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Nizoral (Ketoconazole)

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Nizoral is an extra-class medicine which is taken in treatment of infections such as throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus. Nizoral is a helpful for patients with Cushing's syndrome, hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Grifulvin, Lamisil, Sporanox, Grifulvin V, Diflucan, Fluconazole, Sporanox PulsePak, Onmel, Amphocin, Voriconazole, Abelcet, Fungizone, Vfend, Onmel, Abelcet


Also known as:  Ketoconazole.


Nizoral is developed with a help of medical professionals to fight with infections (throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus), Cushing's syndrome, women hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Target of Nizoral is to control, ward off, reduce and terminate fungi growth.

Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug. Nizoral operates by reducing fungi growth spreads by infection.

Nizoral is also known as Ketoconazole, Fung.

Nizoral is imidazole.


You should take it by mouth with full glass of water.

Take Nizoral once a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Nizoral suddenly.


If you overdose Nizoral and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Nizoral overdosage: feeling lightheaded, diarrhea, migraine, abnormal pain, ears ringing, nausea, rething.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Nizoral are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Nizoral if you are allergic to Nizoral components.

Do not take Nizoral if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not use Nizoral if you take astemizole (Hismanal), cisapride (Propulsid), midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion).

Be careful if you are taking oral diabetes medicine as glipizide (Glucotrol), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glyburide (Glynase, Diabeta, Micronase), tolazamide (Tolinase), tolbutamide (Orinase); tacrolimus (Prograf); rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); warfarin (Coumadin); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); antacids; famotidine (Pepcid, AC Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet HB, Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac 75, Zantac), nizatidine (Axid AR, Axid); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin); methylprednisolone (Medrol); phenytoin (Dilantin); rabeprazole (Aciphex), omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid).

Be careful if you have liver disease, achlorhydria.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Try to avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Nizoral taking suddenly.

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High plasma levels of fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR)] were associated with improved outcome in a phase II clinical trial. Low bioavailability of 4-HPR has been limiting its therapeutic applications. This study characterized metabolism of 4-HPR in humans and mice, and to explore the effects of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4, as a modulator to increase 4-HPR plasma levels in mice and to increase the low bioavailability of 4-HPR.

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Fungi were isolated and identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility test was performed using the method of broth microdilution, according to a protocol recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), through M38-A document.

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Multiple phaeohyphomycotic brain abscesses caused by Cladosporium species occurred in a 55 year old woman. No immunological abnormality could be detected. The disease ran a protracted course for a total of 20 months before she died from sudden rupture of an abscess loculus into the ventricular system. Course was characterised by spontaneous remissions and relapses totally independent of adequate doses and prolonged regimes of all the three available anti-fungal chemotherapeutic agents, namely amphotericin B, flucytosine and ketoconazole. Three surgical procedures were carried out; and surgical intervention appeared to be the only modality of treatment capable of prolonging the life or altering the course of the disease. An interesting transitory pulmonary phase of phaeohyphomycosis resembling miliary tuberculosis was noticed. This may help to explain the portal of entry and mole of spread of the fungus to the brain. A dematiaceous fungus was isolated from these abscesses. Mycologic features and histology of brain lesions are described.

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The influence of topical corticosteroid on the efficacy of five topical antifungal agents was evaluated in a standardized rabbit model of Candida keratitis using a quantitative mycologic technique. Topical 1% prednisolone acetate worsened the disease when given alone and adversely influenced the efficacy of 5% natamycin, 1% flucytosine, and 1% miconazole when given in combination. The efficacy of amphotericin B appeared unaffected when the antifungal agent was administered in concentrations of 0.5% and 0.15%. The adverse effect of the topical corticosteroid appeared to be inversely related to the efficacy of the antifungal agent in vivo.

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Caco-2 cells were incubated with TcdA and treated with rifaximin (0.1-10 μM) with or without ketoconazole (10 μM). The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and viability of the treated cells was determined. Also, the expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was determined.

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At 5 days after the initial session of LPT, the patient was able to eat gelatin, and on the following day, the number and severity of his intraoral lesions and his labial crusting and swelling had diminished. By 6 days after his initial session of LPT, most of the patient's intraoral lesions had disappeared, and the few that remained were painless; the patient was able to eat solid food by himself and was removed from the ICU. Ten sessions of LPT were conducted in the hospital. The patient underwent three further and consecutive sessions at the School of Dentistry, when complete healing of his oral lesions was observed.

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The composite data suggests a potential beneficial effect of oral itraconazole and ketoconazole in patients with CRS and its subtypes. However, majority of the studies are uncontrolled case series, confounded by non-validated outcome variables. Randomized controlled trials are required to better elucidate their role in CRS.

