noroxin drug interactions
Twenty-five out of 55 patients of enteric fever were documented as multidrug resistant enteric fever cases. In the resistant cases the drug sensitivity of salmonella species in vitro were mainly augmentin, ceftriaxone, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Sixteen patients were treated with ciprofloxacin and 9 were treated with norfloxacin for 14 days. Fever touched normal in 62.5% cases with ciprofloxacin and in 33.3% cases with norfloxacin by the 7th day. It became normal in 88% with ciprofloxacin and in 66% with norfloxacin by the 10th day and it became normal in 100% cases in each group by the 14th day. The newer 4-quinolones can be recommended in multidrug resistant enteric fever in adults.
noroxin tablets 400mg
The 84 patients who received antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole had a sevenfold greater frequency of C. krusei infection than the 335 patients who did not receive fluconazole (8.3 percent vs. 1.2 percent, P = 0.002), despite having a lower frequency of disseminated C. albicans and C. tropicalis infections (0 vs. 6.0 percent, P = 0.02). Ten of the 11 C. krusei infections were controlled by a combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine. Colonization by C. krusei was found in 40.5 percent of the patients who received fluconazole but in only 16.7 percent of those who did not receive it (P less than 0.0001). Colonization was independently associated with the prophylactic use of both fluconazole (odds ratio, 3.50; P less than 0.001) and norfloxacin (odds ratio, 2.53; P = 0.04). C. krusei was not susceptible to fluconazole in vitro.
During the 14-year study period, we identified 4148 admissions involving hyperkalemia, 371 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic exposure. Compared with amoxicillin, the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a nearly 7-fold increased risk of hyperkalemia-associated hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-10.0). No such risk was found with the use of comparator antibiotics.
The kinetics of pefloxacin has been studied after a single intravenous infusion of 8 mg X kg-1 in 15 male patients with various degrees of renal failure. No difference in distribution or elimination of the drug was observed between patients with mild or severe renal impairment. The mean volume of distribution (Vd area) and the mean plasma clearance were 2.03 l X kg-1 and 121.3 ml X min-1, respectively. The mean apparent elimination half-life was 13.5 h. These values are close to those observed in healthy subjects. No accumulation of the active N-desmethylmetabolite was observed in cases of severe failure as compared to mild impairment; its apparent elimination half-life was about twice that of the parent drug. The efficacy of a 4 haemodialysis in 6 additional anuric subjects done to remove pefloxacin from the body was poor.
The activity of lomefloxacin was compared to that of four other quinolones. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were similar to those of enoxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin against the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus faecalis. The activity of lomefloxacin was antagonized in urine at pH 5.4, but not in urine at pH 7.0. Higher inocula required higher lomefloxacin concentrations for inhibition. Lomefloxacin was more active at alkaline pH. At concentrations equal to or 2-fold the MIC, it was rapidly bactericidal against Gram-negative organisms and required a longer time for the reduction of inoculum by 99% and 99.9%. An "Eagle effect" was seen against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but not against P. aeruginosa.
This study was led in Franche-Comté, a French eastern region, where GPs were given a guideline recommending a restricted use of fluoroquinolones for urinary tract infections.
The role of phospholipid synthesis in peptidoglycan metabolism during growth of Escherichia coli was determined. The inhibition of phospholipid synthesis, achieved by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis with cerulenin or by glycerol deprivation of gpsA mutant strains, resulted in the concomitant inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis. These effects on peptidoglycan synthesis were relatively specific in that the treatments did not cause a general inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. Furthermore, the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis also resulted in the rapid development of penicillin tolerance. It was unlikely that penicillin tolerance in these cases were simply due to the inhibition of growth caused by cerulenin treatment or glycerol deprivation because treatments with more effective growth inhibitors, e.g. chloramphenicol or norfloxacin, did not confer penicillin tolerance. Penicillin tolerance was shown to be a direct consequence of the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis and not due to the possible accumulation of guanosine-3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), the starvation stress signal molecule known to be responsible for the development of penicillin tolerance in amino-acid-deprived bacteria. Therefore, peptidoglycan metabolism is coupled to phospholipid synthesis during growth of E. coli, and this may represent an important means to ensure the coordination of cell envelope synthesis in growing bacteria.
