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To study persistence and adherence with the use of common antihypertensive (AHT) medications.
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The efficacy of inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with AMI has been established, and the prescription of ACE inhibitor is recommended as class I indication for all AMI patients, whereas that of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) as class IIa. Telmisartan is a unique ARB since it has a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma activating effect which is known to reduce neointimal tissue proliferation after coronary stenting.
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Telmisartan was orally administered at MD condition (100 μg), and then at TD condition (80 mg) to 33 healthy volunteers whose genotypes were prescreened by DMET Plus. Plasma concentrations of telmisartan and its glucuronide were measured by LC-MS/MS, and population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.
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Telmisartan is an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), which also partially activates liganding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. However, the relationship between the effects of telmisartan on hemodynamics and metabolism has not sufficiently been elucidated in clinical settings. We examined the long-term effects of telmisartan on hemodynamics including home blood pressure (BP) and on insulin resistance representing as homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R). Twenty-seven hypertensive patients were consecutively enrolled at our outpatient department. At entry, all of the participants were previously prescribed another ARB for more than 3 months and then the former ARB were replaced by telmisartan. Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were measured before treatment and at points 1 and 3 months after treatment with telmisartan. Telmisartan significantly lowered home systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (DBP) and improved HOMA-R during the treatment period. However, the changes in home SBP and DBP were not correlated with that of HOMA-R. In conclusion, telmisartan lowers home BP and improves insulin resistance without correlation between their changes.
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Electronic data capture (EDC) systems have been widely used in clinical research, but mobile device-based electronic data capture (mEDC) system has not been well evaluated.
The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET()) showed that the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan was as protective as the reference-standard ramipril in a broad cross-section of patients at increased cardiovascular risk, but was better tolerated. Telmisartan has a unique profile among ARBs, with a high affinity for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, a long duration of receptor binding, a high lipophilicity and a long plasma half life. This leads to sustained and powerful blood pressure lowering when compared with the first marketed ARBs, such as losartan and valsartan. Some pharmacological properties of telmisartan clearly distinguish it from other members of the ARB class and may contribute to the clinical effects seen with telmisartan. A class effect for ARBs cannot be assumed. To date, telmisartan is the only ARB that has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk in at-risk cardiovascular patients.
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Basal nitric oxide (NO) activity has a pivotal role in the regulation of glomerular hemodynamics, and in animal experiments, its alteration has been associated with morphological changes characteristic of diabetic nephropathy.
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The cohort included 61 493 patients aged ≥18 years who received their first antihypertensive drug prescription (monotherapy, fixed or extemporaneous combination) during the period 2003-6. Patients were classified as 'persistent' if 12 months after the beginning of treatment they were still taking a regular therapy (same drug = 'same therapy users', added one or more drugs = 'add-on therapy users', different drug = 'switchers'). Otherwise, they were classified as 'non-persistent' (stopping therapy after the first prescription = 'occasional users'; stopping treatment early = 'stoppers'; taking medicines in an erratic fashion = 'intermittent users').
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Telmisartan and losartan, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists, are used to manage hypertension. We previously reported that telmisartan, a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), exhibited stronger vasoprotection than the same dose of losartan in normotensive chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats. We investigated whether telmisartan could inhibit vascular dysfunction in hypertensive CKD rats, via both AT1 receptor blockade and PPAR-γ activation, more effectively than losartan, which decreased blood pressure to a similar extent as telmisartan.
The yield of [(11)C]Telmisartan for clinical research use was 16.8 ± 2.9% EOB as decay corrected (n = 8, mean ± SD) in 32-36 min. The radiochemical purity of [(11)C]Telmisartan was >97%, and specific activity was higher than 86.3 MBq/nmol.
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To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist, on ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization.
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In this study, efficacy of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan given as monotherapy was compared with that of perindopril monotherapy in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. After a 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in period, 60 patients were randomised to double-blind, once-daily treatment with telmisartan 80 mg or perindopril 4 mg for 6 weeks. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure measurements and clinical laboratory evaluation were performed at the end of the placebo run-in and active treatment phases. Both telmisartan and perindopril significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) compared with baseline values. Also, both drugs significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced 24-h mean ambulatory SBP and DBP compared with baseline. Comparison of the mean hourly antihypertensive activities showed that the reduction in mean ambulatory DBP for the last 8 h of the dosing interval was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in telmisartan-treated patients. A 24-h mean DBP of <85 mmHg was observed in 66.6% of the telmisartan-treated patients but in only 46.6% of the perindopril-treated patients (p < 0.05). It is concluded that telmisartan and perindopril both produce significant reductions in clinic SBP and DBP, but the mean reduction in ambulatory DBP during the last 8 h of the dosing interval is greater in patients treated with telmisartan.
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Valsartan administered at 160 or 320 mg is more effective at lowering BP than losartan 100 mg and shows comparable efficacy to other ARBs in patients with essential hypertension.
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AT1 receptor blockers (ARB) and in part ACE inhibitors (ACI) potentially exert beneficial effects on atherogenesis independent of AT1 receptor inhibition. These pleiotropic effects might be related to angiotensin II mediated activation of the AT2 receptor. To analyze this hypothesis we investigated the development of atherosclerosis and the role of ACIs and ARBs in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and in ApoE/AT1A receptor double knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-)). ApoE(-/-) mice and ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice were fed cholesterol-rich diet for 7 weeks. Vascular oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerotic lesion formation were evident in ApoE(-/-) mice, but were markedly reduced in ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice. Concomitant treatment of ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice with either telmisartan or ramipril had no additional effect on blood pressure, vascular oxidative stress, AT2 receptor expression, and endothelial function. Remarkably, atherosclerotic lesion formation was increased in ramipril treated ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice compared to untreated ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice whereas pharmacological AT1 receptor inhibition with telmisartan had no additional effect on atherogenesis. Moreover, chronic AT2 receptor inhibition with PD123,319 significantly increased plaque development in ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice. In additional experiments, direct AT2 receptor stimulation reduced atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-)/AT1A(-/-) mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a relevant antiatherosclerotic role of the AT2 receptor in atherosclerotic mice and provide novel insight in RAS-physiology.
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In the present study, we used compressive SCI in rats. Telmisartan was then used to evaluate the influence in rats after SCI. Change in PPARδ expression was identified by Western blots. Also, behavioral tests were performed to check the recovery of damage.
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We used standard methods expected by Cochrane.
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The effect of telmisartan on prostate cancer DU145 cell survival and the underlying mechanism of apoptosis involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway were investigated. Cultured DU145 cells were treated pharmacologically with telmisartan and GSK0660 (a PPAR-delta antagonist); or by RNA interference with siRNA of PPAR-delta. The treatment effects on cell survival were evaluated with cell viability assay, life and dead cell staining and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis for PPAR-delta protein expression was also performed. The results showed that telmisartan (0-80 µm) dose-dependently reduced DU145 cell survival. Flow cytometry demonstrated cancer cell cycle arrest with increase of sub-G1 phase. GSK0660 partially but significantly restored the telmisartan-treated cell viability. Similarly, siRNA of PPAR-delta significantly reversed the telmisartan-induced apoptosis. Western blot showed that telmisartan significantly increased DU145 cell PPAR-delta protein expression. Co-incubation with siRNA of PPAR-delta inhibited the telmisartan effect of PPAR-delta up-regulation. In conclusion, telmisartan induces prostate cancer DU145 cells apoptosis through the up-regulation of PPAR-delta protein expression. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic silencing of PPAR-delta activity can both reverse the telmisartan-induced apoptotic effect. Thus the PPAR-delta pathway might be a potential target for the treatment of prostate cancer.
In both parts of this randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 2-part, 2-period crossover study, subjects aged 19 to 55 years were enrolled. In part 1, each subject received rosuvastatin 20 mg with and without 2 fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets of telmisartan/amlodipine 40/5 mg, once daily for 9 consecutive days. In part 2, each subject received 2 FDC tablets of telmisartan/amlodipine 40/5 mg with and without rosuvastatin 20 mg, once daily for 9 consecutive days. In both parts, there was a 13-day washout period between treatments. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected up to 72 hours after the last dose in subjects who received rosuvastatin only, and up to 144 hours after the last dose in subjects who received telmisartan/amlodipine with or without rosuvastatin. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed via interviews and physical examinations.
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The primary outcome occurred in 1,938 (20.2%) diabetic patients and in 2,276 (14.2%) nondiabetic patients. Compared with nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients had a significantly higher risk for the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38 to 1.57) and CV death (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.42 to 1.71); myocardial infarction (HR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.17 to 1.46); stroke (HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.56); and congestive heart failure hospitalization (HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.82 to 2.32). The CV risk was significantly higher in diabetic than in nondiabetic patients regardless of the systolic BP changes during treatment. In both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, progressively greater systolic BP reductions were accompanied by reduced risk for the primary outcome only if baseline systolic BP levels ranged from 143 to 155 mm Hg; except for stroke, there was no benefit in fatal or nonfatal CV outcomes by reducing systolic BP below 130 mm Hg.
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Treatment with sartans led to a reduction in BP in both groups, daytime BPs/BPd declined by 11.5/9.0 mm Hg in group A and by 13.8/8.1 mm Hg in group B, respectively, and night time BP declined by 5.7/5.1 mm Hg in group A compared to 7.4/3.89 mm Hg in group B. Aortal pulse wave velocity declined by 1.94 m/s in group A (p < 0.001) and by 0.46 m/s in group B (p < 0.001), respectively.
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Current guidelines recommend low dietary salt intake (LDS) in patients with diabetes to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, low salt intake has been associated with higher mortality rates in people with diabetes. Our aim is to examine the effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan, with and without dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation, on BP [mean arterial pressure (MAP)], plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (RCT), 28 patients with type 2 diabetes, treated with telmisartan (40 mg daily), received 2 weeks of placebo or NaCl capsules (100 mmol/24 h). Following a 6-week washout, the protocol was repeated in reverse. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion (24hUNa), ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring and blood tests were performed before and after each study phase. The telmisartan-associated increase in PRA was blunted by approximately 50% during salt supplementation compared with placebo; median PRA was 2.3 μg/l/h with placebo compared with 1.7 μg/l/h with salt (P<0.001). A trend towards blunting of ARB induced increases in serum aldosterone was also demonstrated. Salt supplementation significantly reduced the MAP lowering effects of telmisartan (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that salt supplementation blunts the telmisartan induced increase in PRA in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of the widely used anticancer drug cisplatin. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are implicated in the pathophysiology of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury. Moreover, cisplatin activates many signal transduction pathways involved in cell injury and death, particularly mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. With this background, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of telmisartan, a widely used antihypertensive drug, in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity model in rats. To accomplish this, male albino wistar rats (150-200 g) were divided into 6 groups: Normal, cisplatin-control, telmisartan (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and telmisartan per se treatment groups. Normal saline or telmisartan was administered orally to rats for 10 days and cisplatin was given on 7th day (8 mg/kg; i.p.) to induce nephrotoxicity. On 10th day, rats were killed and both the kidneys were harvested for biochemical, histopathological and molecular studies. Cisplatin injected rats showed depressed renal function, altered proxidant-antioxidant balance and acute tubular necrosis which was significantly normalized by telmisartan co-treatment. Furthermore, cisplatin administration activated MAPK pathway that caused tubular inflammation and apoptosis in rats. Telmisartan treatment significantly prevented MAPK mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Among the three doses studied telmisartan at 10 mg/kg dose showed maximum nephroprotective effect which could be due to maintenance of cellular redox status and inhibition of MAPK activation.
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Sixty male eNOS knockout C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups after receiving intraperitoneal highdose streptozotocin: telmisartan (1 mg/kg), linagliptin (3 mg/kg), linagliptin + telmisartan (3 mg/kg + 1 mg/kg) and vehicle. Fourteen mice were used as non-diabetic controls.
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The metabolic syndrome is a common precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that is characterized by the clustering of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased blood pressure. In humans, mutations in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) have been reported to cause the full-blown metabolic syndrome, and drugs that activate PPARgamma have proven to be effective agents for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Here we report that telmisartan, a structurally unique angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension, can function as a partial agonist of PPARgamma; influence the expression of PPARgamma target genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; and reduce glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. None of the other commercially available angiotensin II receptor antagonists appeared to activate PPARgamma when tested at concentrations typically achieved in plasma with conventional oral dosing. In contrast to ordinary antihypertensive and antidiabetic agents, molecules that can simultaneously block the angiotensin II receptor and activate PPARgamma have the potential to treat both hemodynamic and biochemical features of the metabolic syndrome and could provide unique opportunities for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations.