Moduretic is used for treating fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. It may be used alone or with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide.
Moduretic is a diuretic (water pill) and a combination of a potassium-sparing diuretic (amiloride) and a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide). It works by making the kidneys eliminate sodium (salt) and water from the body, which helps to lower blood pressure. The amiloride component helps minimize potassium loss.
Brand name of Moduretic is Moduretic.
Take Moduretic by mouth with food.
Moduretic may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. To keep this from disturbing your sleep, try to take your dose before 6 pm.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.
If you overdose Moduretic and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not freeze. Keep container closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Moduretic are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Moduretic if you are allergic to Moduretic components or to any ingredient in Moduretic or any other sulfonamide (eg, sulfamethoxazole).
Be careful with Moduretic if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Be careful with Moduretic if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have cirrhosis or liver problems, diabetes, gout, kidney problems or kidney stones, asthma, heart problems, or systemic lupus erythematosus.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have elevated blood acid, low folic acid levels, or electrolyte problems, or are dehydrated.
Be careful with Moduretic if you take potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, spironolactone), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium because high blood potassium levels may occur and cause listlessness, confusion, abnormal skin sensations of the arms and legs, heaviness of limbs, slowed heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, or stopping of the heart; cholestyramine or colestipol because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, indomethacin) because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness and risk of kidney problems may be increased; barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), certain chemotherapy medicines, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), digoxin, dofetilide, ketanserin, narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine), or medicines for high blood pressure because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; diazoxide, lithium, or nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers (eg, pancuronium) because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril) because the risk of high blood potassium and kidney problems may be increased by Moduretic; diabetes medicines (eg, glipizide) or insulin because their effectiveness may be decreased by Moduretic.
Do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.
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ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01011660.
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Antihypertensive therapy is effective in reducing the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. However, blood pressure (BP) control rate remains poor and the optimal combination therapy against hypertension is not established in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of two antihypertensive regimens, amlodipine plus telmisartan and amlodipine plus amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide, in patients with essential hypertension and at least one cardiovascular risk factor.
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A method has been developed for the separation of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method on a C18 column with detection at 280 nm. The optimal conditions of separation were determined with the aid of 'window diagram' technique of Laub and Purnell. The effect of simultaneously varying the pH, proportion aqueous acetic acid and methanol in the mobile phase were studied to optimize the separation. A response surface diagram was used to optimize the experimental conditions for the separation. The mobile phase composition that provides an acceptable resolution hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride in a short elution time is water:methanol (60:40) and pH 3.2 (pH adjusted to 3.2 with CH3COOH). A method is applied for the quantitative analysis of Moduretic tablets (Merck Sharp & Dokme International). The powdered tablets are extracted with methanol, containing caffeine as the internal standard, and assayed by comparison of peak areas after liquid chromatography.
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Impaired salivary gland function can be a major cause of late morbidity following the treatment of head and neck cancer with radiotherapy. A large number of commonly prescribed medications can also reduce salivary gland function. We report three patients with already impaired salivary gland function following successful radiotherapy in whom additional prescribed medication led to an increased reduction in salivary flow, thus further impairing the quality of life of these patients. Stopping the medication resulted in subjective and objective improvement in salivary gland function.
Therapy resistance is an enduring problem in clinical hypertension. Our aims were to estimate: (1) the contribution of a low-renin status in therapy resistance; (2) whether such status could give a clue to more successful treatment; and (3) the contribution by adrenal cortical adenomas and by primary aldosteronism.
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This case highlights the need for thorough investigation of cases of hypertension to exclude specifically secondary causes, which in some cases may be endocrine in origin and may easily be corrected.
The authors assessed in 24 men with stable angina pectoris, using means of ergometry, the antiischaemic and antianginose effects of a combination of the nitrate Iso-Mack retard and the diuretic Moduretic. The effects were compared with the effects of Iso-Mack retard administered alone and with the effects of placebo. The examination was made after a single dose of the drugs and after three-week administration. The authors revealed that a single dose of the diuretic significantly enhanced the effects of nitrate. During long-term administration the diuretic did not prevent a significant diminution of the nitrate effects. Finally the authors discuss possible mechanisms of development of tolerance for nitrates and possibilities how to influence this tolerance by a diuretic.