buy noroxin online
Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTI) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) both occur frequently in women. Although VVC is believed to commonly occur after antibiotic therapy, few studies have demonstrated this association. Thus, the aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. and VVC after norfloxacin (NOR) use for UTI and the effects on the vaginal microbiota and inflammatory process.
noroxin 400mg dosage
High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation has been investigated for the determination of intact norfloxacin in the presence of its photodegradation products. The HPLC-separation could be achieved isocratically and by gradient elution on a Micropak -NH2 column (10 microns, 30 cm x 4 mm O) using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, o-phosphoric acid and water at a rate of 2 ml.min-1 with UV-detection (278 nm) at ambient temperature. The method was applied for the drug analysis in fresh and photodegraded norfoxacin samples, as well as for assessment of the content uniformity of tablets containing the drug. The results of the proposed liquid chromatographic method were statistically matched with those obtained by adopting an official HPLC-method (USP XXII-procedure).
noroxin 400mg tablet
Paper-substrate delay fluorimetry (PS-DF) for three quinolones, i.e. Pefloxacin, Norfloxacin and Pepemidic acid, were given. Various factors affecting the PS-DF intensity of quinolones, including pH condition, drying time of sample etc., were studied in detail. The experiments showed that the PS-DF intensities of three quinolones in acidic solution were stronger than those in other conditions. The proper pH was 1.6. These quinolones have wide dynamic ranges, low limit of detection and relatively small standard deviations. The method was fast with, a small amount of sample and low cost. The recovery was 98.5%-104%. The determination results of the samples were satisfactory.
A simple and rapid electrochemical method is developed for the determination of trace-level norfloxacin, based on the excellent properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The MWCNTs/Nafion film-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is constructed and the electrochemical behavior of norfloxacin at the electrode is investigated in detail. The results indicate that MWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited efficiently electrocatalytic oxidation for norfloxacin (NFX) with relatively high sensitivity, stability and life time. Under conditions of cyclic voltammetry, the current for oxidation of selected analyte is enhanced significantly in comparison to the bare GCE. The electrocatalytic behavior is further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the analyte determinations by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under optimized condition in voltammetric method the concentration calibration range and detection limit (S/N=3) are 0.1-100 micromol/L and 5 x 10(-8)mol/L for NFX. The proposed method was successfully applied to NFX determination in tablets. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for detection of the analyte in urine as a real sample.
noroxin 500 mg
Fosfomycin tromethamine is an oral antimicrobial indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). This agent is active in the urine against common uropathogens that are associated with cystitis in women, including organisms resistant to other antibiotics. A single dose of fosfomycin tromethamine is well absorbed and produces a therapeutic concentration in the urine for one to three days. Comparative clinical trials suggest that a single 3.0-g dose of fosfomycin tromethamine is as clinically effective as 7- to 10-day treatment regimens of standard agents such as nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole used to treat UTIs. Fosfomycin tromethamine is well tolerated and appears safe for use during pregnancy. Quality-of-life advantages, such as enhanced compliance and convenience, are also important aspects of fosfomycin tromethamine therapy.
Sixteen pyridonecarboxylic acids, characterized by having a chlorine atom and a cyclopropyl group at the 6- and 1-position respectively, substituted amino groups at the 7-position, and some substituted groups (chloro, nitro, amino, dimethylamino) at the 8-position, were synthesized. In vitro antibacterial activities of these compounds were tested. The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were included for comparative purposes. The results showed that both 11 Ca and 11 Cc were 4-8 times more active than ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin against S. aureus-15 in vitro, but with the same activity as ciprofloxacin against E. coli-22 and P. aeruginosa-29.
noroxin with alcohol
We present three cases of norfloxacin deposits after treatment of bacterial keratitis.
The incidence and characteristics of major bacterial infections were studied prospectively in 50 consecutive adult patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT). All patients received the same protocol of immunosuppression, bowel decontamination, antibiotics prophylaxis, and follow-up. Thirty-two patients (64%) had at least one episode of major bacterial infection. One death was directly related to a bacterial infection, accounting for 13% of postoperative mortality. The most critical period for infection was the first 2 months after surgery, when 69% of the infections occurred. The most frequent clinical presentations were bacteremia, pneumonia and abdominal abscesses. Eighty percent of the bacteremias had an identifiable source, the most frequent being intravascular catheters. Gram-positive microorganisms (69%) predominated over gram-negative rods (26%) and anaerobes (5%). The use of selective bowel decontamination (SBD) with norfloxacin may explain this predominance. Major bacterial infections are an important source of morbidity and mortality after LT. Efforts to prevent these infections and to determine their source and specific treatment, will improve the management and the outcome of these patients in the future.
Thirty-seven adult patients with acute urinary tract infections (UTI) were randomized to receive either a seven day (lower UTI) or a 14 day (upper UTI) course of norfloxacin 400 mg orally twice daily, or nalidixic acid 1 g orally four times per day. Mean age, underlying disease and infecting organisms were similar in the two groups. Nine patients in the norfloxacin group and seven in the nalidixic acid group had presumptive evidence of upper UTI. Overall, 12 patients had antibody-coated bacteria-positive infections. The infecting organisms were: Escherichia coli (27), coagulase-negative staphylococci (four), Citrobacter freundii (three), Klebsiella pneumoniae (three), and Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter agglomerans, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis (one of each). All of the organisms were susceptible to norfloxacin, while 81% were susceptible to nalidixic acid. The effects on the periurethral and anal canal flora were similar in both groups. Five patients in each group experienced adverse clinical effects. The cure rates for norfloxacin and nalidixic acid were 79 and 83%, respectively. There were two failures, two relapses and four reinfections in the norfloxacin group. In the nalidixic acid group, there were two failures, one relapse and four reinfections. One of the failure patients in the nalidixic acid group developed resistance to the drug, and two of the four reinfections were due to organisms resistant to nalidixic acid. In this patient population it was concluded that nalidixic acid may be as effective as norfloxacin in the treatment of acute, symptomatic UTI.
noroxin 400mg tablets
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a highly invasive pathogen of swine that frequently causes serious outbreaks, in particular in Asia, and can also cause severe invasive disease in humans. In this study, 21 S. Choleraesuis isolates, detected from 21 patients with diarrhea in China between 2010 and 2011, were found to include 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates and two H2S-positive isolates. This is the first report of H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolated from humans. The majority of H2S-negative isolates exhibited high resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, ticarcillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but only six isolates were resistant to norfloxacin. In contrast, all of the isolates were sensitive to cephalosporins. Fifteen isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. In norfloxacin-resistant isolates, we detected mutations in the gyrA and parC genes and identified two new mutations in the parC gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis were employed to investigate the genetic relatedness of H2S-negative and H2S-positive S. Choleraesuis isolates. PFGE revealed two groups, with all 19 H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis isolates belonging to Group I and H2S-positive isolates belonging to Group II. By MLST analysis, the H2S-negative isolates were all found to belong to ST68 and H2S-positive isolates belong to ST145. By CRISPR analysis, no significant differences in CRISPR 1 were detected; however, one H2S-negative isolate was found to contain three new spacers in CRISPR 2. All 19 H2S-negative isolates also possessed a frame-shift mutation at position 760 of phsA gene compared with H2S-positive isolates, which may be responsible for the H2S-negative phenotype. Moreover, the 19 H2S-negative isolates have similar PFGE patterns and same mutation site in the phsA gene, these results indicated that these H2S-negative isolates may have been prevalent in China. These findings suggested that surveillance should be increased of H2S-negative S. Choleraesuis in China.
noroxin generic name
The novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction systems were established for lomefloxacin (LMFX), ofloxacin(OFLX), norfloxacin (NFLX), gatifloxacin (GAFX) and enoxacin (ENX). The sensitized CL emission mechanism was investigated for the five systems by comparing the fluorescence emission with CL spectra. For LMFX-Ce(IV)-S2O3(2-)-H2SO4 and OFLX-Ce(IV)-S2O4(2-)-H2SO4 systems, the CL intensity is enhanced through intermolecular energy transfer from the excited SO2* to LMFX and OFLX. For NFLX-Ce(IV)-S2O4(2-)-HNO3 system, the sensitized CL is based on intermolecular energy transfer from the excited SO2* to NFLX oxide. For Eu3+-GAFX-Ce(IV)-S2O4(2-)-HCl and Dy3+-ENX-Ce(IV)-S2O3(2-)-H2SO4 systems, the CL spectra are from the narrow characteristic emission at 590, 619 and 649 nm of Eu3+* (5D0-->7F1, 5D0-->7F2, 5D0-->7F3) and at 482 and 578 nm of Dy3+ (4F9-->6H15/2, 4F9-->6H13/2) through intermolecular energy transfer from the excited SO2* to GAFX and ENX, followed by intramolecular energy transfer from GAFX* to Eu3+ and ENX* to Dy3+. The conditions of CL emission were investigated and optimized. The proposed five enhanced CL systems have good linearity, higher sensitivity, precision and potential capability for residue analysis of studied analytes in foods and biological samples.
Widespread occurrence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) in surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment has been reported and their remediation is essentially needed. Sulfate radical (SO4(-)) based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) are promising technologies for soil and groundwater remediation. In this study, the degradation kinetics, mechanisms, and effects of natural water matrices on heat-activated persulfate (PS) oxidation of FQs were systematically investigated. Experimental results clearly demonstrated that 92% of CIP was removed within 180 min (pH = 7, 60 °C). Higher temperature and lower pH facilitated the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP). The piperazine moiety of CIP was identified as the reactive site for SO4(-) attack by comparison with substructural analogs, flumequine (FLU) and 1-(2-fluorophenyl) piperazine (FPP). A comparison of the degradation of CIP, norfloxacin (NOR), enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL) confirmed that the presence of cyclopropane ring also influence the degradation of FQs. Water matrix significantly influenced the degradation of CIP and ENR, and the degradation rate followed the order of Milli-Q water (pH = 7) > groundwater > artificial seawater > artificial surface water > lake water. Degradation products of CIP in different water matrix were enriched by solid phase extraction (SPE) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Detailed transformation pathways of CIP were proposed and were compared with respect to different water matrices. Four transformation pathways including stepwise piperazine ring oxidation, OH/F substitution, hydroxylation, and cyclopropane ring cleavage were proposed for CIP degradation. Results clearly show that the water matrix influenced the degradation of FQs appreciably, a phenomenon that should be taken into consideration when applying SR-AOPs for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by FQs.
noroxin norfloxacin generic
In the presence of 40% human serum plus polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, 10(7) cells/ml), changes in the surface properties of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were investigated by determining their serotypes and pyocin types as the markers. Furthermore, three isolates were tested for their susceptibility to anti-pseudomonal drugs and profiles of outer membrane proteins by the SDS-PAGE analysis. P. aeruginosa No. 21 which did not change in serotype and pyocin type after exposure to serum plus PMNs did not alter their susceptibility to all the drugs tested or their profiles of OMPs. In the case of P. aeruginosa No. 1-S, the variants with different serotypes were formed after the exposure, and increased their susceptibilities to some beta-lactams and norfloxacin which could penetrate into the bacterial cells through the porin channels of the outer membrane. Furthermore, two of the three type variants formed decreased their susceptibilities to gentamicin and polymyxin B which penetrated into the cells by the self-promoted uptake pathway. P. aeruginosa No. 1-R formed the serotype A and G variants with different pyocin types, only when exposed to serum plus PMNs for 24 hours, and the results were accompanied by the appearance of the porin D2 which was not detected in the parent cells. A small number of P. aeruginosa formed the variants with different serotypes and pyocin types owing to the alteration of their surface structures, when the cells were exposed to serum plus PMNs. The alterations were accompanied by the changes in some outer membrane proteins and the drug susceptibility to anti-pseudomonal drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
noroxin 400 dosage
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical presentation in patients with hospital admission owing to febrile infections after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies.
dosage of noroxin
In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.