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We used a species-specific approach to treat 10 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction. Non-antimony treatments (oral miltefosine, ketoconazole, and liposomal amphotericin B) were chosen as an alternative to pentavalent antimony drugs based on likely or proven drug efficacy against the infecting species. Leishmania Viannia panamensis was diagnosed in three patients and treated successfully with oral ketoconazole. Miltefosine treatment cured two patients with L. infantum chagasi. A wide variety of Leishmania responded to liposomal amphotericin B administered for 5-7 days. Three patients with L. V. braziliensis, one patient with L. tropica, and two patients with L. infantum chagasi were treated successfully. One person with L. V. braziliensis healed slowly because of a resistant bacterial superinfection, and a second patient with L. infantum chagasi relapsed and was retreated with miltefosine. These drugs were reasonably well-tolerated. In this limited case series, alternative non-antimony-based regimens were convenient, safe, and effective.

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Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are a widely-used small fish model for regulatory ecotoxicology testing and research related to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantitative real-time PCR assays for measuring fathead minnow gonadotropin (GtH) beta subunit transcripts were developed and "baseline" transcript levels in pituitary tissue were examined over a range of age classes and spawning states. Among females, GtHbeta transcripts did not vary significantly with gonadal-somatic index or gonad stage. However, in males, follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit transcripts decreased significantly with increasing gonad stage, while mean luteinizing hormone beta subunit expression trended in the opposite direction. GtHbeta transcript levels measured in pituitaries from fish that had spawned within the preceding 24 h were not significantly different from those from fish that were 2-3 days post-spawn. Exposure to the fungicide ketoconazole, a known steroidogenesis inhibitor, for 21 days significantly affected the abundance of GtHbeta transcripts in pituitary tissue in males, but not females. This study provides critical data needed to design and interpret effective experiments for studying direct and indirect effects of EDCs on GtH subunit mRNA expression. Results of such experiments should facilitate a greater understanding of integrated system-wide responses of the fathead minnow brain-pituitary-gonadal axis to stressors including EDCs.

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Both groups were markedly hypermetabolic and catabolic throughout the acute hospital stay. Normalization of hypercortisolemia with ketoconazole therapy had no effect on whole-body catabolism or the post-burn inflammatory or hypermetabolic response, suggesting that hypercortisolemia does not play a central role in the post-burn hypermetabolic catabolic response.

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1. In humans, ambroxol is metabolized to dibromoanthranilic acid (DBAA) and 6,8-dibromo-3-(trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoli ne (DHTQ). The formation of DHTQ proceeds non-enzymatically, whereas that of DBAA requires NADPH. Studies have been performed to identify the CYP isozyme(s) involved in the formation of DBAA using human liver microsomes and microsomes expressing recombinant human CYP isozymes (1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 4A11). 2. The apparent Vmax and Km for the formation of DBAA were 472+/-192 pmol/ min/mg protein and 248+/-40.6 microM respectively (mean +/- S.D., n = 3). 3. Of the recombinant CYP examined, only CYP3A4 metabolized ambroxol to DBAA. The apparent Vmax and Km were 1.42 pmol/min/pmol P450 and 287 microM respectively. 4. Among the CYP inhibitors examined (furafylline, sulphaphenazole, quinidine, diethyldithiocarbamic acid, ketoconazole), only ketoconazole inhibited the production of DBAA (> 80%) at 1 microM and anti-CYP3A antiserum almost completely inhibited the formation of DBAA. 5. These results suggest that CYP3A4 is predominantly involved in the metabolism of ambroxol to DBAA in humans.

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Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 is an inordinately important CYP enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of a vast array of clinically used drugs. Microsomal proteins of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses encoding CYP3A4 cDNA were used to immunize mice and to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb(3A4a)) specific to CYP3A4 through the use of hybridoma technology. The mAb is both a potent inhibitor and a strong binder of CYP3A4. One and 5 microl (0.5 and 2.5 microM IgG(2a)) of the mAb mouse ascites in 1-ml incubation containing 20 pmol of CYP3A4 strongly inhibited the testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation by 95 and 99%, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, cross-inhibited CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 activity. mAb(3A4a) exhibited no cross-reactivity with any of the other recombinant human CYP isoforms (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) in the course of CYP reaction phenotyping and Western immunoblot analyses. The potency of mAb-induced inhibition is insensitive to substrate concentration in human liver microsomes. Therefore, mAb(3A4a) was used to assess the quantitative role of CYP3A4/5 to the metabolism of testosterone and diazepam in five human liver microsomes. The results showed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 contribute >95% to both testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and diazepam 3-hydroxylation and 52 to 73% to diazepam N-demethylation, respectively. In addition, mAb(3A4a) significantly inhibited testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity in rhesus monkey liver microsomes to a degree equal to that observed with CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. By comparison, no inhibition of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity was observed in the presence of dog, rat, and mouse liver microsomes. The selectivity of ketoconazole, a chemical inhibitor of CYP3A4, was probed with mAb(3A4a) and was shown to be highly concentration dependent in the diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that inhibitory and immunoblotting mAb(3A4a) can offer a precise and useful tool for quantitative identification of CYP3A4/5 in the metabolism of drugs in clinical use and drugs in development.

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A moderate, but statistically significant interaction between emedastine and ketoconazole was observed. Pharmacodynamic data indicate no increase in the QTc interval during concomitant therapy. This result is consistent with the multiple emedastine metabolic pathways shown in man which supplement the metabolism by different enzymatic isoforms of CYP450. Concomitant treatment with emedastine and ketoconazole in subjects with normal QT intervals can therefore, be undertaken without special precautions.

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Some intermediaries of cortisol synthesis, especially the sulfated ester of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), are picrotoxin-like antagonists of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA-A) receptor and exert potent anxiogenic effects. We report 5 men and 7 women with refractory anxiety disorders, who had late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and in whom interactions between neuroactive steroids and anomalous brain substrates may have participated in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety.

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Inhibition of CYP3A by concomitant high-dose ketoconazole administration does not result in a uniform reduction of docetaxel clearance and does not reduce the inter-individual variability in docetaxel AUC or clearance. This approach is unsuitable as method to achieve a uniform docetaxel PK profile.

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Skin scrapings from the toe clefts, soles and nail plates of 138 HIV-infected patients at various stages were examined for the presence of dermatophytes using both microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes, in particular Trichophyton rubrum, could be grown in 58 cases (42%). Although cultures were more often positive in late stages of disease, there was no close correlation with the clinical stage or the T4/T8 ratio. Susceptibility to itraconazole, but not to other antimycotics, was correlated with the immune status (P < 0.05). Pedal dermatophyte infection does not seem to be a major problem in HIV infection.

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1. Recent guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has advocated testing of time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which can be addressed by performing IC(50) shift as well as K(I)/k(inact) determinations. 2. Direct (IC(50), K(i)) and time-dependent inhibition (IC(50) shift, K(I)/k(inact)) assays were validated in human liver microsomes with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis for the following enzyme/substrate/inhibitor combinations: CYP1A2/phenacetin/alpha-naphthoflavone/furafylline, CYP2C8/amodiaquine/montelukast/gemfibrozil-1-O-beta-glucuronide, CYP2C9/diclofenac/sulfaphenazole/tienilic acid, CYP2C19/S-mephenytoin/S-benzylnirvanol/S-fluoxetine, CYP2D6/dextromethorphan/quinidine/paroxetine, and CYP3A4/midazolam/testosterone/ketoconazole/azamulin/verapamil/diltiazem. IC(50) shift assays were performed with two pre-incubation time points (10 and 30 min) to facilitate k(inact) assay design. 3. Data obtained show good agreement with literature values. For rapid acting inhibitors, such as azamulin/CYP3A4 and tienilic acid/CYP2C9, the IC(50) shifts were similar at both time points suggesting a short maximum pre-incubation time with closely spaced time points for the K(I)/k(inact) assay. Slow acting inhibitors (such as verapamil/CYP3A4 or S-fluoxetine/CYP2C19) showed an increase in IC(50) shift between 10 and 30 min suggesting a longer maximum pre-incubation time with wider spacing of time points for K(I)/k(inact). 4. The two-time point IC(50) shift experiment proved to be an excellent method for the selection of appropriate K(I)/k(inact) assay parameters and is suitable for the routine analysis of P450 inhibition by drug candidates.

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A metabolic interaction between stiripentol (STP), an anticonvulsant agent that inhibits the activity of several cytochromes P450 (P450s), and clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine, used in association with STP in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy was observed in vivo. This interaction was characterized in vitro using cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 (main P450 involved in CLB metabolism) to calculate K(i) and IC(50) of stiripentol in comparison with ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor) and omeprazole (CYP2C19 inhibitor). STP inhibited N-demethylation of CLB to N-desmethylclobazam (NCLB) mediated by CYP3A4 (noncompetitively) and CYP2C19 (competitively) with K(i) = 1.59 +/- 0.07 and 0.516 +/- 0.065 microM and IC(50) = 1.58 microM [95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 1.20-2.08] and 3.29 microM (CI95% = 1.87-5.79), respectively. STP inhibited also more strongly the 4'-hydroxylation of NCLB to 4'-hydroxy-N-desmethylclobazam by CYP2C19 [competitive interaction with K(i) = 0.139 +/- 0.025 microM and IC(50) = 0.276 microM (CI95% = 0.206-0.371)]. The inhibitory effect of STP on CLB demethylation by CYP3A4 was much weaker than that of ketoconazole [IC(50) = 0.023 microM (CI95% = 0.016-0.033)], whereas its effect on NCLB hydroxylation by CYP2C19 was much higher than that of omeprazole [IC(50) = 2.99 microM (CI95% = 2.11-4.24)]. The major in vitro inhibitory effect of STP on CLB metabolism and mostly on NCLB biotransformation is consistent with the changes in vivo in CLB and NCLB plasma concentrations in children treated by the association CLB/STP.

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With mycelium, arthrospores and microconidia of trichophyton mentagrophytes as inocula, a variety of in-vitro tests were used to assess the antifungal activity of the imidazoles; miconazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, econazole and tioconazole. For mycelial sensitivity, an agar plus method, a microtitre method using fragmented mycelial suspension and a turbidometric method were employed to determine fungistatic effects while a mycelial plug method indicated fungicidal activity. Spore susceptibility was determined by broth dilution and agar dilution methods for fungistatic action, while fungicidal activity was determined by measurement of rate of kill. The results obtained were affected to varying degrees by the test procedure, temperature and time of incubation, medium, pH and solvent. The spore forms were not more resistant than mycelium to the fungistatic effects of the imidazoles. There was little to choose between the various imidazoles in respect to their performance in these tests, with the exception of ketoconazole, which consistently gave higher MICs.

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A literature search was conducted to extract published studies on the pharmacodynamics and drug interactions involving NOACs. Available data from US FDA and European Medicine Agency were also included. As these agents are substrates of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter and/or CYP3A4 enzymes, articles focusing on the co-administration of NOACs and drugs affecting these pathways are discussed. Concomitant use of NOACs with antiplatelet agents may potentially increase bleeding risk.

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A chromatographic method was developed for the determination of cyclosporin A in human whole blood using reversed-phase HPLC at room temperature. Most previous reports carried out this liquid chromatographic separation at temperatures above 70 degrees C. The present procedure greatly improves the detection limit by controlling peak broadening effects, as well as the lifetime of the column at room temperature. Under optimal conditions and using ketoconazole as an internal standard, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 16-1000 microg/L with a relative standard deviation of 3.72% at 150 microg/L and 2.45% at 300 microg/L (n = 11) of cyclosporin A. The detection limit was of 5.0 microg/L cyclosporin A. By this procedure, cyclosporin A pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy Chinese subjects were studied. The developed method could be applied to the quantification of cyclosporin A in human blood samples and allows the study of its pharmacokinetics in routine laboratories.

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The objective of this project was to develop a cell based in vitro experimental procedure that can differentiate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates from inhibitors in a single assay. Caco-2 cells grown to confluency on 12-well Transwell were used for this study. The efflux permeability (B to A) of P-gp specific probe (viz., digoxin) in the presence of test compounds (e.g. substrates, inhibitors and non-substrates of P-gp) was monitored, and the influx permeability (A to B) of test compounds was evaluated after complete P-gp blockade. Radiolabelled digoxin was added on the basolateral side with buffer on the apical side. The digoxin concentration appearing on the apical side represents digoxin efflux permeability during the control phase (0-1 h period). After 1 h, a test compound (10 microM) was added on the apical side. The reduced efflux permeability of digoxin suggests that the added test compound is an inhibitor. The influx permeability of test compound is also determined during the 1-2 h study period by measuring the concentration of the test compound in the basolateral side. At the end of 2 h, a potent P-gp inhibitor (GF120918) was added. The increased influx permeability of test compound during the 2-3 h incubation period indicates that the added test compound is a substrate. Samples were taken from both sides at the end of 1-3 h and the concentrations of the test compounds and digoxin were quantitated. Digoxin efflux permeability remained unchanged when incubated with P-gp substrates (e.g., etoposide, rhodamine123, taxol). However, when a P-gp inhibitor was added to the apical side, the digoxin efflux (B to A permeability) was significantly reduced (ketoconazole=51% reduction) as expected. The influx permeability of substrates increased significantly (rhodamine123=70%, taxol=220%, digoxin=290%) after the P-gp inhibitor (GF120918) was introduced, whereas the influx permeability of P-gp inhibitor and non-substrates was not affected by GF120918. Thus, this combined assay provides an efficient cell based in vitro screening tool to simultaneously distinguish compounds that are P-gp substrates from P-gp inhibitors.

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The metabolic activities of aminopyrine N-demethylation and tolbutamide methylhydroxylation by the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C subfamily were compared and the effects of azole antifungal agent on the drug-metabolizing activity of CYP2C8 were investigated.

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Growth inhibition of six Trichophyton spp. by herbal essential oils was accessed and the combined effects of P. graveolens oil and its main components citronellol and geraniol were evaluated using a checkerboard microtitre assay against T. schoenleinii, T. erinacei and T. soudanense. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited strong synergism with ketoconazole against T. schoenleinii and T. soudanense, with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices in the range of 0.18-0.38.

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CYP3A4, the major CYP in human liver, converts MMDX to a more cytotoxic metabolite, PNU-159682, which retains antitumor activity in vivo.

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Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of coadministration of ketoconazole with two nonsedating antihistamines, ebastine and loratadine, on the QTc interval and on the pharmacokinetics of the antihistamines.

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PNAH was associated with cushingoid features, virilization and hypertension with a lack of cortisol suppression on high DST, undetectable plasma ACTH and absent cortisol and ACTH responses to CRH. Adrenals were normal or small on imaging. PRKAR1A gene analysis may be helpful in the assessment of these patients.

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The results of this study showed no significant statistical differences between the two groups in regard to cure and recurrence rates. But the numbers of cured patients were higher and recurrent cases were lower in group buy nizoral 1.

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A case of orbital zygomycosis, probably mucormycosis, histologically demonstrated was observed in a healthy host. The etiologic agent could not be identified because of the unsuccessful cultures. No clinical antecedent allowed us to suppose that an immunological deficiency statement was present. It seemed that the fungus did not penetrates by the classical nasal and sinusal pathways. The fungus inoculation probably resulted from a subocular traumatism. The ketoconazole treatment, the only one possible in our buy nizoral case, was efficient.

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multicentric and buy nizoral transversal study during January 2008. Close Up was used to poll gyneco-obstetricians prescribing clyndamicin plus ketoconazole. 1,198 gyneco-obstetricians were selected to answer a poll (scales and measuring attributes) to identify differences among various therapeutic schemes to mixed vaginitis.

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The increase of dermathophytosis in patients with poor therapeutic response leads us buy nizoral to study the antifungal susceptibility of 36 clinical isolates to itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole by the E-test method. According to established parameters by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, the resistance to one or more antifungal drugs was demonstrated in seven isolates (19.4%) as follows: three Trichophyton rubrum, three T. mentagrophytes and one T. tonsurans. A T. rubrum isolate was resistant to the three azolic drugs; the other six only to fluconazole. It is important to establish the antifungal susceptibility as part of the study procedures in patients with dermatophytosis and a poor antifungal response.

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Co-administration of multiple oral doses of 20 mg paroxetine once daily with a single buy nizoral oral dose of the 0.4 mg tamsulosin HCl capsule increased the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) values of C(max) and AUC(0,∞) of tamsulosin by factors of 1.34 (90% CI 1.21, 1.49) and 1.64 (90% CI 1.44, 1.85), respectively, and increased the terminal half-life (t(1/2) ) of tamsulosin HCl from 11.4 h to 15.3 h. Co-administration of multiple oral doses of 400 mg ketoconazole once daily with a single oral dose of the 0.4 mg tamsulosin increased the gMean values of C(max) and AUC(0,∞) of tamsulosin by a factor of 2.20 (90% CI 1.96, 2.45) and 2.80 (90% CI 2.56, 3.07), respectively. The terminal half-life was slightly increased from 10.5 h to 11.8 h. These pharmacokinetic changes were not accompanied by clinically significant alterations of haemodynamic responses during orthostatic stress testing.

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Data concerning pregnancy in women with Cushing's disease treated by gamma-knife (GK) are scanty. We present and discuss the course and outcome of five pregnancies in two women with Cushing's disease (CD), the first of whom was treated only by GK, and the second one treated by surgery, GK and ketoconazole. In the first patient, pregnancy was uneventful and full-term. During gestation, plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels were steady, and always in the normal range for healthy non-pregnant individuals. The newborn was healthy and normal-weight. In the second woman, two pregnancies, occurring 3 years after GK and few months after ketoconazole withdrawal, were interrupted by spontaneous abortion or placental disruption despite normal cortisol levels. This patient became again pregnant 3 years later and delivered vaginally a healthy full-term infant. Seven months after the delivery, the patient became pregnant again and at the 39th week of gestation delivered vaginally a healthy male. Hypoprolactinemia and/or central hypothyroidism occurred in both cases. In women with CD treated by GK, pregnancy can occur. However, pregnancy is at risk even when ACTH and cortisol levels are normalized by buy nizoral treatment. After GK, evaluation of pituitary function is mandatory due to the risk of hypopituitarism.

nizoral dandruff reviews 2015-04-15

Various groups have sought to determine the impact of CYP2C8 genotype (and CYP2C8 inhibition) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ibuprofen (IBU) enantiomers. However, the contribution of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) in human liver buy nizoral microsomes (HLMs) has not been reported. Therefore, in vitro cytochrome P450 (P450) reaction phenotyping was conducted with selective inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and CYP2C8. In the presence of HLMs, sulfaphenazole (CYP2C9 inhibitor), and anti-CYP2C9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibited (73-100%) the 2- and 3-hydroxylation of both IBU enantiomers (1 and 20 microM). At a higher IBU concentration (500 microM), the same inhibitors were less able to inhibit the 2-hydroxylation of (S)-(+)-IBU (32-52%) and (R)-(-)-IBU (30-64%), whereas the 3-hydroxylation of (S)-(+)-IBU and (R)-(-)-IBU was inhibited 66 to 83 and 70 to 89%, respectively. In contrast, less inhibition was observed with montelukast (CYP2C8 inhibitor, < or =35%) and anti-CYP2C8 mAbs (< or =24%) at all concentrations of IBU. When (S)-(+)-IBU and (R)-(-)-IBU (1 microM) were incubated with a panel of recombinant human P450s, only CYP2C9 formed appreciable amounts of the hydroxy metabolites. At a higher IBU enantiomer concentration (500 microM), additional P450s catalyzed 2-hydroxylation (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2B6) and 3-hydroxylation (CYP2C19). When the P450 reaction phenotype and additional clearance pathways are considered (e.g., direct glucuronidation and chiral inversion), it is concluded that CYP2C8 plays a minor role in (R)-(-)-IBU (<10%) and (S)-(+)-IBU ( approximately 13%) clearance. By extension, one would not expect CYP2C8 inhibition (and genotype) to greatly affect the pharmacokinetic profile of either enantiomer. On the other hand, CYP2C9 inhibition and genotype are expected to have an impact on the PK of (S)-(+)-IBU.

nizoral 1 review 2016-01-13

The treatment of choice for Cushing's syndrome remains surgical. The role for medical therapy is twofold. Firstly it is used to control hypercortisolaemia prior to surgery to optimize patient's preoperative state and secondly, it is used where surgery has failed and radiotherapy has not taken effect. The main drugs used inhibit steroidogenesis and include metyrapone, ketoconazole, and mitotane. Drugs targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary axis have been investigated but their roles in clinical practice remain limited although PPAR-gamma agonist and somatostatin analogue som-230 (pasireotide) need further investigation. The buy nizoral only drug acting at the periphery targeting the glucocorticoid receptor remains Mifepristone (RU486). The management of Cushing syndrome may well involve combination therapy acting at different pathways of hypercortisolaemia but monitoring of therapy will remain a challenge.

nizoral medicine 2015-03-07

Given the prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplement use among consumers and the potential for vitamin- and mineral-drug interactions, as well as oral and buy nizoral systemic adverse effects of excess consumption, oral health care providers (OHCPs) should ask all patients about their use. The challenges for OHCPs are how to recognize oral and systemic manifestations of these interactions and how to safely manage the care of these patients while avoiding potential interactions.

nizoral pills 2015-06-13

Two important enzymes in metabolism of the principal neo-nicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid are liver microsomal CYP3 A4 and cytosolic aldehyde oxidase (AOX). CYP3A4 oxidation at several molecular sites and AOX reduction at the nitro substituent result in either an increase (activation) or decrease (inactivation) of agonist potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), both insect and vertebrate alpha 4beta 2. This study evaluates activation or inactivation of 11 neo-nicotinoids in a continuous two-step system coupling metabolism and receptor binding. For metabolism, the neo-nicotinoid is incubated with CYP3A4 and NADPH or AOX with the cosubstrate N-methyl-nicotinamide, terminating the reaction with ketoconazole or menadione, respectively, to inhibit further conversion. For receptor assay, either the Drosophila nAChR and [(3)H]imidacloprid or the alpha4 beta2 nicotinic receptor and [(3)H](-)-nicotine are added to determine changes in neo-nicotinoid potency. With the Drosophila nAChR assay, the N-methyl compounds N-methyl-imidacloprid and thiamethoxam are activated 4.5-29-fold by CYP3 A4 whereas nine other neo-nicotinoids are not changed in potency. With the vertebrate alpha4 beta2 nAChR, AOX enhances imidacloprid potency but CYP3 A4 does not. The AOX system coupled buy nizoral with the Drosophila receptor strongly inactivates clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, desmethyl-thiamethoxam, and thiamethoxam with some inactivation of nitenpyram and nithiazine, and little or no effect on four other compounds.

nizoral pills dosage 2017-02-15

Malassezia furfur buy nizoral is a human skin commensal yeast that can cause skin and opportunistic systemic infections. Given its lipid dependant status, the reference methods established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate antifungal susceptibility in yeasts are not applicable.

nizoral tablet treatment 2015-11-19

The concentration of Ketoconazole in seminal fluid has been measured in 7 men buy nizoral . The average concentration of 150 ng/g in seminal fluid is much lower than in blood plasma, but for the treatment of candidiasis the concentration in seminal fluid may be too low. A 50-fold higher Ketoconazole-concentration did not disturb sperm motility in 24 men. Therefore there may be no danger for motility of sperms in genital tract of women, for the tested Ketoconazole-concentration was 3-fold higher than the blood serum concentration.

nizoral cream generic 2017-12-08

The effect of tioconazole and other imidazole antimycotics on both growth and sterol biosynthesis by Candida albicans and C. pseudotropicalis in tube culture was investigated. Trailing endpoints were only seen in statically incubated cultures, but the final MIC, i.e. that giving complete inhibition of growth, was similar in both static and shaken Aldactone 100mg Tablet cultures. Desmethylsterol biosynthesis was equally sensitive to the inhibitory action of tioconazole in both shaken and static cultures and the trailing endpoints in the latter coincided with this inhibition. Poor inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis did not show the trailing phenomenon but did show a conventional MIC. The inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, unlike that of growth, was not subject to an inoculum effect. As others have found, ergosterol was unable to antagonize the effects of tioconazole on C. albicans and this was probably due to lack of uptake of this sterol. In contrast to C. albicans, the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus H, which lacks membrane sterols, showed no trailing endpoints with tioconazole after either shaken or static incubation.

nizoral generic name 2016-07-25

Mishra et al.(1) in their article "Interaction between domperidone and ketoconazole: toward prediction of consequent QTc prolongation using purely in vitro information" describe the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and pharmacodynamic models of Exelon Capsules cardiac repolarization to predict clinical data from preclinical data. Eliminating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias through delayed repolarization often relies on preclinical data during compound selection. Although there are some limitations, there appears to be significant promise in using this modeling approach.

nizoral 400 mg 2016-02-08

The bioassay was performed using 10 isolates of each of the 3 fungi Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and Candida albicans put to grow on human stratum corneum. Controls were stratum corneum either Daily Dose Brahmi untreated or enriched in propylene glycol contained in an unmedicated vehicle. Quantitative assessments were made using both Euclidean and fractal geometry parameters.

nizoral shampoo review 2017-07-16

A 46-year-old homosexual man with disseminated histoplasmosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection had a histoplasmosis-related ulcerated verrucous plaque above his left upper lip; systemic and cutaneous disease manifestations of histoplasmosis resolved with daily ketoconazole therapy. Disseminated histoplasmosis, with similar cutaneous features, also was present in his HIV-seropositive male sexual partner. The possibility of human-to-human transmission of histoplasmosis Motrin Ibuprofen Dosage between these patients is considered and the skin lesions of systemic fungal infections in HIV-infected patients are reviewed.

nizoral tab 2017-03-09

Chagas' disease, a protozoan infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. With the use of mouse models of both short- and long-term forms of the disease, the efficacy of D0870, a bis-triazole derivative, was tested. D0870 was able to prevent death and induced parasitological cure in 70 to 90 percent of animals, in both the short- and long-term disease. In contrast, currently used drugs such as nifurtimox or ketoconazole prolonged survival but did not induce significant curing effects. D0870 Periactin Cyproheptadine Tablets may be useful in the treatment of human long-term Chagas' disease, a condition that is currently incurable.

nizoral yeast review 2016-05-12

To compare the efficacy and safety of antiglucocorticoid agents in the treatment of mood episodes (manic, mixed affective or depressive) with placebo or alternative drug treatment in mood disorders Diflucan Liquid Suspension .