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Plasma potassium and sodium concentrations were measured in a group of elderly patients taking maintenance thiazide diuretic therapy alone, with a potassium supplement or in combination with a potassium sparing diuretic. Fixed dose combinations of a thiazide and potassium sparing diuretic did not significantly reduce the prevalence of hypokalaemia and the combination of amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a disproportionate number of cases of hyponatraemia. The desirability of the current widespread use of fixed dose combination diuretics over less expensive single agents is questioned.
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There were significant reductions in SBP at some periods of the intervention in the exercise group (p=0.000 to 0.002) and control group (p=0.001 to 0.002), and significant difference in DBP at some periods of the intervention in exercise group (p=0.000 to 0.003) and control group (p=0.000 to 0.001). SBP (p=0.066) and DBP (p=0.100) did not differ between the two groups post-12-week intervention. The BP control rates were similar between the exercises (56.7%) and control (35.5%) groups (p=0.075). Similarly, between-group difference in the number of drugs was not significant (p=0.511).
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Among 54 patients attending a hospital hypertension clinic and receiving the fixed-combination diuretic Moduretic (hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg, amiloride 5 mg), there was a 44.4% incidence of hypokalaemia. The mean drop in plasma potassium level was 0.69 mmol/L (P less than 0.0001), the mean low level being 2.81 mmol/L. Seventy-four per cent of falls occurred within 52 weeks of the start of therapy, 19.5 weeks being the average period between a normal and a low plasma potassium level. There was no difference in the fall in potassium level between male and female subjects, and beta-blockers were not obviously protective, although there was a statistically significant smaller fall in potassium level in females treated with them. The clinical significance of the unexpected hypokalaemia is uncertain; but even with fixed-combination diuretics, it remains necessary to monitor the plasma potassium level regularly in order to avoid complicating situations. The results of the present study would cast doubt on the efficacy of 5 mg of amiloride with 50 mg of hydrochlorothiazide in fixed-combination form in preventing hypokalaemia in this clinical situation.
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A national multicenter study (34 centers) compared six treatments in 328 patients with cirrhotic ascites. Excluded were patients with g.i. bleeding within the last six months, chronic encephalopathy, cancer, tuberculosis or the following complications persisting after three weeks: acute encephalopythy, fever greater than 38 degrees C, infected ascites or biochemical abnormalities: blood urea greater than 8 mmol/l, natremia less than 130 mmol/l, kaliemia less than 2.5 or greater than 5.5 mmol/l, WBC greater than 12000 mm3, total bilirubin greater than 85.5 mumol/l. In each center patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each center using 2 of 6 proposed treatments: (1) Spironolactone and 500 mg Na p.d (77 patients), (2) Spironolactone + furosemide or Moduretic (amiloride + hydrochlorothiazide) and 500 mg Na p.d (80 patients), (3) Spironolactone + Furosemide or Moduretic and unrestricted sodium diet (86 patients), (4) Concentrated ascites reinfusion and 500 mg Na p.d. (36 patients), (5) Unmodified ascites reinfusion and 500 mg Na p.d. (23 patients), (6) Slow ascites drainage and 500 mg Na p.d. (31 patients). Statistical analysis methods were X2, variance analysis and Spotvoll-Stoline and Dunn-Sidak tests. Before treatment, there was no significant difference between the 6 groups.
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A difference in early carotid wall changes is shown between 2 equally effective antihypertensive treatments.
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A 44-year-old woman was seen on three separate occasions for acute pulmonary edema which had developed 30 minutes after ingestion of a single hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moduretic) tablet. Eighteen cases of hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary edema have been reported previously. Clinical findings and investigations in the present and previous cases indicate a noncardiogenic cause for the pulmonary edema. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability is probably involved. So far, attempts to demonstrate an immunological mechanism have failed and the pathophysiology remains uncertain. The reaction may be difficult to differentiate from left ventricular failure in patients with cardiac disease. Attention should be drawn to this severe but rare side effect of a frequently used diuretic.
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This study tested the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of treatments based on nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) compared with the diuretic combination co-amilozide in a pre-specified subset of patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) enrolled in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study.
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This open label randomised-controlled trial involved new-diagnosed male and female individuals with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension after at least four weeks of treatment. They were randomly assigned to drug therapy (Normoretic: Hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride hydrochloride, and Amlodipine) (control: n=33) and aerobic dance combined with drug therapy (exercise: n=30) groups. Intervention in each group lasted 12 weeks. BP was measured at baseline and during and pos-intervention. Number of antihypertensive drugs was recorded post-intervention.
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A double-blind randomized study comparing the effects of 1 year's treatment with atenolol (A) 50 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus amiloride 5 mg (Moduretic (M)) on the lipid profile was performed in 100 hypertensive men (mean age 47, range 22-64 years). After 4 weeks' wash-out and 4 weeks on placebo therapy subjects were randomized to either A or M therapy and followed up every third month for 1 year. If the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg at a subsequent visit, the doses were doubled (n = 17 for A and n = 12 for M) and, if DBP was still greater than or equal to 95 mmHg on double dose, nifedipine 20 mg b.d. was added (n = 15 for A and n = 27 for M, p less than 0.05). The lowering of heart rate (p = 0.0001) and DBP (p = 0.005) was more pronounced with A after 1 year. During that time no significant treatment differences were noted for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or apoproteins A and B. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased from a mean of 1.19 (+/- 0.36) mmol l-1 to 1.13 (+/- 0.35) with A, and increased from 1.14 (+/- 0.30) mmol l-1 to 1.22 (+/- 0.28) with M, and this treatment difference was significant (p = 0.0002). The triglycerides increased from 2.0 (+/- 1.2) mmol l-1 to 2.3 (+/- 1.6) in the A group and did not change with M treatment (p = 0.02) for treatment difference). In view of similar effects on cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoproteins, the prognostic importance of the observed treatment differences on HDL cholesterol and triglycerides remains to be established.
The clinical efficacy and safety of ibopamine and diuretic therapy were compared in a multicenter, multinational, parallel, positive-controlled, randomized, double-blind, 12-week study, involving 103 patients with mild CHF (NYHA Class II). Body weight, NYHA functional class, symptom assessment scores, laboratory blood tests, and exercise testing were evaluated at baseline at interim visits and at the end of 12 weeks. Clinical events were monitored throughout the study. There was no difference in any of the considered parameters between the two patient groups at baseline and at the end of the 12-week evaluation. A trend of improvement in clinical conditions that did not reach statistical significance was noted in each group throughout the study, as a probably "trial effect." Five patients on ibopamine had severe clinical events leading to drug discontinuation (CHF worsening, ventricular tachycardia, elevation of liver transaminases, headache, gastrointestinal disorders) and five on diuretic therapy experienced serious side effects (skin rash, palpitation, atrial fibrillation, elevation of liver transaminases, manic episode). One patient died while on diuretic therapy. Only headache and skin rash were considered to be related to the therapy (ibopamine and diuretic therapy, respectively). Our trial suggests that ibopamine can be safely and effectively used as an alternative for diuretics for up to 3 months in patients with mild CHF.
To evaluate physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive drug combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria, determine the degree of usage of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-based combinations and identify specific points of intervention to improve outcomes of anti-hypertensive combination therapy.
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In a randomized double-blind study to compare the effect of atenolol vs. hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride (Moduretic) on left ventricular dimensions and systolic function, 100 hypertensive men were followed up during 1 year of treatment, 50 subjects being randomized to each drug. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. A significant reduction in left ventricular mass with atenolol was paralleled by a decrease in left ventricular wall thickness and an increase in stroke volume. A similar reduction of left ventricular mass with Moduretic without a change in relative wall thickness and a decrease in stroke volume was observed. Cardiac output decreased in both groups.