noroxin tablets 800
Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequent causes of diarrhoea in humans worldwide mostly originating from poultry. It has been suggested that extensive veterinary use of antibiotics is largely responsible for resistance in human isolates. During a 4-month period from January to April 2004, 192 Campylobacter spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 485 healthy food animals. The in vitro susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Among the 192 Campylobacter spp. isolated, 135 (70.3%) were identified to be C. jejuni, 51 (26.6%) were C. coli and 6 (3.1%) were C. lari. C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in chickens (80.8%) versus 16.2% C. coli and 3.0% C. lari. All isolates found in pigs were C. coli. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and all were resistant to cephalothin. More than 90% of the strains were sensitive to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Resistance was found against ampicillin in 20% and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in 37.5%. Resistance was not statistically different among C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari (p>0.05). Multidrug resistance to two or more drugs was detected in 14.5% of strains. In conclusion, the study showed that antimicrobial resistance is found only at relatively low frequencies for most antimicrobial agents tested except for ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The low percentages of resistance to most antimicrobial agents tested in this study may be the result of low/no usage of these agents as a growth promoters or treatment in the Ethiopian animal farm setting. The detection of multidrug resistant isolates may pose a threat to humans and further limits therapeutic options.
Over a period of 10 years the information/education method described here has proven sustainable and feasible in terms of providing the information, regarding participation of the target group GPs in the oral sessions, and regarding integration of the service into the existing health care system.
The fluorescence quenching of norfloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin, belonging to a group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO was studied in aqueous solutions with the use of steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy methods. In order to understand the mechanism of quenching the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of all fluoroquinolone antibiotics studied as well as decreases of their fluorescence were registered as a function of the 4-hydroxy-TEMPO concentration. No deviations from a linearity in the Stern-Volmer plots (determined from both, steady-state and time-resolved measurements) were observed. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was proved to be totally dynamic, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at 5 temperatures ranging from 15 to 55°C. On the basis of theoretical calculations of fluoroquinolones' molecular radii and ionization potentials the mechanism of electron transfer was rejected. It seems that the fluorescence quenching is diffusion-limited and is caused by the increase of nonradiative processes, such as internal conversion or intersystem crossing. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching constants were determined at the room temperature for all fluoroquinolone antibiotics studied.
noroxin renal dosing
We report herein the synthesis of some N-Mannich bases in addition to different N-4 substituents of norfloxacin. The antibacterial activities of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated and correlated with their physicochemical properties. Results revealed that some of the tested compounds exhibited better inhibitory activities than the reference antibiotic norfloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Correlation results showed that there is no single physicochemical parameter that can determine the effect of N-4 piperazinyl group on the activity of these fluoroquinolones, where lipophilicity, molecular mass and electronic factors may influence the activity.
Data were obtained from a multicentre study. A clean-voided midstream urine culture was collected from 636 women with diabetes, who were between 18 and 75-years-old, attended an out-patient department and had no symptoms of a urinary tract infection. The resistance of E. coli was determined for different antimicrobials. The results were compared with resistance data from routine isolates of E. coli, obtained from women in the same age category, time period and location.
noroxin medication guide
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the key etiological factors of hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections. MRSA strains have an ability of causing a broad spectrum infections: from a relatively mild skin infections to severe life-threatening systemic infections. They are characterized by multi-drug resistance, virulence of a number of factors, may clonally spread within the hospitals and between hospitals.
noroxin brand name
Fifty strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli were detected in 108 specimens of chicken meat and organs sampled at six supermarkets and one poultry slaughterhouse (large scale) between April and October 2013 (isolation rates: 84.8% from the slaughterhouse, 29.3% from the supermarkets). 46/50 strains were successfully recovered and subjected to the E-test to examine their susceptibility to three fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents authorized for use in poultry in Japan: enrofloxacin (ERFX), ofloxacin (OFLX), and norfloxacin (NLFX). 29 isolates (63%) were resistant to all three agents and 2 isolates (4.3%) were resistant to two agents (ERFX and OFLX). The resistance rates of strains isolated fom the supermarkets and slaughterhouse were 61.9% and 72.0%, respectively. Because the chickens processed at the slaughterhouse were raised without the use of fluoroquinolone, the results did not suggest a positive relationship between the use of these agents and the distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin [EM]) was also tested in 42 strains, and one strain (2.4%), C. coli from a retailer sample, showed resistance. Previous studies have detected high rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, suggesting an expanding distribution of resistant bacteria. The detection of EM-resistant bacteria downstream in the food distribution chain (i.e., closer to consumers) is a concern for human health.