We hypothesized that rhythms in hypothalamic serotonergic activity were permissive to daily and estrous cycle-related rhythms of LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL). In the Syrian hamster, proestrus (PRO) is characterized by a surge of LH, FSH and PRL; diestrus (DIE) by low LH and FSH and a small surge of PRL, while in photoperiod-induced anestrous (PIA) animals there is a surge of LH and FSH and low PRL. Turnover rates of serotonin (5HT) in four brain areas were determined for the three reproductive states at 2-h intervals. Turnover in the preoptic area and arcuate nuclei did not change, indicating that 5HT projections to these regions probably do not control LH, FSH or PRL release. Serotonin turnover in the median eminence (ME) was elevated at 0600 h in PIA females, at 0600 h, 0800 h, and 1400 h on DIE and at 0600 h and 2200 h on PRO. Since the pattern of 5HT turnover in the ME is different during each of the three reproductive states, 5HT in this area is likely not crucial to the control of LH, FSH and PRL. Turnover of 5HT also did not change in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of PRO or PIA animals. However, 5HT turnover rates in the SCN were elevated at 1200 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h on DIE. The correlation of high 5HT turnover in the SCN of DIE but not PRO and PIA animals suggested that elevated serotonergic activity in the SCN is part of the mechanism by which the gonadotropin surge is prevented on DIE. To test this, PRO and DIE hamsters were injected with 5HT receptor ligands. Administration of a 5HT agonist attenuated the PRO surge of LH and blocked the surge of PRL. In contrast, administration of two 5HT antagonists failed to elicit a surge of LH in DIE and phenobarbital-blocked PRO females, an indication that other mechanisms also contribute to inhibition of gonadotropin and PRL surges.
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The effects of p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, cyproheptadine, a serotonin, bradykinin and histamine antagonist, were assessed separately and in combination with chloroquine (CQ) in Vom strains of Swiss albino mice (18-22 g) of either sex infected intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(7) Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-induced malaria. As prophylactic, these agents reduced from 31.9 +/- 4.5 to 16.1 +/- 8.1% the level of parasitemia relative to control but had no appreciable activity as curative agents when administered subcutaneously once daily for 4 days after 72 h of parasites innoculum in vivo. However, CQ alone and the combination of these agents with CQ in curative and prophylactic treatments significantly reduced (from 50.3 +/- 5.8 to 4.9 +/- 0.75%) the level of parasitemia (P < 0.05), which was taken only once 72 h after the parasites innoculum. The prophylactic result was shown to produce better results than the curative treatment. The data indicate that inhibitors and an antagonist can reduce the parasitemia load (the extent of damage and the severity of infection) as well as enhance the effects of CQ when combined with it for malaria therapy. The study reveals that the production of autacoids in established infection renders autacoid inhibitors and an antagonist ineffective for radical cure in malarial mice; however, selective inhibition of local hormones implicated in the pathological manifestations of malaria infection by autacoid inhibitors and an antagonist may be a possible pathway to reduce the severity of infection and the associated tissue damage and to enhance the efficacy of available anti-malarials.
We conclude that methotrexate is effective in the treatment of autoimmune urticaria.
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Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of epilepsy, pain and inflammations. Anticonvulsant activity was investigated using picrotoxin (PTX), strychnine (SCN), isoniazid (INZ), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid NMDA models of convulsion. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinone. Oral administration of Ficus sur, 1 h before intraperitoneal injection of chemical convulsants significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the onset and prolonged the duration of convulsions in PTX, SCN, INZ, PTZ and NMDA-induced seizures. However, the anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Ficus sur was significantly reversed following intraperitoneal pre-treatment with flumazenil (GABA receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and L-NNA (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) in picrotoxin-induced convulsion. The data obtained suggest that ethanol extract of Ficus sur possessed significant anticonvulsant effect, thereby confirming the traditional uses of Ficus sur in the treatment of epilepsies; mechanisms of which could involve interaction with GABAergic, glycinergic, serotonergic and glutaminergic system barks.
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1. Current and voltage recordings were made from antidromically identified motoneurones (MNs) in transverse thoracolumbar spinal cord slices of neonatal rats. 2. Applied by superfusion (10-100 microM) or pressure ejection, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) elicited a slow depolarization (or inward current) in 81% and a hyperpolarization (or outward current) in 9% of responsive MNs; the responses persisted in a low-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ or tetrodotoxin (TTX)-containing solution. 3. 5-HT induced the occurrence in some MNs of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), which were reversibly eliminated by TTX, low-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ solution or by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Also, kynurenic acid and strychnine abolished, respectively, the 5-HT-induced EPSPs and IPSPs. 4. The 5-HT depolarization was associated with increased membrane resistance, was reduced by hyperpolarization and nullified near -100 mV. The extrapolated reversal potential was shifted to a positive direction in elevated [K+]o. 5. The depolarizing response was mimicked by the 5-HT2 receptor agonist (+2-)-1(2,5-dimethyoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) and blocked by 5-HT antagonists methysergide and cyproheptadine and by 5-HT2 antagonists ketanserin and spiperone; methiothepin and MDL 72222 were without effect. 6. The 5-HT hyperpolarization was associated with decreased membrane resistance. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) mimicked the hyperpolarizing response. 7. Single or repetitive (10-30 Hz) electrical stimuli elicited in about 30% of MNs, in addition to a fast EPSP, a slow EPSP with electrophysiological characteristics similar to that of 5-HT induced depolarization. Methysergide and spiperone abolished the slow EPSPs evoked in some of these MNs. 8. It is suggested that 5-HT, acting on 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A receptors, depolarizes and hyperpolarizes the MNs by decreasing and increasing K+ conductance. Additionally, 5-HT activates, via 5-HT2 receptors, excitatory and inhibitory interneurones, thereby indirectly affecting the activity of MNs. More importantly, 5-HT released from intraspinal nerves appears to be the mediator of a slow EPSP in a population of MNs.
Interactions of combined antidepressants which occur in man were reproduced in rats pretreated with phenelzine, features elicited including myoclonic phenomena, an augmented lower limb flexor reflex, muscle fasiculation and fatalities, particularly with combinations incorporating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitors. Combinations of antidepressants included phenelzine with 5-HT re-uptake inhibitors (paroxetine, fluoxetine, clomipramine); with "mixed" re-uptake inhibitors affecting 5-HT and noradrenaline (imipramine, amitriptyline); with noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (desipramine, maprotiline, nisoxetine) and with dopamine re-uptake inhibitors (benztropine, nomifensine). Myoclonic phenomena such as forelimb flexor-extensor movements, head and body twitches, occurred in phenelzine pretreated rats after paroxetine, fluoxetine, clomipramine, imipramine, amitriptyline and desipramine. Wet dog shakes, the most intense phenomenon, were obtained only after paroxetine, fluoxetine, clomipramine and imipramine. Myoclonic features were prevented when pretreatment included p-chlorophenylalanine but were unaffected when this incorporated alpha-methyl-p-tyyrosine; there were attenuated by methysergide, cyproheptadine, clozapine or pimozide. The myoclonic phenomena were reproduced by combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan but not L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine with clomipramine. Electrocortical changes observed included 2-4 Hz, 5-8 Hz, large amplitude potentials unrelated to the myoclonic incidents and unaffected by sensory stimulation. Following phenelzine, brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) A inhibition was 99% and that of MAO B, 88%; 5-HT concentration was significantly elevated in the cortex and hypothalamus, as was hypothalamic noradrenaline. Peak and basal tensions of a lower-limb flexor reflex were elevated in phenelzine pretreated spinal rats by fluoxetine, paroxetine, clomipramine and imipramine, effects attenuated by cyproheptadine. Forelimb flexor-extensor movements and body twitches were elicited by fluoxetine and paroxetine in phenelzine pretreated spinal rats in the presence of electrical stimulation of the central stump of a divided posterior tibial nerve. Pressor responses were observed in phenelzine pretreated spinal rats given 5-HT re-uptake inhibitors, "mixed" re-uptake inhibitors and those affecting noradrenaline re-uptake; ECG anomalies occurred in such rats given clomipramine.
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Loratadine, given as an adjunct to standard asthma therapy, has little if any role to play in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma.
The reaction of a patch test is not hampered by doubling dose of desloratadine. The anti-inflammatory effects of desloratadine on patch test reaction may be limited.
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This study was undertaken to assess the effects of coadministration of desloratadine or fexofenadine with azithromycin on pharmacokinetic parameters, tolerability, and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings.
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This study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating the pharmaceutical and chemical equivalence of some commercially available loratadine tablets, and offers a possible explanation for the therapeutic failure of the drug products.
The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions.
Data from a national pharmacy benefit management organization covering lives throughout the United States were used. The analysis included a comparison of the before and after change in prescription utilization and cost for plan sponsors that instituted 1 of 3 second-generation antihistamine (SGA) benefit responses: made no change, moved SGAs to the third tier, or restricted SGA benefits through a requirement for prior authorization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to control for differences across the study groups.
A total of 351 patients were enrolled into this 4-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel group study. Patients received either TAA aqueous nasal spray (220 microg) or loratadine (10 mg) once daily. Efficacy variables were rhinitis symptom changes from baseline, physician global evaluations, and the patient dropout rate due to insufficient treatment effect. Safety and quality of life also was evaluated.
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Histamine and leukotrienes act to exert numerous local and systemic effects that contribute to the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the nasal decongestant effects of loratadine and montelukast alone and in combination in a feline model of nasal congestion. We also studied the decongestant actions of the alpha-agonist adrenergic agonist D-pseudoephedrine with and without desloratadine.
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A case of disseminated cryptococcosis with oral, pulmonary, and cutaneous manifestations is described in an eleven-year-old Siamese cat. Marked clinical improvement was noted 2-months following appropriate antifungal therapy. A review of disseminated cryptococcosis and the oral manifestations of fungal disease are provided.
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The availability of human corticotropic hormone, together with sensitive methods of measuring ACTH and cortisol have recently made possible studies on the mode of secretion of these hormones, secreted episodically and parallel in man, and exogenous factors modulating their liberation. Time of day, meals, physical activity and stress, lack of sleep and REM sleep all have an influence on the daily rhythm of their secretion. Phenytoin, ketoconazole, and cyproterone acetat modify the secretion of cortisol; opiates and diazepam inhibit that of ACTH. The liberation of CRH and ACTH is stimulated by the appetite suppressant, serotonin, and inhibited by the appetite-stimulating antagonist cyproheptadine and by glucocorticoids.
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Citalopram increased plasma PRL and cortisol in a dose-related manner. Cyproheptadine lowered baseline PRL and cortisol but did not attenuate the endocrine responses to citalopram. Citalopram infusions were well-tolerated.
The effects on body temperature of intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal sodium salicylate were evaluated in anesthetized and nonanesthetized, nonrestrained rats. Also, the effects of various neurotransmitter receptor blocking drugs were evaluated on salicylate-induced hypothermia of nonanesthetized animals. Sodium salicylate, 150-350 mg/kg induced a dose-related hypothermia of unanesthetized animals. However, in anesthetized animals, marked hyperthermia was observed. In unanesthetized, unrestrained rats, intracerebroventricular administration of 1.0 mg/h salicylate caused greater hypothermia than peripheral administration of salicylate, 350 mg/kg. Salicylate hypothermia was unaffected by para-chlorophenylalanine, cyproheptadine, or naloxone, and was only partially inhibited by pimozide. These results strongly suggest a potent direct action of salicylate within the central nervous system to induce hypothermia, and suggest possible involvement of dopaminergic neurons in this process.
Various in vitro models have been developed to study ischemia and/or hypoxia. In the present experiment, we examined whether hypoxia/hypoglycemia (ischemia) in rat hippocampal slices reduced the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake and CA1 field potentials evoked by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals. Autoradiograms revealed that ischemia for 15 or 20 min reduced 2-DG uptake in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 and the dentate gyrus. Similarly, the CA1 field potentials of slices exposed to ischemia for 15 and 20 min decreased by about 70 and 90% after a 6-h washout. In the second experiment, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and buspirone, and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists cyproheptadine, mianserin and ketanserin on deficits of 2-DG uptake and Schaffer-CA1 field potentials induced by ischemia. The 5-HT1A receptor agonists and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists exhibited significant neuroprotective actions against ischemia-induced deficits. Therefore, impairments of 2-DG uptake and CA1 field potentials induced by ischemia may be good markers of ischemia-induced functional deficits. The attenuating action of 5-HT1A receptor agonists and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists were assessed using this model of ischemia.
Superfusion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro produced dose (0.01-1.00 microM) dependent potentiation of monosynaptic reflex (MSR) which was maximum (44% of control) at 1 microM of TRH. But no ventral root depolarization was observed with TRH (1 microM) although potassium concentration out side ([K+]0) when increased produced a depolarization at the magnitude of 0.2 mV/mM of [K+]0. TRH-induced potentiation of MSR was not altered in spinal cords, obtained from the animals pretreated with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine or 6-hydroxydopamine. Neither serotonin antagonists (spiperone, ketanserin, cyproheptadine or 3-troponyl-indole-3-carboxylate) nor adrenergic antagonists (phentolamine or haloperidol) could attenuate TRH-induced potentiation. Inhibition of MSR observed in the spinal cord elicited by stimulating the adjacent dorsal root was unaffected by TRH. The results suggest that, TRH potentiates MSR by directly acting on the motoneurons, without involving presynaptic serotonergic or catecholaminergic neuronal systems or the disinhibition of pre- or post-synaptic inhibition in the spinal cord.
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Serum PRL, TSH, T3 and T4 were estimated in the basal state and following iv bolus injection of 100 micrograms synthetic thyrotropin releasing hormone before and 7 days after cyproheptadine treatment in 5 healthy adult males. Only the PRL response to TRH was augmented after cyproheptadine. This is perhaps related to the antidopaminergic effect of cyproheptadine.
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When compared with desloratadine and placebo, Ze 339 shows better efficacy in relieving nasal obstruction symptoms and inhibiting critical components of the chemokine network and as such represents a novel symptomatic and possible prophylactic treatment for allergic rhinitis.
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C-fiber reflex were recorded from an ipsilateral S1 ventral root in the acute decerebrate spinal (T10) cat after stimulation of the superficial peroneal nerve. L-Tryptophan, infused in a dose of 150 mg/kg, increased the C-fiber reflex to 210% (S.E.M. +/- 30.1%) of control. This effect was antagonized by cyproheptadine, 0.5 mg/kg. L-Tryptophan increased the C-fiber reflex to 176% (S.E.M. +/- 13.0%) of control after p-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment. Pretreatment of the cats with the decarboxylase inhibitor alpha-methyldopa, 100 mg/kg, 30 minutes before infusion, antagonized the facilitatory effects of L-Tryptophan. L-Tryptophan, 150 mg/kg, had no effect on the monosynaptic or short latency polysynaptic reflexes. 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 20 mg/kg, had erratic effects on the C-fiber reflex producing both facilitation and depression which were not statistically significant. The recovery of tryptamine from brain perfusates, after perfusion of the anterior cerebellum and pons, with a modified Gaddum push-pull cannula, decreased across time. L-Tryptophan caused a slight increase in tryptamine release which was not statistically significant, whereas in cats pretreated with p-chlorophenyl alanine, a significant increase in tryptamine release was seen.
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The present study was performed to determine whether pharmacological blockade of serotonin receptors would counteract digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. The effect of the serotonin receptor blocking drugs, methysergide, cinansersin, and cyproheptadine on ventricular arrhythmias produced by ouabain was studied in anesthetized dogs. Each of the three serotonin receptor blocking drugs given as a bolus i.v. injection of 1.5--3.0 mg/kg produced an antiarrhythmic effect. In addition, methysergide administered in the above doses to cats intoxicated with deslanoside, restored an abnormal ventricular arrhythmia to either sinus or junctional rhythm. Methysergide, administered to cats intoxicated with deslanoside but pretreated with p-chlorophenylalanine, exerted an antiarrhythmic effect in less than half of the animals tested. These data indicate that serotonin antagonists are effective in counteracting digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias and support the notion that a serotonergic mechanism may be mediating the arrhythmogenic effect of digitalis.
We report the case of a patient who developed jaundice after receiving cyproheptadine for 29 days. Complete recovery occurred within 3 months after cyproheptadine withdrawal. Analysis of 3 previously reported cases and this observation shows that cyproheptadine-induced hepatitis is uncommon. Hepatitis occurs within the first month of treatment and is of the cytolytic or mixed-pattern type. Jaundice is constant. Most often, recovery occurs quickly after the discontinuation of cyproheptadine. However, acute hepatitis can be followed by prolonged anicteric cholestasis.
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Articles and abstracts pertaining to desloratadine were considered for inclusion, with emphasis on randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials.
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Headshaking is a maturity onset condition with the most commonly reported clinical signs being 'flipping' of the nose, nose rubbing, snorting or sneezing, and acting like a bee is flying up the nostril. A questionnaire was completed by owners of 31 horses with headshaking syndrome. The history, time of onset, clinical presentation and treatment of this condition were reported. Headshaking appeared to be light-stimulated in approximately 60% of the horses. The condition is seasonal and recurring in the majority of horses. Treatment with cyproheptadine produced improvement of symptoms in 76% of cases. The clinical signs are suggested to be compatible with neuropathic pain producing itching, tingling or electric like sensations in the face and muzzle area of affected horses.
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To perform a critical evaluation of the more recent H1 antihistamines and the various terms used to describe them, based on a review of evidence on their role in the treatment of allergic disorders.
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The present study aims to investigate the effects of prednisolone on the pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered loratadine in rats. A single dose of loratadine was administered orally (4 mg/kg) and intravenously (1 mg/kg) in the presence or absence of prednisolone (0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg). Compared to the oral control group, prednisolone (0.2 mg/kg, p < 0.05; 0.8 mg/kg, p < 0.01) significantly increased the area under the plasma concentrationtime curve of orally administered loratadine by 54.0-96.4%. After oral administration, the peak plasma concentration of loratadine was significantly (0.2 mg/kg, p < 0.05; 0.8 mg/kg, p < 0.01) increased by 20.9-65.3% in the presence of prednisolone. Consequently, the relative bioavailability of loratadine was increased by 1.54- to 1.96-fold. Compared to the intravenous control group, the presence of prednisolone significantly (0.8 mg/kg, p < 0.05) increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of loratadine. Prednisolone enhanced the oral bioavailability of loratadine in this study. The enhanced bioavailability of loratadine may be due to inhibition both cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated metabolism and the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestine and/or liver by the presence of prednisolone.