A randomized double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in twenty hypertensive patients to evaluate the hypotensive efficacy and safety of indapamide. Indapamide in doses of 2.5 mg per day in combination with other antihypertensive agents was as effective in reducing the blood pressure in hypertensive patients as one tablet of Moduretic (50 mg hydrochlorothiazide and 5 mg amiloride). Indapamide induced no changes in serum potassium or uric acid levels and there were no major side effects.
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There is a dearth of reports on possible additive blood pressure (BP)-reducing effect of aerobic exercise on antihypertensive drug in humans. This study investigated the additive BP-reducing effect of aerobic exercise on BP in individuals with uncontrolled hypertension. In this 12-week double-blind study, 120 new-diagnosed individuals with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized to receive coamilozide + 5/10 mg of amlodipine + aerobic dance or coamilozide + 5/10 mg of amlodipine alone. Forty-five and 43 participants in exercise and control groups, respectively, completed the 12-week intervention. Addition of aerobic exercise to antihypertensive drug therapy significantly reduced systolic BP (7.1 mm Hg [95% confidence interval: 5.0, 9.3]; P < .001) and diastolic BP (1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval: 0.4, 3.0]; P = .009) at 12 weeks. BP control rate differed significantly between exercise (53.9%) and control (35.3%) groups, P < .001. Postintervention, proportion of participants in exercise group who had their number of antihypertensive drug reduced to one (20.3%) differed from that in control group (11.1%); (χ(2) = 11.0; P = .001). Combination of aerobic dance and antihypertensive drugs reduces number of antihypertensive drugs needed to achieve BP control and enhances BP control in individuals with hypertension on two antihypertensive drugs.
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A cross-over study comparing the effects of doxazosin, moduretic and amlodipine on fasting blood glucose and blood pressure levels in 9 adult hypertensive Nigerians is presented. The results showed that doxazosin, moduretic and amlodipine were effective in reducing diastolic blood pressure and thus confirmed our previous observation of blood pressure reduction during the monotherapies of these antihypertensive agents. The study further indicated the effectiveness of doxazosin in the management of severe essential hypertension in Nigerian patients. Fasting blood glucose level significantly decreased during doxazosin treatment phase and increased during moduretic phase, while amlodipine treatment did not have any effect on blood glucose level. In conclusion, the cross-over study seem to confirm the effectiveness of doxazosin therapy and its antidiabetic effect in hypertensive patients. The effectiveness of amlodipine therapy in controlling blood pressure was also observed, but no effect on blood glucose level, while moduretic therapy has hyperglycemic effect despite its effectiveness in blood pressure control in African patients.
In patients with ISH, nifedipine GITS and co-amilozide had similar effects on clinical outcomes and BP lowering. They lend support to international guidelines for the treatment of hypertension recommending the use of long-acting dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers as one treatment option for patients with ISH.
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Calcium controls numerous events within the vessel wall. Permeability of the endothelium is calcium dependent, as are platelet activation and adhesion, vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration, and synthesis of fibrous connective tissue. Double-helix computerized tomography is a noninvasive technique that can detect, measure, and compare coronary calcification in the coronary arteries. Using this method, our objective was to determine whether administration of nifedipine once daily in lieu of diuretics in high-risk hypertensive patients will arrest or slow down the progression of coronary artery calcification. The study was designed as a side arm of INSIGHT (International Nifedipine Study: Intervention as Goal for Hypertension Therapy), aimed to show the efficacy of nifedipine once daily versus co-amilozide (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, amiloride 2.5 mg) in high-risk hypertensive patients. A total of 201 patients with a total calcium score of >/=10 at the onset of study who underwent an annual double-helix computerized tomography for 3 years were analyzed for efficacy. Inhibition of coronary calcium progression was significant in the nifedipine versus the co-amilozide group during the first year (3.18% versus 27%, respectively, P=0.02), not significant during the second year (28.5% versus 47%, respectively, P=0.14), and significant during the third year (40% versus 78%, respectively, P=0.02). The results point to a slower progression of coronary calcification in hypertensive patients on nifedipine once daily versus co-amilozide.
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