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The rapidity of symptom control can be evaluated by clinically significant parameters using ReQuest. Pantoprazole and esomeprazole are equally effective in the time to first and sustained symptom relief.
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AZD0865 is a gastric acid-suppressing agent that has a rapid onset of action and long duration of effect. This double-blind, randomized, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of AZD0865 in the treatment of patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD).
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For at-risk patients, esomeprazole was effective in preventing ulcers in long-term users of NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors.
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To evaluate a novel rabeprazole extended release (ER), which provides longer duration of drug exposure and acid suppression, in healing and symptomatic resolution of moderate-severe erosive oesophagitis.
To study the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole, one of the optical isomers of omeprazole, after 20 mg or 40 mg single and repeated oral and intravenous administration to healthy subjects. The main metabolites of esomeprazole were also assessed after the 40-mg oral dose.
For the primary outcome measure of symptom relief at 8 wk, there was no statistically significant difference between esomeprazole 40 mg once a day and placebo. However, at 4 wk, esomeprazole was significantly more effective than placebo for symptom relief. The difference in therapeutic gain between 4 and 8 wk was largely due to a higher placebo response rate at 8 wk.
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Multinational, randomised, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial.
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Six RCTs with a total of 785 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two multicenter RCTs compared Esomeprazole with placebo. One RCT compared omeprazole with ARS. Two RCTs compared omeprazole with ranitidine and one RCT compared lansoprazole with ranitidine. Four of the included RCTs had moderate risk of bias and two had low risk of bias. The number of patients with increased corporal atrophy score, intestinal metaplasia score and chronic antral inflammation did not statistically differ between the PPI maintenance group and controls. Similar results were found when ECL-cell hyperplasia was assessed between the groups.
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Several oral proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently approved for use in pediatric patients in North America and Europe. However, when use of oral therapy is not possible or appropriate, intravenous formulations of PPIs may be helpful. Intravenous esomeprazole is approved in the United States for the short-term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with erosive esophagitis in adults and in pediatric patients 1 month to 17 years of age (inclusive) as an alternative to oral therapy. Four open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover studies in adults with GERD found no clinically relevant differences in acid suppression between repeated doses of oral and intravenous esomeprazole. However, the pharmacokinetics of intravenous esomeprazole has not been studied extensively in children.
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Triple negative breast cancers (estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptor-negative) are among the most aggressive forms of cancers with limited treatment options. Doxorubicin is one of the agents found in many of the current cancer treatment protocols, although its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. This work investigates one of the ways to suppress cancer growth by inhibiting tumor cell ability to remove acid accumulated during its metabolism by proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole (a drug with extensive clinical use) which could serve as an addition to doxorubicin therapy.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease patients demonstrate various pathophysiologic backgrounds. Therefore, a heterogeneous response to proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment can be expected. We investigated the effect of short-term PPI treatment on symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in primary care patients with and without pathologic esophageal acid exposure and in presence or absence of a positive association between symptoms and reflux episodes.
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Dysphagia is common in patients with erosive esophagitis but is not a reliable clinical predictor of severe erosive esophagitis. Dysphagia resolved with PPI therapy in most cases, but persistent dysphagia may indicate failed healing.
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Results were pooled from three smaller, open, crossover, randomized studies to obtain data from 80 subjects. The studies compared: (a) 5 days' dosing of 20 mg rabeprazole and esomeprazole (n = 24); (b) single doses of rabeprazole 20 mg and esomeprazole 40 mg (n = 27) and (c) 5 days' dosing of rabeprazole 10 mg and esomeprazole 20 mg (n = 29). Washout periods were > or =14 days. Intragastric pH was recorded continuously for 24 h on days 0, 1 and 5.
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30 SRs with pairwise meta-analysis were included. In triple therapy, the NMA ranked the esomeprazole to be the most effective PPI, followed by rabeprazole, while no difference was observed among the three old generations of PPI for the eradication of H.pylori. When comparing triple and bismuth-based therapy, the relative effectiveness appeared to be dependent on the choice of antibiotics within the triple therapy; moxifloxacin or levofloxacin-based triple therapy were both associated with greater effectiveness than bismuth-based therapy as a second-line treatment, while bismuth-based therapy achieved similar or greater eradication rate compared to clarithromycin-based therapy. Inconsistent findings were reported regarding the use of levofloxacin/moxifloxacin in the first-line treatment; this could be due to the varied resistant rate to different antibiotics across regions and populations. Critical appraisal showed a low-moderate level of overall methodological quality of included studies.
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Whether minocycline can replace tetracycline in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy, safety, patient compliance and risk factors of a combination regimen of esomeprazole, minocycline, metronidazole and bismuth (EMMB) for H. pylori eradication.
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Eradication rates attained by levofloxacin/amoxicillin/esomeprazole and esomeprazole/metronidazole/bismuth salt/tetracycline treatments in the per-protocol analysis were 44/47 (93.6%; 95% CI = 86-99.8) and 43/47 (91.8%; 95% CI = 83.2-98.5). In the intention-to-treat analysis, these were 43/47 (86.3%; 95% CI = 76.5-96.1) in the LAE group (four lost to follow-up) and 43/50 (86%; 95% CI = 76-96) in the EMBT groups. The observed adverse events were 25.5% and 38.5% among the two groups. There was 100% drug compliance among the levofloxacin/amoxicillin/esomeprazole group. Levofloxacin-resistant strains occurred at a frequency of 32.3%. H. pylori eradication rates for the levofloxacin-susceptible strains and levofloxacin-resistant strains were 92% (11/12) and 33% (1/3) in the per-protocol analysis.
