective.
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A total of 149 patients satisfying DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder were randomly allocated to receive one of the following: fluvoxamine, placebo, fluvoxamine plus cognitive behaviour therapy, placebo plus cognitive behaviour therapy, and cognitive behaviour therapy alone. These five treatment groups represent the minimum number acceptable for such a comparison to be made. All patients received an identical schedule of contact over 13 weeks. Measures of symptom severity, general health and social disruption were taken at entry point and end point; measures of change in symptoms were taken at end point only. Outcome was reported in terms of brief global ratings of severity of illness and change in symptoms, and of ratings of general health and social disruption that are suitable for use in general practice.
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In Ontario, Canada, 2003 to 2012, we compared older adults with a mood or anxiety disorder who were dispensed 1 of 9 second-generation antidepressant drugs with matched adults with comparable indicators of baseline health who were not dispensed an antidepressant drug (n=138,246 per group). A similar comparison was made in a subpopulation with available laboratory data (n=4,186 per group).
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Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect for time × treatment interaction (Greenhouse-Geisser corrected: F = 5·14, d.f. = 1·64, P = 0·012) in the Y-BOCS total score and a significant effect for time × treatment interaction (Greenhouse-Geisser corrected: F = 5·44, d.f. = 1·54, P = 0·011) in the Y-BOCS obsession subscale between the two groups.
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Km and Vmax values determined in human liver microsomes were lower for the demethylation (61 +/- 21 microM, 159 +/- 42 pmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) mean +/- s.d.; n = 4), than for the N-oxidation of CLZ (308 +/- 1.5 microM, 456 +/- 167 pmol min(-1) mg protein(-1); n = 3). Formation of DCLZ was inhibited by fluvoxamine (53 +/- 28% at 10 microM), triacetyloleandomycin (33 +/- 15% at 10 microM), and ketoconazole (51 +/- 28% at 2 microM) and by antibodies against CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. CLZ-NO formation was inhibited by triacetyloleandomycin (34 +/- 16% at 10 microM) and ketoconazole (51 +/- 13% at 2 microM), and by antibodies against CYP3A4. There was a significant correlation between CYP3A content and DCLZ formation in microsomes from 15 human livers (r=0.67; P=0.04). A high but not significant correlation coefficient was found for CYP3A content and CLZ-NO formation (r=0.59; P=0.09). Using expression systems it was shown that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 formed DCLZ and CLZ-NO. Km and Vmax values were lower in the CYP1A2 expression system compared to CYP3A4 for both metabolic reactions.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluvoxamine, are widely used to treat depressive disorders in pregnant women. These antidepressants effectively penetrate through the placental barrier, affecting the fetus during the critical phase of neurodevelopment. Some clinical studies have linked prenatal exposure to SSRIs with increased neonatal mortality, premature birth, decreased fetal growth and delay in psychomotor development. However, the effects of prenatal exposure to SSRIs remain unknown. The administration of SSRIs in rodents during the first postnatal weeks is considered as an model for studying the effects of prenatal SSRIs exposure in human. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of chronic fluvoxamine (FA) administration in white rat pups. The study was carried out in male and female rat pups treated with FA (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) from postnatal days 1 to 14. The lethality level, body weight, age of eye opening, and motor reflex maturation were recorded. The contents of biogenic amines and their metabolites in different brain structures were also determined. It was shown that neonatal FA administration led to increased lethality level, reduced body weight, and delayed maturation of motor reflexes. Furthermore, increased noradrenalin level in hypothalamus, serotonin level in hippocampus and serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA level in frontal cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in drug-treated animals compared to the control group. We can conclude that the altered activity of the serotoninergic system induced by fluvoxamine administration at early developmental stages leads to a delay in physical and motor development.
Pregnancy-associated changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination may result in lowered psychotropic drug levels and possible treatment effects, particularly in late pregnancy. Mechanisms include changes in both phase 1 hepatic cytochrome P450 and phase 2 uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase enzyme activities, changes in hepatic and renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate. Therapeutic drug monitoring, in combination with clinical monitoring, is indicated for tricyclic antidepressants and mood stabilizers during the perinatal period.
The rationale for pharmacological treatment of bulimia nervosa is summarized and a review of controlled therapeutic trials shows contradictory results. A number of antidepressant agents (tricyclics: imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline; IMAO: phenelzine, isocarboxazide; trazodone; fluoxetine) appear more effective than placebo in double-blind controlled trials of 6 to 16 weeks. In similar studies, other antidepressants (mianserine, fluvoxamine) are ineffective. Improvement reported is often incomplete and the low percentage of patients totally abstinent at the end of treatment appears of poor pronostic value for long-term outcome. Methodological limitations of existing studies are discussed, and some psychopathological factors to consider in the assessment of therapeutic response are proposed.