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To report clinical, histological and immunological findings in a cat with suspected thymoma-associated PNP.
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Diagnosing GH deficiency in adults is difficult due to the age-related variations of GH/IGF-I axis and the influence of nutrition. Nowadays, GH replacement is allowed for patients with GH peak to provocative stimuli < 3 micrograms/L. Somatotrope insufficiency is present in hypopituitarism but also in obesity and hypercortisolism. However, to evaluate GH insufficiency in adults is difficult due to variations of GH and IGF-I levels as function of age and nutrition status.
The protection afforded by TCP (thienylcylohexylpiperidine), a non-competitive blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, against the seizures and lethality produced by 2 x LD50 of soman (62 micrograms/kg, sc), an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, was studied in guinea-pigs. In the presence of additional anticholinergic medication (pyridostigmine: 0.2 mg/kg, sc, 30min prior to soman; atropine sulphate: 5mg/kg, im, 1 min post-soman), TCP pretreatment (2.5mg/kg, im, 30 or 15 min prior to soman) did not generally prevent the appearance of soman-induced status epilepticus but did arrest it after 30-40 min in 80% (TCP-30min) or 100% (TCP-15min) of the convulsing subjects. Moreover, in all subjects treated curatively, TCP was able to interrupt ongoing status epilepticus in approximately 20, 10 or 8 min when it was administered 5, 30 or 60min respectively after the onset of epileptiform tracings on EEG. All of these curatively administered animals survived and recovered remarkably well. On every criteria examined (latency-to-seizure arrest, 24hr-survival rate, clinical recovery), injection of 2.5mg/kg TCP after 90min of seizures appeared slightly less efficient compared to earlier curative administration. Therefore, our study (a) establishes that the previously reported capacity of MK-801 (dibenzocyclohepneimine) to counteract soman toxicity is not unique and could be extended to other non-competitive inhibitors of NMDA receptors; (b) shows that TCP could easily prevent and, above all, interrupt soman-induced seizures; furthermore, TCP appears the first compound ever tested on soman poisoning that still displays satisfactory anticonvulsant activity after such a long duration of initial status epilepticus (90min); therefore, TCP might be of special value for the delayed therapy for soman poisoning; (c) confirms that NMDA receptors are involved in the maintenance of seizures and play an important role in other processes implicated in the overall toxicity (including the lethal respiratory effects) of soman poisoning.
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The organophosphorous nerve agent sarin (GB) and the carbamate pyridostigmine bromide (PB) both inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to overstimulation of muscarinic receptors. Both GB and PB produce miosis through stimulation of ocular muscarinic receptors. This study investigated 2 hypotheses: (1) that the miotic response to PB would decrease following repeated injections; and (2) that repeated administration of PB would result in tolerance to the miotic effect of GB vapor. Rats were injected intramuscularly with saline, 0.04 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, or 1.4 mg/kg of PB twice daily for 8 consecutive days. After day 3, animals injected with 1.4 mg/kg PB developed miotic tolerance. Twenty-four (24) h following the final PB injection, the rats were exposed to GB vapor (4.0 mg/m(3)). A similar magnitude of miosis was observed in all groups after GB exposure. However, the rate of recovery of pupil size in animals pretreated with 0.5 and 1.4 mg/kg PB was significantly increased. Twenty (20) h following exposure to GB vapor, the pupils of animals pretreated with 1.4 mg/kg PB had recovered to 77% +/- 4% of their pre-exposure baseline, whereas the saline-injected controls had recovered to only 52% +/- 2% of their pre-exposure baseline. The increased rate of recovery does not appear to be a result of protection of pupillary muscarinic receptors by the higher doses of PB, as there was no longer PB present in the animal at the time of GB exposure. These results demonstrate the development of tolerance to the miotic effect of PB following repeated exposures, and also suggest that cross-tolerance between PB and GB occurs. However, because the magnitude of the response was not reduced, the PB pretreatment and its associated miotic cross-tolerance does not appear to diminish the effectiveness of miosis as a biomarker of acute exposure to nerve agent vapor.
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In 20 patients, intra-abdominal gas content and symptoms were quantified before and during treatment with pyridostigmine (30 mg/8 hp. o) in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Daily symptoms were quantified for 5 days before and 10 days during treatment, and abdominal gas volume was quantified by CT imaging before and at the fourth day of treatment. A CT scan was also obtained in 10 healthy subjects.
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The requirement for atracurium is significantly reduced in myasthenia gravis patients with a T4/T1 ratio < 0.9 before anesthesia. This study indicates that routine neuromuscular monitoring in myasthenia gravis patients should be extended into the preinduction period to identify patients who require less atracurium.
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Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 3 weeks with (1) regular tap drinking water plus subcutaneous (s.c.) saline (0.5 ml/kg) injections three times/week, (2) pyridostigmine bromide (PB) in drinking water (80 mg/L) plus s.c. saline injections three times/week, (3) regular tap drinking water plus s.c. sarin (0.5 x LD(50)) injections three times/week, or (4) PB in drinking water plus s.c. sarin injections three times/week. Repeated doses of sarin, in the presence or absence of PB, were devoid of acute toxicity during the three-week treatment period. Two, 4, and 16 weeks post-treatment, animals were given an intravenous pulse injection of choline labeled with 4 deuterium atoms (D4Ch) followed, after 1 min, by microwave fixation of the brain in vivo. Tissue levels of endogenous acetylcholine (D0ACh), endogenous choline (D0Ch), D4Ch, and ACh synthesized from D4Ch (D4ACh) were measured by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry in hippocampus, infundibulum, mesencephalon, neocortex, piriform cortex, and striatum. Ch uptake from blood and ACh turnover were estimated from D4Ch and D4ACh concentrations in brain tissue, respectively. Statistically significant differences among brain regions were found for D0Ch, D4Ch, D0ACh and D4ACh at 2, 4 and 16 weeks post-treatment. However, differences in the values of these parameters between control and drug treatments were found only for D0ACh and D0Ch at 2 and 4 weeks, but not at 16 weeks post-treatment. In conclusion, the results from these experiments do not support a delayed or persistent alteration in cholinergic function after exposure to low doses of PB and/or sarin.
Sixteen patients with overt Cushing's syndrome (CS) and 36 patients with adrenal incidentalomas were investigated. The latter group was further divided in 23 patients who demonstrated an adequate suppression of cortisol levels (of < 70 nmol/l) following the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and in 13 patients, who failed to suppress (cortisol levels post-LDDST > 70 nmol/l). The former group was defined as normocortisolaemic (NC) and the latter group as representing patients with SAGH. The combined pyridostigmine + GHRH test (PD + GHRH) was used to assess the GH secretory reserve of these patients.
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The patients were studied clinically and with various other tests used in OMG diagnosis (SFEMG, repetitive nerve stimulation, Ab anti AChR titration, tensilon test).
The aeromedical implications of myasthenia gravis, including complications, types of treatment, and functional impact, are considered. A policy for medical certification following a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is proposed.Jagathesan T, O'Brien MD. Myasthenia gravis and its aeromedical implications. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):30-33.
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To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of acquired myasthenia gravis in a ferret and the first identification of anti-AChR antibodies in this species. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis should be considered in ferrets when weakness and flaccid paresis suggest a neuromuscular disease. Electrodiagnostic testing, anticholinesterase challenge, and AChR antibody titer determination were helpful for diagnosis of this condition.
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It is widely accepted that chronic administration of corticoids in man inhibits the GH response to all of the stimuli tested so far. To study the action of corticoids administered acutely, several dexamethasone challenge tests were performed, after which GH levels were measured for 7 h. In eight volunteers, administration of 4 mg dexamethasone (Dex), iv, induced a clear-cut GH release compared with saline administration. The secretion followed an unusual pattern; basal GH levels (1.5 +/- 0.1 micrograms/L) started rising 2 h after Dex injection, reaching a peak of 17.5 +/- 4.4 micrograms/L after 3 or 3.5 h. Peak levels were maintained until 5 h post-Dex and decreased thereafter. Similar data were obtained when Dex was administered to five volunteers at the dose of 8 mg, orally, with a 30-min delay of the GH peak (19.6 +/- 7.9 micrograms/L). To study whether there was a cholinergic input responsible for the Dex action, another group of eight volunteers underwent three Dex tests (4 mg, iv) on three occasions, followed 90 min later by the administration of placebo (control), atropine (0.5 mg, iv), or pyridostigmine (120 mg, orally). The Dex-induced GH peak (20.8 +/- 5.2 micrograms/L) was not significantly increased by pyridostigmine (cholinergic agonist) treatment (24.2 +/- 4.0 micrograms/L). The blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine induced a delay in the Dex-induced secretory peak, which appeared at 5 h. However, the Dex-atropine GH peak (14.9 +/- 4.1 micrograms/L) was not different from the Dex-placebo one. In conclusion, Dex alone is able to induce a clear-cut GH secretion in man. The stimulus followed a peculiar time pattern, with peaks levels attained 3 h after either iv or oral administration.
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Reported prevalence and incidence are amongst the highest found in similar studies. This may be explained by optimal case identification, higher incidence of drug requiring MG amongst the elderly, and recurrences of previous MG.
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91 patients had a good response (69%) and 41 patients had a poor response (31%). The response by groups was as follows: 50 patients were found to be in remission; 41 patients had improved; 34 patients had no changes, and 7 got worse. Being more than 60 years old was associated with a poor prognosis (odds ratio 4.6, CI 1.11-20.32, p 0.01). The patients who had the disease for more than 3 years (odds ratio 2.97, CI 0.79-5.39, p 0.09) had a tendency towards a bad prognosis even though there was no statistical significance, and for those who had it for more than 4 years (odds ratio 2.58, CI 0.89-0.96, p 0.02) the bad prognosis was statistically significant. The patients who had the disease for more than 3 years between diagnosis and thymectomy (odds ratio 2.02, CI 0.69-5.90, p 0.15) and those with it for more than 4 years (odds ratio 2.53, CI 0.83-7.7, p 0.06) had a tendency towards a poor prognosis even though there was no statistical significance. In addition, having Osserman I was associated with a bad prognosis. Referring to the pathological findings, patients with thymoma (odds ratio 3.51, CI 0.43-31.5, p 0.15) and those with thymic atrophy (odds ratio 2.19, CI 0.93-5.16, p 0.04) had a poor prognosis. Finally, the use of steroids before thymectomy (odds ratio 2.26, CI 0.99-5.18, p 0.03) was associated with a worse prognosis.
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The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors sarin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) have been proposed as causes of neurobehavioral dysfunction in Persian Gulf War veterans. To test possible delayed effects of these agents, we exposed rats to low (subsymptomatic) levels of sarin (0.5 LD50 s.c. 3 times weekly) and/or PB (80 mg/L in drinking water) for 3 weeks. Controls received saline s.c. and tap water. At 2, 4 and 16 weeks after exposure, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose utilization (rCGU) were measured in conscious animals with the Iodo-14C-antipyrine and 14C-2 deoxyglucose methods, respectively. Two weeks after exposure, PB+sarin caused significant rCBF elevations, but no changes in rCGU, in neocortex, with lesser effects on allocortex. Four weeks after exposure, the same general pattern was found with sarin. Only a few changes were found at 16 weeks post-treatment. The predominant effects of sarin or PB+sarin on rCBF at earlier times after treatment are consistent with the well known direct cerebral vascular effect of cholinergic agonists. The lack of changes in rCBF and rCGU observed at 16 weeks after treatment does not support the hypothesis that repeat exposure to low-dose cholinesterase inhibitors can generate permanent alterations in cerebral activity.
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Pyridostigmine bromide (PB), a highly hygroscopic drug was selected as the model drug. A sustained-release (SR) tablet prepared by direct compression of wet-extruded and spheronized core pellets with HPMC excipients and exhibited a zero-order sustained release (SR) profile. The 2(3) full factorial design was utilized to search an optimal SR tablet formulation. This optimal formulation was followed zero-order mechanism and had specific release rate at different time intervals (released % of 1, 6, and 12 hr were 15.84, 58.56, and 93.10%). The results of moisture absorption by Karl Fischer meter showed the optimum SR tablet could improve the hygroscopic defect of the pure drug (PB). In the in vivo study, the results of the bioavailability data showed the T(max) was prolonged (from 0.65 +/- 0.082 hr to 4.83 +/- 1.60 hr) and AUC(0-t) (from 734.88 +/- 230.68 ng/ml.hr to 1153.34 +/- 488.08 ng/ml.hr) and was increased respectively for optimum PB-SR tablets when compared with commercial immediate release (IR) tablets. Furthermore, the percentages of in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption in the rabbits have good correlation. We believe that PB-SR tablets designed in our study would improve defects of PB, decrease the frequency of administration and enhance the retention period of drug efficacy in vivo for personnel exposed to contamination situations in war or terrorist attacks in the future.