A single-centre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, 4-way, cross-over study was conducted in 32 healthy male subjects. S-tenatoprazole-Na 30, 60 or 90 mg, or esomeprazole 40 mg was administered once daily for 5 days with 10-day washout intervals. The 24-h intragastric pH was recorded at baseline and on day 5 of each period.
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To examine the association between the use of PPIs and the risk of incident dementia in the elderly.
Esomeprazole bioavailability was reduced when taken within 15 min before eating a high-fat meal vs. that while fasting.
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The adjunction of bismuth subcitrate to a triple therapy that includes esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and DOX in patients who are treated for the first time for the H. pylori infection potentiates the therapeutic effect. This regimen, however, deserves to be optimized in terms of duration and dose of DOX.
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Normalisation of oesophageal acid exposure can be achieved in the majority of complicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease cases with esomeprazole 40 mg once daily.
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This study assesses the efficacy of esomeprazole for preventing relapse in patients with healed oesophagitis.
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Patients with NERD not complaining of bowel symptoms were selected by upper endoscopy, 24-h pH-metry and a structured questionnaire concerning severity and frequency of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. Patients were treated with esomeprazole 20 mg bid for 6 months. Prior to and after 8 weeks and 6 months of therapy, patients received the structured questionnaire and underwent evaluation of SIBO by glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT).
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Rifaximin is a non-absorbed semisynthetic rifamycin derivative with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, both aerobes and anaerobes. Although originally developed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea, the appreciation of the pathogenic role of gut bacteria in several organic and functional gastrointestinal diseases has increasingly broadened its clinical use. Being the antibiotic active against Helicobacter pylori, even towards clarithromycin-resistant strain, and being the primary resistance very rare, several investigations explored its potential use for eradication of the microorganism. Rifaximin alone proved to be effective, but even the highest dose (1,200 mg daily) gave a cure rate of only 30%. Dual and triple therapies were also studied, with the better results obtained with rifaximin-clarithromycin and rifaximin-clarithromycin-esomeprazole combinations. However, the eradication rates (60-70%) obtained with these regimens were still below the standard set by the Maastricht Consensus guidelines. Although rifaximin-based eradication therapies are promising, new antimicrobial combinations (with and without proton pump inhibitors) need to be explored in well-designed clinical trials including a large cohort of H. pylori-infected patients. The remarkable safety of rifaximin will allow high-dose regimens of longer duration (e.g. 10 or 14 days) to be tested with confidence in the hope of achieving better eradication rates. A drawback of rifaximin could be its inability to reach sufficiently high concentrations in the gastric mucus layer under and within which H. pylori is commonly located and this would likely affect eradication rate. Taking these considerations into account, bioadhesive rifaximin formulations able to better and persistently cover gastric mucosa, or combination with mucolytic agents, such as pronase or acetylcysteine, need to be evaluated in order to better define the place of this antibiotic in our therapeutic armamentarium.
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The aim of this study was to characterize the swelling and floating behaviors of gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) composed of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and to optimize HEC/NaCMC GRDDS to incorporate three model drugs with different solubilities (metformin, ciprofloxacin, and esomeprazole). Various ratios of NaCMC to HEC were formulated, and their swelling and floating behaviors were characterized. Influences of media containing various NaCl concentrations on the swelling and floating behaviors and drug solubility were also characterized. Finally, release profiles of the three model drugs from GRDDS formulation (F1-4) and formulation (F1-1) were examined. Results demonstrated when the GRDDS tablets were tested in simulated gastric solution, the degree of swelling at 6 h was decreased for each formulation that contained NaCMC in comparison to those in de-ionized water (DIW). Of note, floating duration was enhanced when in simulated gastric solution compared to DIW. Further, the hydration of tablets was found to be retarded as the NaCl concentration in the medium increased resulting in smaller gel layers and swelling sizes. Dissolution profiles of the three model drugs in media containing various concentrations of NaCl showed that the addition of NaCl to the media affected the solubility of the drugs, and also their gelling behaviors, resulting in different mechanisms for controlling a drug's release. The release mechanism of the freely water-soluble drug, metformin, was mainly diffusion-controlled, while those of the water-soluble drug, ciprofloxacin, and the slightly water-soluble drug, esomeprazole, were mainly anomalous diffusion. Overall results showed that the developed GRDDS composed of HEC 250HHX and NaCMC of 450 cps possessed proper swelling extents and desired floating periods with sustained-release characteristics.
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Neither esomeprazole treatment nor fundoplication diminishes airway responsiveness or exhaled NO, or improves FEV1 in patients with GORD. Improvements in respiratory symptoms and SGRQ scores after GORD treatments could be detected. However, as this was not a placebo-controlled study, the findings in these secondary endpoints should not be emphasised. ClinicalTrials.cov: NCT00994708.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy as second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. We also investigated the effect of treatment duration and antibiotic resistance on the eradication rate of this therapy.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is present in pediatric patients when reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and/ or complications. The present study evaluates the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in infants ages 1 to 11 months with GERD.
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Esomeprazole 20 mg is more effective than pantoprazole 20 mg for maintenance therapy following initial healing of erosive oesophagitis and relief of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms.