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After extensive negative work up, biopsy of one optic nerve was performed. Microscopic analysis showed extensive demyelination in the absence of vasculitis, neoplastic or infectious etiologies. Our patient illustrates that demyelination of the optic nerve causing asynchronous vision loss can be associated with tacrolimus toxicity in the absence of toxic drug levels.
The clinical variables of recipients such as age, sex, cold ischemia time, human leucocyte antigen mismatch, panel reaction antibody, rejection episode were no significant difference. The percentage of CD4(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells in total CD4(+) cells was significantly higher in rapamycin group and end-stage renal disease group than calcineurin inhibitors group (P < 0.01). The level of CD4(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells between cyclosporin group and tacrolimus group was no significant difference (P > 0.05).
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Tacrolimus administered sublingually at approximately half of the oral dose achieves therapeutic blood concentrations and is safe in LTRs. Delivery via the sublingual route using this conversion ratio may aid clinicians in maintaining therapeutic tacrolimus blood concentrations while avoiding the need for intravenous administration.
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Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity contributes to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). In the 2-year, randomized, study, we showed that 50% cyclosporin (CsA) reduction in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment improves kidney function without increasing the risk for graft rejection/loss. To investigate the long-term effect of this regimen, we conducted a follow up study in 70 kidney transplant patients until 5 years after REFERENCE initiation. The improvement of kidney function was confirmed in the MMF group but not in the control group (CsA group). Four graft losses occurred, 2 in each group (graft survival in the MMF group 95.8% and 90.9% in control group). One death occurred in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events or acute graft rejections. A limitation is the weak proportion of patient still remaining within the control group. On the other hand, REFERENCE focuses on the CsA regimen while opinions about the tacrolimus ones are still debated. In conclusion, CsA reduction in the presence of MMF treatment seems to maintain kidney function and is well tolerated in the long term.
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Rat ZGs and lysosomes were isolated by gradient centrifugation, ion permeabilities assayed by osmotic lysis, and single-channel currents recorded in a planar lipid bilayer. Amylase release was measured in permeabilized acini and lysosomal cathepsin B release detected by immunoblotting.
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease arising as a result of immune system and skin barrier defects. Topical corticosteroids are safe and effective treatments for AD, when used in short courses. Prolonged use is associated with skin barrier damage. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are alternative immune-modulating treatments for AD purported to have no negative effects on the skin barrier.
To investigate whether protective effect of tacrolimus postconditioning on rats' spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by up-regulation of activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and down-regulation of production of oxygen free radicals.
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Between February 2000 and September 2004, 156 adults (>15 years old) receiving a primary liver graft were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, investigator-driven single-center study comparing tacrolimus (TAC)-placebo (PL) and TAC-low-dose, short-term (64 days) steroid (ST) IS. There were no exclusion criteria at moment of randomization. All patients had a 12-month follow-up (range, 12-84).
