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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)
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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen

 

Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

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The KCNE proteins (KCNE1 through KCNE5) function as beta-subunits of several voltage-gated K(+) channels. Assembly of KCNQ1 K(+) channel alpha-subunits and KCNE1 underlies cardiac I(Ks), while KCNQ1 interacts with all other members of KCNE forming complexes with different properties. Here we investigated synergic actions of KCNE1 and KCNE2 on functional properties of KCNQ1 heterologously expressed in COS7 cells. Patch-clamp recordings from cells expressing KCNQ1 and KCNE1 exhibited the slowly activating current, while co-expression of KCNQ1 with KCNE2 produced a practically time-independent current. When KCNQ1 was co-expressed with both of KCNE1 and KCNE2, the membrane current exhibited a voltage- and time-dependent current whose characteristics differed substantially from those of the KCNQ1/KCNE1 current. The KCNQ1/KCNE1/KCNE2 current had a more depolarized activation voltage, a faster deactivation kinetics, and a less sensitivity to activation by mefenamic acid. These results suggest that KCNE2 can functionally couple to KCNQ1 even in the presence of KCNE1.

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We could demonstrate no significant pre-emptive analgesic effect with ropivacaine in adults undergoing tonsillectomy in our study. One can, however, recommend the administration of ropivacaine post-operatively after tonsillectomy, since a reduction of pain scores can thereby be achieved. For post-operative analgesia we recommend the combination of a non-opioid analgesic with a weak opioid.

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Boceprevir (SCH 503034), a protease inhibitor, is under clinical development for the treatment of human hepatitis C virus infections. In human liver microsomes, formation of oxidative metabolites after incubations with [(14)C]boceprevir was catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. In addition, the highest turnover was observed in recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. After a single radiolabeled dose to human, boceprevir was subjected to two distinct pathways, namely cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation and ketone reduction. Therefore, attempts were made to identify the enzymes responsible for the formation of carbonyl-reduced metabolites. Human liver S9 and cytosol converted ∼ 28 and ∼ 68% of boceprevir to M28, respectively, in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. Screening of boceprevir with recombinant human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) revealed that AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 exhibited catalytic activity with respect to the formation of M+2 metabolites (M28 and M31). The formation of M28 was inhibited by 100 μM flufenamic acid (80.3%), 200 μM mefenamic acid (83.7%), and 100 μM phenolphthalein (86.1%), known inhibitors of AKRs, suggesting its formation through carbonyl reduction pathway. Formation of M28 was also inhibited by 100 μM diazepam (75.1%), 1 mM ibuprofen (70%), and 200 μM diflunisal (89.4%). These data demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are primarily responsible for the formation of oxidative metabolites and the formation of M28 and M31, the keto-reduced metabolites, are most likely mediated by AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Because the biotransformation and clearance of boceprevir involves two different enzymatic pathways, boceprevir is less likely to be a victim of significant drug-drug interaction with concomitant medication affecting either of these pathways.

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A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the above-mentioned drugs in small samples of human plasma (0.25 mL). After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, satisfactory separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 m) using a mobile phase comprising 20 mmol/L ammonium phosphate buffer (pH = 3) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 35:65, vol/vol; the elution was isocratic at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The UV detector was set at 265 nm.

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The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various solutions can be envisioned. With results of the present study, hospital managers can start handling this important issue.

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) are analgesic, antipyretic, and, as their name implies, anti-inflammatory drugs, which are widely used for the treatment of a variety of human and veterinary disease conditions in which control of pain and inflammation is desired. Acetaminophen (ACE) is a common over-the-counter analgesic. Detection of a variety of widely used NSAIDs and ACE in fluid and tissue samples is an important diagnostic tool. A sensitive and selective analytical method has been developed for simultaneous screening of 12 NSAIDs and ACE by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface set to operate in the negative ion mode of MS. Following sample preparation, all analytes were separated on a C18-reversed-phase column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and acetic acid. Full-scan mass spectral fragmentation profiles were established for each analyte and individual extracted ion chromatograms were used for quantitation. Linearity of detection was observed over the 0.05-25.0 microg/mL range of standard concentrations. The instrument limits of detection (LOD), based on an individual analyte quantitation ions, fell between 0.05 and 1.0 microg/mL for all compounds. The matrix LODs were determined to be 0.05 microg/mL for phenylbutazone (m/z 307); 0.1 microg/mL for indomethacin (m/z 312), flunixin (m/z 295), and piroxicam (m/z 330); 0.5 microg/mL for ACE (m/z 150), diclofenac (m/z 250), ketoprofen (m/z 209), and mefenamic acid (m/z 240); 1.0 microg/mL for oxyphenbutazone (m/z 323); 5.0 microg/mL for ibuprofen (m/z 205), salicylic acid (m/z 137), and tolmetin (m/z 212); and 10 microg/mL for naproxen (m/z 185).

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Prostaglandin levels in the human endometrium were determined on day 2 of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic subjects and in patients with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, or both. Menorrhagic subjects had significantly higher levels of endometrial prostaglandins of the E and F series when compared with eumenorrheics. Prostaglandin E levels were markedly higher than prostaglandin F. In 10 menorrhagic subjects who completed a double-blind clinical study on the effectiveness of mefenamic acid in lowering menstrual blood loss, 9 exhibited statistically significant reduction in endometrial prostaglandin levels. A decrease in menstrual blood loss was also noted during mefenamic acid treatment in these patients. These findings are consistent with the concept that abnormally high uterine prostaglandin levels may be an important etiologic factor in menorrhagia and support the notion that one of the mechanisms of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of this menstrual disorder is inhibition of endometrial prostaglandin production.

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Day-case center in a tertiary care hospital in India.

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To determine whether an educational package could influence the management of menorrhagia, increase the appropriateness of choice of non-hormonal treatment, and reduce referral rates from primary to secondary care.

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To determine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ibuprofen compared to placebo/no intervention or other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor drugs (indomethacin, mefenamic acid, etc) in the prevention of PDA in preterm infants.

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To study drug-associated admission to a district hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with regard to pattern, demographic characteristics of patients and outcome.

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The solid dispersions were prepared by cryogenic grinding method. Powder X-ray diffractometry, in vitro dissolution test, in vivo oral absorption study, infrared spectroscopy, and solid- and solution-state NMR spectroscopies were used to characterize the solid dispersions.

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Sixty patients with primary dismenorrhea were treated: 20 with nimesulide, 20 with fentiazac and 20 with mefenamic acid during three consecutive cycles under double blind design. The doses used in each group were: nimesulide or fentiazac 100 mg, every 12 hrs., mefenamic acid 500 mg. every 8 hrs. in all cases during 5 days, beginning a day before the beginning, of the menstruation. The pain evolution and the symptoms were evaluated three times a day using a scale from 0 to 10, so measure its intensity. Concluding, the nimesulide is useful in the treatment of pain associated with primary dismenorrhea, answering with little statistical advantage over the fentiazac and with bigger statistical advantage over the mefenamic acid. The tolerance was excellent with the three drugs studied.

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Mefenamic acid is an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent. In addition induces several hematological disturbances. Present study was conducted to determine the alterations in blood PCV of the lizard Uromastix hardwickii after the administration of 7.1 mg/ml; 10.5 mg/ml and 14.0 mg/ml mefenamic acid per individual per day for 12 days to 3 test groups. The mean values of PCV were 15.5+/-0.81%, 14.5+/-0.25% and 12.0+/-0.25% for 3 test groups respectively in comparison to 23.5+/-0.40% for control. Thus a significant dose dependant reduction in mean PCV per cent following the administration of mefenamic acid for 12 days indicates the extra vascular hemolysis due to destructive change in the red cell membrane through autoantibody mechanism.

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NSAIDs reduce heavy menstrual bleeding when compared with placebo but are less effective than either tranexamic acid or danazol. However, adverse events are more severe with danazol therapy. In the limited number of small scale studies suitable for evaluation, no significant difference in efficacy was demonstrated between NSAIDs and other medical treatments such as oral progestogen given in the luteal phase, ethamsylate, oral contraceptive pill and the progesterone releasing IUS.

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34 women with recurrent primary dysmenorrhea were given prescriptions for mefenamic acid and told to use it as needed for pain and cramps. 85% felt the dysmenorrhea had improved and 15 of the women said it was completely controlled. Virtually all felt it more effective than aspirin and 13 of 18 who could make a comparison considered it more effective than propoxyphene. There were 3instances of nausea or vomiting and 1 of sleepiness. A double-blind study is now underway.

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Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86566246.

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In order to determine the role of peripheral prostanoids in a newly developed mechanical visceral pain model, several NSAIDs were studied. Systemic acetylsalicylic acid and mefenamic acid, in doses known to produce cyclooxygenase inhibition, produced limited or no analgesia using a duodenal distension model and a behavioral scale for assessment. In contrast, indomethacin at 1 mg/kg, a dose 1/100th of the highest dose of the above compounds, had a marked analgesic effect in the visceral pain model (32% of control response). These data suggest that a duodenal distension stimulus does not have a peripheral prostaglandin E2-mediated nociceptive mechanism. Furthermore, the results obtained with indomethacin support an alternate, possibly central nonprostanoid visceral antinociceptive action.

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The formation and high stability of the supersaturated solution were attributable to the specifically formed intermolecular interactions between MFA and EPO.

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The effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on melatonin secretion and norepinephrine (NE) and release in rat pineal gland were examined in vitro. To study melatonin secretion, pineal explants were incubated for 6 h in tissue culture 199 medium with 1-1000 nM PGE1, PGE2, or PGF2 alpha. melatonin concentration in pineal glands and media was determined by RIA, PGE2 increased pineal and medium melatonin at all concentrations tested, with a maximum of 1 nM; PGE1 was effective only at concentrations 100-1000 times greater, whereas 100 nM PGF2 alpha gland. Exposure of pineal explants to 10 microM NE brought about a 20-fold increase in melatonin release to the medium. This effect was impaired significantly, but not blocked, by prior exposure to indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid, or mefenamic acid at supramaximal concentrations to inhibit PG synthesis (100 microM). To examine the effects of PGs on NE release, endogenous NE stores in pineal nerve endings were labeled in vitro by incubating rat pineals with [3H]NE for 30 min. Fifty minutes later, at the time when spontaneous radioactivity efflux had leveled off, transmitter release was elicited by a 1-min exposure to 80 mM K+ (S1), and the stimulus was repeated 35 min later (S2). PGs (10-100 nM) were added to the medium 20 min before S2. Ratios between fractional release of the two consecutive stimulations (S2/S1) varied between 0.84 and 1.16 in control pineals. Only 100 nM PGE2 impaired significantly transmitter release by 40%. These results suggest that PGE2 can play a role in NE-stimulated melatonin synthesis. At greater concentrations PGE2 inhibits NE release from pineal nerve endings.

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In the carrageenin-induced edema test in rats, the anti-inflammatory activity of SL-573 was 1.6 times as potent as those of phenylbutazone (PB) and ibuprofen (IP), 3.3 times as potent as that of mefenamic acid (MF) and 6.7 times as potent as that of mepirizole (MP). In the yeast-induced edema test in rats, SL-573 showed equipotent activity with IP, the activity of which was 4 times as potent as that of MP. In the dextran-induced edema test in rats, the anti-inflammatory activity of SL-573 was significantly higher than those of IP and MP. SL-573 showed no anti-inflammatory activity in the formalin-induced edema test in rats in the same way as seen with IP and MP. SL-573 markedly inhibited the increase in capillary permeability in mice induced by intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid, and its activity was 12 times as potent as that of PB and 17 times as potent as that of MF. SL-573 showed anti-granuloma activity neither systemically nor locally. SL-573 showed equi-potent activity with PB in the adjuvant arthritis test in rats and had little effect on the healing process of the skin wound in rats. The effect of SL-573 on the carrageenin-induced edema was not diminished in the adrenalectomized rats. The gastric bleeding effect of SL-573 was significantly weaker than that usually seen in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. SL-573 did not induce intestinal perforation even at the high dose of 800 mg/kg. Additionally, SL-573 showed a protective effect on the indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions. These pharmacological profiles of SL-573 were considered to be quite characteristic as compared with those of known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

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Mefenamic acid (MA) spherical agglomerates (SAs) were prepared with various polymethacrylates having different permeability characteristics (Eudragit RS 100, Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit L 100) and also with combination of Eudragit RS 100 and Eudragit L 100 in different ratios. SAs were prepared by spherical crystallization method using ethanol/dichloromethane solvent (crystallization) system. The influence of various formulation factors on the encapsulation efficiency, as in vitro drug release, and micromeritic properties was investigated. Target release profile of MA was also drawn. The yields of preparation and the encapsulation efficiencies were high for all formulations. The shape and surface characteristics of SAs were observed by a scanning electron microscope. The particle sizes are in the range of 0.219 ± 0.1 to 0.482 ± 0.25 mm (mean ± confidence interval t(95%)). In addition, histological studies showed that the administration of MA in SAs containing Eudragit RS/L provided a distinct tissue protection in the stomach and duodenum. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction of powder studies showed that MA particles crystallized in the presence of polymethacrylates did not undergo structural modifications.

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The findings of biochemical studies, carried out in 30 patients suffering from psoriatic arthropathy, are analyzed. The parameters examined are: the blood and urine glycosaminoglycans, urine hydroxyproline levels, and blood hyaluronate glycan hydrolase and N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase activities, i. e. the matrix and collagen metabolites as the indicators of the connective tissue destruction and lysosomal enzymes activation responsible, among other factors, for this destruction. The studies have revealed a correlation between the enzymic activity augmentation and the levels of the connective tissue degradation products and the dissemination and severity of the skin and articular processes. The patients have been treated with mefenamic acid, an enzymic activity inhibitor. The therapy has been effective in 76% of patients; 13% of these have developed a remission shortly after therapy (in 46.7 days on an average). The therapy has alleviated both skin and articular symptoms; a tendency to normalization of the biochemical characteristics has been observed. A continuous course of therapy has not been associated with side effects. The author recommends this pathogenetically based and confirmed by laboratory investigations method to be included into a complex of therapeutic measures for patients with psoriatic arthropathy.

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ponstel syrup 2016-07-18

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used widely to relieve pain and to decrease inflammation. Several clinical studies have reported that NSAIDs inhibit uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Therefore, the study evaluated the inhibitory potential of 15 NSAIDs on the activities of six UGT isoforms (i.e. UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7) in human liver microsomes (HLMs). Among the 15 NSAIDs tested here, mefenamic acid and diclofenac inhibited all UGTs tested in this study. Piroxicam and niflumic acid inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50 = 73.8 μm and 0.38 μm, respectively) and naproxen selectively inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50 = 53.1 μm), whereas it did not inhibit the other UGTs tested (IC50 > 200 μm). Diflunisal inhibited the UGT1A1 (IC50 = 33.0 μm) and UGT1A9 (IC50 = 19.4 μm). buy ponstel Acetaminophen, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, meloxicam, phenylbutazone, salicylic acid and sulindac showed negligible inhibitory effects on the six UGTs (IC50 > 100 μm). These results suggest that some NSAIDs have the potential to inhibit UGTs in vitro.

ponstel drug interaction 2017-04-27

A prospective, randomized, open label study was conducted in a tertiary care sleep center. Twelve OSA patients with full consciousness and at least moderate oropharyngeal pain (pain visual analogue scale [VAS] > or = 4) after UPPP were recruited. They were randomized to receive TB (n = 7) and M& buy ponstel M (n = 5). Oropharyngeal pain was measured by a VAS and the Clinical Global Impression in Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) at the 12th, 24th, and 72th hours postoperatively. Postoperative pain related morbidities (PRMs) and quality of life in bodily pain (QOL-BP) were also evaluated 72 hours postoperatively. Adverse events incurred by pain treatment were carefully monitored during patients' hospitalizations.

ponstel 250 mg 2017-04-21

The use of mefenamic acid in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was investigated in 15 women over six menstrual cycles. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design was used to overcome the methodologic criticisms of other medication trials in this condition. Mefenamic acid significantly improved many of the physical, mood, and performance symptoms associated with PMS. The physical symptoms that showed marked improvement were fatigue, headache, and general aches and pains (P less than .001). Most mood symptoms were improved, the buy ponstel most significant being freedom from mood swings (P less than .005).

ponstel medication cost 2017-11-28

A cross-sectional descriptive study at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, buy ponstel Thailand that included 552 female medical students who were asked to complete two questionnaires. The first questionnaire (32 items) included demographic data, menstrual pattern, severity of dysmenorrhea, pain score, impact of dysmenorrhea on daily and academic activities, the method and knowledge of medications to treat dysmenorrhea. The second questionnaire was Short Form (SF)-36 questionnaires used to evaluate the health-related quality of life.

ponstel generic 2015-08-24

The intermolecular interaction between mefenamic acid (MFA), a poorly water-soluble nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and Eudragit EPO (EPO), a water-soluble polymer, is investigated in their supersaturated solution using high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The stable supersaturated solution with a high MFA concentration of 3.0 mg/mL is prepared by dispersing the amorphous solid dispersion into a d-acetate buffer at pH 5.5 and 37 °C. By virtue of MAS at 2.7 kHz, the extremely broad and unresolved (1)H resonances of MFA in one-dimensional (1)H NMR spectrum of the supersaturated solution are well-resolved, thus enabling the complete assignment of MFA (1)H resonances in the aqueous solution. Two-dimensional (2D) (1)H/(1)H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and radio frequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) under MAS conditions reveal the interaction of MFA with EPO in the supersaturated solution at an atomic level. The strong cross-correlations observed in the 2D (1)H/(1)H NMR spectra indicate a hydrophobic interaction between the aromatic group of MFA and the backbone of EPO. Furthermore, the aminoalkyl group in the side chain of EPO forms a hydrophilic interaction, which buy ponstel can be either electrostatic or hydrogen bonding, with the carboxyl group of MFA. We believe these hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between MFA and EPO molecules play a key role in the formation of this extremely stable supersaturated solution. In addition, 2D (1)H/(1)H RFDR demonstrates that the molecular MFA-EPO interaction is quite flexible and dynamic.

ponstel medicine 2015-10-16

Mononuclear and binuclear complexes of mefenamic acid with Fe(III) ions of formulae Na[Fe(C15H14O2N)4] and Fe2Cl(C15N14O2N)5 were obtained in the solid phase. Characterization of the complexes was performed by elemental analysis and visible, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy buy ponstel and possible structures are proposed.

ponstel user reviews 2016-03-05

The effect of several anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 and cortisol on buy ponstel vanadate-induced tonic contraction and on calmodulin dependent cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity have been assayed. Indomethacin, diclofenac, phenylbutazone, mefenamic acid, naproxen, tolmetin, piroxicam, aspirin and W-7, but not metimazol, produce dose-dependent relaxation of vanadate-induced tonic contraction on isolated rat uterus. Cortisol relaxes the vanadate contraction up to 45%. None of the drugs assayed inhibit the basal activity of phosphodiesterase with concentrations lower than 1 mM. However, indomethacin, diclofenac, phenylbutazone, mefenamic acid, naproxen, piroxicam, aspirin and W-7 inhibit, in a concentration-dependent way, the calmodulin-stimulated activity of phosphodiesterase. The maximum inhibition achieved with tolmetin (1 mM) and cortisol (1 mM) was 38% and 24%, respectively. Metamizol has no effect on basal or/and stimulated phosphodiesterase. This, as far as we know, is the first description of relationship between NSAIDs and calmodulin-dependent processes and our results suggest that the inhibition of calmodulin with NSAIDs may be directly related to their pKa and liposolubility.

ponstel s medicine 2015-04-22

This study was undertaken to assess how Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells via Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) is important in vascular responses mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, the sustained increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) elicited by bradykinin and cyclopiazonic acid, which were strongly dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+, were buy ponstel suppressed by the NSCC blockers, SK&F 96365 and mefenamic acid. In porcine coronary artery with intact endothelium, bradykinin elicited a rapid fall in the membrane potential, followed by sustained hyperpolarization with a slow decay. In the presence of SK&F 96365 or mefenamic acid, the peak amplitude was severely reduced and the decay phase of hyperpolarization to bradykinin was greatly accelerated, which was apparently similar to the response obtained in Ca2+-free medium. Cyclopiazonic acid caused sustained hyperpolarization in an extracellular Ca2+-dependent manner, an effect which was markedly diminished by SK&F 96365 and mefenamic acid. In rings of coronary artery precontracted with U46619, bradykinin and cyclopiazonic acid produced endothelium-dependent relaxations even in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. SK&F 96365 and mefenamic acid significantly attenuated the relaxant responses. These results indicate that the increase in [Ca2+]i of endothelial cells due to Ca2+ entry via NSCCs plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the EDHF-mediated vascular responses.

ponstel drug 2016-05-01

Mefenamic acid (MEF) as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is used as a medication for relieving of pain and inflammation. Radiation-induced inflammation process is involved in DNA damage and cell death. In this study, the radioprotective effect of MEF was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in human blood buy ponstel lymphocytes.

ponstel medication information 2017-07-22

Based on the Naranjo score, this case of prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis in a young woman was likely associated with loxoprofen buy ponstel use.

ponstel capsules 2016-03-09

The data regarding net benefit/harm are insufficient to make a conclusion as to whether surgical ligation or medical treatment with indomethacin is preferred as initial treatment for symptomatic PDA in preterm infants. It should be noted that buy ponstel three recent observational studies indicated an increased risk for one or more of the following outcomes associated with PDA ligation; chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity and neurosensory impairment . It is possible that the duration of the "waiting-time" and transport to another facility with surgical capacity to have the PDA ligated could adversely affect outcomes, as could the perioperative care.

ponstel generic price 2015-05-10

The pharmacokinetics of mefenamic acid (MA), 2 mg/kg, were studied in 17 preterm infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus. They were given this dosage orally at 24 h intervals. There buy ponstel were marked inter-individual differences in some of the pharmacokinetic parameters after the first dose; peak plasma concentration (Cmax) varied from 1.2 to 6.1 micrograms/mL with a mean of 3.8 micrograms/mL, time to reach Cmax (tmax) varied from 2 to 18 h with a mean of 7.7 h and plasma half-life (t1/2) varied from 3.8 to 43.6 h with a mean of 18.7 h. The group of infants (10/17) who had ductus closure after the first dose had significantly lower clearance (P < 0.01), longer t1/2 (P < 0.01) and higher 24 h plasma concentration (P < 0.001) compared to the group of infants (7/17) who had no ductus closure after the first dose. It appeared that the plasma concentration of MA had to be above 2.0 micrograms/mL and maintained at this concentration for at least 12 h for MA associated with ductus closure in preterm infants to take effect. In view of the inter-individual variation of plasma MA concentration and the effective plasma concentration, we suggest that measurement of the plasma concentration should be done 24 h after the first dose. This might be useful for safe and effective therapy for infants with ductus closure failure after the first dose.

ponstel reviews 2016-03-12

Nasal spray of analgesic is a novel administration for postoperative pain control. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of transnasal butorphanol (TB) for pain relief following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, and compared pain alleviation effect to oral mefenamic acid and intramuscular meperidine (M> or =&M buy ponstel ).

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea 2016-11-03

Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The objective of the study was to prepare emulgel of mefenamic acid, a NSAID, using Carbapol 940 as a gelling agent. Mentha oil and clove oil were used as penetration enhancers. The emulsion buy ponstel was prepared and it was incorporated in gel base. The formulations were evaluated for rheological studies, spreading coefficient studies, bioadhesion strength, skin irritation studies, in vitro release, ex vivo release studies, anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity. Formulation F2 and F4 showed comparable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity when they compared with marketed diclofenac sodium gel. So, it can be concluded that topical emulgel of mefenamic acid posses an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.

ponstel generic name 2017-05-22

Diflunisal, naproxen, ketoprofen, etodolac, mefenamic acid, rofecoxib, and celecoxib are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which have analgesics, Bactrim Canine Dosage antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple assay that could be implemented in most laboratories for the purpose of clinical and toxicological screening, pharmacokinetic studies, and in therapeutic drug monitoring.

ponstel dosing 2017-05-25

In the presence of MEF, Papp of B, W and OA were increased from 1.69 ± 0.89 × 10⁻⁶, 1.57 ± 0.10 × 10⁻⁶ and 3.09 ± 0.70 × 10⁻⁶ cm/sec to 5.24 ± 0.27 × 10⁻⁶, 6.08 ± 0.19 × 10⁻⁶ and 4.13 ± 0.38 × 10⁻⁶, whereas their percentage of metabolism was decreased from 72.75 ± 2.44%, 73.27 ± 3.25% and 89.84 ± 2.99% to 21.11 ± 0.69%, 17.90 ± 5.55% and 45.44 ± 3.38%. PGE2 level was much lower in the co-administration group (49.04 ± 2.03 pg/ml) than Motilium Drug Interactions in the MEF group (73.13 ± 3.03 pg/ml) or RS group (494.37 ± 11.75 pg/ml) 4 h post MEF dosing, suggesting a synergic effect.

ponstel medication dosage 2017-01-22

A study of the electroencephalographic patterns Prevacid Buy Online observed following iv administration of increasing doses of mefenamic acid in acute experiments on curarized cats and rats and the possible modification of these effects by naloxone was carried out. Mefenamic acid produced in both species a progressive and dose-related increase of the voltage of the baseline patterns. With high doses, besides slow waves and fusiform complexes, an irritative activity with spikes and complexes of polyspikes was observed. The recovery of the basal activity was obtained within 15 min, except for the highest dose, under which the effect lasted 30 min after administration. Cats displayed a higher sensitivity than did rats. Naloxone did not modify the EEG effects of mefenamic acid, neigher in rats nor in rats. This fact suggests that the locus of action of these drugs is different. Mefenamic acid appears to act centrally with relatively short-lasting depressant effects at low doses and facilitating or stimulant effects at high doses.

ponstel 250 reviews 2017-01-11

Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is an inherited disorder characterized by renal tubular insensitivity to antidiuretic hormone, resulting in an inability to concentrate urine. We report on an infant boy with CNDI who showed growth failure during treatment with sodium restriction. At the age of 4 mo, he was diagnosed as having CNDI, judging from fever with hypernatremia (serum Na 153 mEq/L), diluted urine (urine osmolarity 193 mOsm/kg), high antidiuretic hormone (plasma antidiuretic hormone 53 pg/mL), and normal renal function (serum creatinine 0.3 mg/dL). His length and weight were mean +0.4 and -1.1 SD, respectively, at that time. He was treated with Botox Reviews sodium restriction (sodium intake; 0.53 mEq/kg/day) using low sodium formula in addition to trichlormethiazide, spironolactone, and mefenamic acid. Growth failure developed: his length and weight were mean -2.4 and -3.3 SD, respectively, at the age of 10 mo. After withdrawal of sodium restriction to 1.5 mEq/kg/day of sodium intake without any change of caloric intake and medication, catch-up growth was observed. At the age of 39 mo, the patient's height and weight were mean -0.8 and -0.6 SD, respectively. We conclude that excessive sodium restriction can cause growth failure in infants with CNDI.

ponstel medication 2015-03-06

Sorption is a key factor in determining the persistence, attenuation and bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants. However, our understanding of the sorption behaviour of pharmaceuticals in sediments is poor. In this study, we investigated the sorption behaviour of a diverse set of pharmaceuticals in a range sediment types. Sorption affinity of pharmaceuticals for all Diflucan Dosage Ringworm sediments was found to increase in the order mefenamic acid

ponstel 250mg capsules 2017-12-22

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently associated with gastric mucosal and renal adverse reactions, related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase1 (Cox1) in tissues where prostaglandins Atarax Generic Name exert physiological effects. This led us to develop a set of ibuprofenic acid and mefenamic acid esters, namely: 4-((4-substituted benzylidene)amino)phenyl 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propanoate and 4-((4-substituted benzylidene)amino)phenyl 2-((2,4-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzoate analogs, which were synthesized by condensation of the corresponding acids with Schiff's bases [4-(4-substituted benzylideneamino)phenols] involving dicyclohexyl carbodiimmide (DCC) as mild dehydrating agent. The main objective is to reduce the GIT toxicity associated with acute and chronic NSAIDs use. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic as well as ulcerogenic activities of the prepared esters were evaluated in vivo and compared with that of ibuprofen as reference standard in all screenings, involving the carrageenan induced paw oedema model and hot plate method. Most of the synthesized esters showed remarkable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Interestingly, all of the compounds were found to be non-ulcerogenic under the tested conditions. This evidence have suggested that modification of the carboxyl function of representative NSAIDs results in retained or enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with reduced ulcerogenic potential. Additionally, a comparative AutoDock study into Cox 1 and Cox2 has been done involving both of rigid and flexible docking for potential selectivity of our compounds within different Cox enzymes and to find out the binding orientation of these novel esters into their binding site. Some of the newly prepared aforementioned compounds showed considerable more Cox2 over Cox1 binding affinities by flexible docking better than rigid one.

ponstel capsule 2015-04-11

A theoretical conformational analysis of fenamates, which are N-arylated derivatives of anthranilic acid or 2-aminonicotinic acid with different substituents on the aryl (phenyl) group, is reported. The analysis of these analgesics, which are believed to act through the inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, was carried out using semi-empirical potential functions. The results and available crystallographic observations have been critically examined in terms of their relevance to drug action. Crystallographic studies of these drugs and their complexes have revealed that the fenamate molecules share a striking invariant feature, Zofran Otc Dose namely, the six-membered ring bearing the carboxyl group is coplanar with the carboxyl group and the bridging imino group, the coplanarity being stabilized by resonance interactions and an internal hydrogen bond between the imino and carboxyl groups. The results of the theoretical analysis provide a conformational rationale for the observed invariant coplanarity. The second six-membered ring, which provides hydrophobicity in a substantial part of the molecule, has limited conformational flexibility in meclofenamic, mefenamic and flufenamic acids. Comparison of the conformational energy maps of these acids shows that they could all assume the same conformation when bound to the relevant enzyme. The present study provides a structural explanation for the difference in the activity of niflumic acid, which can assume a conformation in which the whole molecule is nearly planar. The main role of the carboxyl group appears to be to provide a site for intermolecular interactions in addition to helping in stabilizing the invariant coplanar feature and providing hydrophilicity at one end of the molecule. The fenamates thus provide a good example of conformation-dependent molecular asymmetry.

ponstel pills 2015-02-21

Mefenamic acid was more effective Lopid Generic Equivalent than placebo in short-term treatment of irregular bleeding and spotting associated with Implanon use.

ponstel dose 2016-07-30

Mefenamic acid is extracted from biological fluids and is acylated with Prilosec 10mg Tablets pentafluoropropionic anhydride to form a derivative possessing high electron affinity. The derivative is analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method is particularly valuable for determining drug levels in blood where small sample and/or drug concentrations are available.

ponstel syrup children 2016-07-08

Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus significantly decreased bleeding. This decrease in month 4 was 52% in the mefenamic acid group and 47.6% in the vitex agnus group. The mean bleeding score changes was statistically significant between Levitra 5 Mg the two groups in the first three months and before the intervention. In the mefenamic acid group, the decreased bleeding was significantly more than the vitex agnus group. However, during the 4(th) month, the mean change was not statistically significant.

ponstel suspension 2016-11-16

Bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) were treated for 48 hours with 640 compounds from a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library and then challenged with thapsigargin or H2O2 to induce UPR or oxidative stress, respectively. Cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Glo survival assay. Selected "hits" were subjected to further dose-response testing, and their ability to modulate expression of Generic Viagra Cost UPR and oxidative stress markers was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot, and measurement of protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adducts in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (iHCECs).

ponstel 250 capsule 2016-06-06

We report on three cases of fixed drug eruption, including a non-pigmenting generalized bullous fixed drug eruption, caused by mefenamic acid in its pure form.