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Head drop is characterized by marked anterior flexion of the cervical spine. As a result, the affected patient presents with the head tilted forward and the chin resting on the chest. We report a 75-year-old male patient with parkinsonism and head drop caused by isolated myasthenic weakness of the neck extensor muscles. Our case is the second report of isolated head drop as a presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis in a patient with parkinsonism.
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Sex differences in the neuroregulation of GH secretion are not now known in humans. To investigate whether activation of cholinergic tone by pyridostigmine could cause a sex-related difference in the pituitary responsiveness to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), we have studied the GH response to GHRH in 16 normal subjects (8 men and 8 women) tested after oral placebo or different doses of pyridostigmine (30, 60, and 120 mg). Each subject presented a normal response after iv administration of 50 micrograms GHRH and placebo. In men each dose of pyridostigmine induced a significant increase in the GH response to GHRH, as assessed by both the maximal GH peak and the area under GH curve. In women, on the contrary, the GH response to GHRH was not potentiated by pretreatment with pyridostigmine at any given dose. Only five female subjects were tested with 120 mg pyridostigmine because of the severe side-effects of the drug at this dosage. Our present data strongly suggest that in humans there is a sex-related difference in the neuroregulation of GH secretion and this is probably expressed through a different cholinergic tone.
Fourteen DMD patients (aged between 11 and 19 years) scheduled for elective scoliosis repair were studied. Following tracheal intubation without muscle relaxant, all patients received a single dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg(-1). NMB was monitored by acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis muscle. When the first twitch height (T1) of the train-of-four (TOF) had recovered to 25% seven patients received either pyridostigmine 0.1 mg.kg(-1) (the anticholinergic drug with a long duration of action) or saline in a blinded manner. The times to attain TOF ratio of 0.9 were recorded. For comparison the Mann-Whitney U-test was used.
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A coronary patient with myasthenia gravis with a previous myocardial infarction presented with severe ventricular arrhythmias after the replacement of neostigmine by pyridostigmine for the treatment of the myasthenia. These arrhythmias were resistant to antiarrhythmic therapy associating betablockers and amiodarone throughout treatment with pyridostigmine but regressed when this drug was withdrawn. A test of reintroduction of pyridostigmine under medical surveillance led to the reappearance of the ventricular hyperexcitability, so confirming the responsibility of this drug. This would seem to be the first reported case of severe ventricular arrhythmias due to a proarrhythmic effect of pyridostigmine. The possible mechanisms of this effect are discussed.
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Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition has been described as the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP)-evoked toxicity. OPs represent a human health threat, because chronic exposure to low doses can damage the developing brain, and acute exposure can produce long-lasting damage to adult brains, despite post-exposure medical countermeasures. Although the main mechanism of OP toxicity is AChE inhibition, several lines of evidence suggest that OPs also act by other mechanisms. We hypothesized that rat neural progenitor cells extracted on embryonic day 14.5 would be affected by constant inhibition of AChE from chronic exposure to OP or pyridostigmine (a reversible AChE blocker) during differentiation. In this work, the OP paraoxon decreased cell viability in concentrations >50 μM, as measured with the MTT assay; however, this effect was not dose-dependent. Reduced viability could not be attributed to blockade of AChE activity, since treatment with 200 µM pyridostigmine did not affect cell viability, even after 6 days. Although changes in protein expression patterns were noted in both treatments, the distribution of differentiated phenotypes, such as the percentages of neurons and glial cells, was not altered, as determined by flow cytometry. Since paraoxon and pyridostigmine each decreased neurite outgrowth (but did not prevent differentiation), we infer that developmental patterns may have been affected.
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Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill according to an individualised ramp protocol on three days. The first day was used for adaptation to the equipment and to determine exercise tolerance and the presence of exercise induced ischaemia. On the other two days, the cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed two hours after oral administration of pyridostigmine (45 mg) or placebo. All patients were taking their usual medication during the experiments.