nizoral brand 2017-05-24

The anti-leishmanial activity of four imidazoles has been determined in Leishmania tropica-infected human monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. One of the imidazoles, hydrolyzed ketoconazole [cis-1-[4-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl] methoxyphenyl]piperazine], eliminated 80 and 95% of the parasites at drug concentrations (2.0 and 2.5 microgram/ml) that are achievable in vivo by a structurally similar compound, ketoconazole. These results demonstrate that an imidazole has anti-leishmanial activity in a model system, and suggests that hydrolyzed ketoconazole should Cozaar Generic Price be considered for in vivo trials in animal models of the disease.

nizoral t gel 2017-06-03

We report a case of Candida albicans meningitis in a male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This finding has seldom been reported, both in this group of patients and in those with other causes of immunosuppression or other underlying diseases. We discuss the clinical presentation and the features of cerebrospinal fluid, which showed only a mild inflammatory reaction as found in other fungal meningitis (basically cryptococcal) in AIDS patients. Finally, we emphasize the ineffectiveness of amphotericin therapy to achieve a complete microbiological cure and to prevent the relapse of meningitis in this patient. We also stress the need Zofran 4mg Dosage to make an early diagnosis in cases of fungal meningitis in patients with VIH infection, so that appropriate therapy is begun as soon as possible.

nizoral buy 2015-05-31

The authors report here higher throughput screening (HTS) assays for the evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and CYP3A4 induction in human hepatocytes using a novel CYP3A4 substrate, luciferin IPA (LIPA). Using human recombinant CYP450 isoforms, LIPA was found to be metabolized extensively by CYP3A4 but not by CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP2E1. In the 384-well plate CYP3A4 inhibition assay, the known inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and verapamil were found to cause extensive (maximum inhibition of >80%), dose-dependent, statistically significant inhibition of LIPA metabolism. The non-CYP3A4 inhibitors diethyldithiocarbamate, quercetin, quinidine, sulfaphenazole, ticlopidine, and tranylcypromine were found to have substantially lower (maximum inhibition of <50%) or no apparent inhibitory effects in the HTS assay. In the 96-well plate induction Evista Generic assay, the CYP3A4 inducers rifampin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone yielded dose-dependent induction of LIPA metabolism, whereas the CYP1A2 inducers omeprazole and 3-methylcholanthrene did not display any induction in the CYP3A4 activity. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assays, the relative ease of execution, and reduced cost, time, and test material requirements suggest that the HTS assays may be applied routinely for screening a large number of chemicals in the drug discovery phase for CYP3A4 inhibitory and inducing potential.

nizoral dosage 2015-07-02

To review the main pharmacological properties and clinical applications of the drugs used in the medical therapy of Cushing's syndrome.

nizoral london drugs 2015-08-29

Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of ketoconazole 2% shampoo versus selenium sulfide 2.5% shampoo and placebo shampoo in patients with moderate to severe dandruff.

nizoral 200mg tablets 2015-03-01

MIC assays with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, had been conducted with variable protocols, employing both macrodilution and microdilution tests and including differences in inoculum preparation, media used, incubation periods, and temperatures. Twenty-one clinical and environmental isolates of Paracoccidioides were tested using amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and terbinafine, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, document M27-A2, 2002), with modifications such as three medium formulations (RPMI 1640 medium, McVeigh and Morton [MVM] medium, and modified Mueller-Hinton [MMH] medium), two incubation temperatures (room temperature [25 to 28 °C] and 37 °C), and three incubation periods (7, 10, and 15 days). The antifungal activities were also classified as fungicidal or fungistatic. The best results were obtained after 15 days of incubation, which was chosen as the standard incubation time. The MICs for most individual isolates grown for the same length of time at the same temperature varied with the different media used (P < 0.05). Of the isolates, 81% showed transition from the yeast to the mycelial form in RPMI 1640 medium at 37 °C, independent of the presence of antifungals. MMH medium appears to be a suitable medium for susceptibility testing of antifungal drugs with P. brasiliensis, except for sulfamethoxazole and the combination of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, for which the MVM medium yielded better results. The incubation temperature influenced the MICs, with, in general, higher MICs at 25 °C (mycelial form) than at 37 °C (P < 0.05). Based on our results, we tentatively propose a microdilution assay protocol for susceptibility testing of antifungal drugs against Paracoccidioides.

nizoral pills medication 2017-12-26

Pityriasis amiantacea was first described in 1832. The disease may be secondary to any skin condition that primarily affects the scalp, including seborrheic dermatitis. Its pathogenesis remains uncertain. We aim to analyze the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with pityriasis amiantacea to better understand treatment responses. We identified seven cases of pityriasis amiantacea and a female predominance in a sample of 63 pediatric patients with seborrheic dermatitis followed for an average of 20.4 months. We reported a mean age of 5.9 years. Five patients were female, with a mean age of 9 years. All patients were successfully treated with topic ketoconazole.