Individuals 18 to 75 years of age with facial seborrheic dermatitis.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of single-agent dexamethasone or tacrolimus topical solution as first-line treatment for symptomatic oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized phase II trial of patients with symptomatic oral cGVHD without prior topical therapy. Subjects were randomly assigned 1:1 to either topical dexamethasone (.5 mg/mL) or tacrolimus (.5 mg/mL) solution and instructed to rinse with 5 mL for 5 minutes, 4 times a day, for 4 weeks. Oral cGVHD assessments (National Institutes of Health [NIH] criteria) were completed at baseline and end of treatment (NIH criteria, global response, and tolerability). The primary endpoint was the response rate defined as ≥3-point reduction in patient-reported sensitivity score (range, 0 to 10). A parallel 2-stage design was employed so that a less efficacious arm could be terminated early. The accrual goal was 60 evaluable patients; 30 in each arm), accruing 14 in the first stage and 16 in the second stage. If both arms were regarded as efficacious, a "pick-the-winner" method would be employed to choose a better treatment for future investigation. Forty-six subjects were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (n = 28) or tacrolimus (n = 18). Six subjects were excluded from the analysis because of changes in systemic immunosuppression (dexamethasone = 1, tacrolimus = 3) or lack of end-of-treatment visit (1 per arm). After the first stage evaluation, the tacrolimus arm was terminated because of lack of activity (3 of 14 responses; response rate, 21%). Twenty-six subjects in the dexamethasone arm completed both study visits and were included in the response analysis, with a 58% (15 of 26) response rate, compared with 21% (3 of 14) in the tacrolimus arm (P = .05). The response rates according to the NIH score in the dexamethasone and tacrolimus arms were 50% (13 of 26) and 2% (2 of 14), respectively (P = .04). From the onset of therapy, 31% versus 21% patients reported feeling "much better" and 38% versus 36% reported feeling "slightly better," giving an overall global response rate ("much better" or "slightly better") of 81% (21 of 26) versus 71% (10 of 14), in the dexamethasone and tacrolimus arms, respectively. Dexamethasone rinses were well tolerated and taste was reported as "very pleasant" or "tolerable" in most subjects (96%). Intensive topical therapy with dexamethasone solution is effective for managing patients with new-onset symptomatic oral cGVHD and should be considered for first-line therapy. Topical tacrolimus solution appears less effective, at least for first-line therapy.
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Children with severe corticosteroid-resistant ulcerative colitis either need to undergo surgery or be treated with more intensive immunosuppression. Our aim was to characterize the short- and long-term outcomes and adverse events associated with the use of tacrolimus in a steroid-refractory pediatric population.
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The association between age and BMD was found only in the femur of KTrs. No relationship was observed between serum FGF-23 levels and BMD values. In both groups, the BMD T score of the lumbar spine was lower compared to the BMD T score of the femur and in patients with serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL. In long-term follow-up of renal transplantation by as much as 58 months, the incidence of bone disease such as osteoporosis/osteopenia was as high as 67% and was also higher than that of nontransplant patients with similar GFR. In addition to decreased renal function, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and continuing hypophosphatemia were also accompanied by decreased BMD as in cardiovascular disease in KTrs.
In fission yeast, Ppb1, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin regulates multiple biological processes, such as cytokinesis, Ca2+-homeostasis, membrane trafficking and cell wall integrity. Calcineurin dephosphorylates the Prz1 transcription factor, leading to its nuclear translocation and gene expression under the control of CDRE (calcineurin-dependent response element). Although the calcineurin-mediated spatial control of downstream transcription factors has been intensively studied in many organisms, less is known about the spatial regulation of calcineurin on stresses. Here, we show that heat shock stimulates calcineurin-dependent nuclear translocation of Prz1 and CDRE-dependent gene expression. Notably, calcineurin exhibited a dramatic change in subcellular localization, translocating from diffuse cytoplasmic to dot-like structures on heat shock. The calcineurin dots colocalized with Dcp2 or Pabp, the constituent of P-bodies or stress granules, respectively, thus suggesting that calcineurin is a component of RNA granules under heat shock. Importantly, the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 markedly inhibited the accumulation of calcineurin granules, whereas the constitutively active calcineurin strongly accumulated in the granules on heat shock, suggesting that phosphatase activity is important for calcineurin localization. Notably, the depletion of calcineurin induced a rapid appearance of Nrd1- and Pabp-positive RNA granules. The possible roles of calcineurin in response to heat shock will be discussed.
In total, 48 patients completed the study. Both treatments were very effective in the treatment of PR. There were no significant differences between the treatments in inflammatory lesion counts, overall erythema severity scores and PGA evaluated from baseline to week 12 (P > 0.05). Neither treatment produced any clinically relevant improvement in telangiectasia.
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This prospective observational study documented long-term renal function in transplant recipients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF).
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As success of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) relies primarily on graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity, increased minor HLA disparity in unrelated compared to related donors could have a significant impact on transplant outcomes. To assess whether use of unrelated donors (URD) engenders more potent GVL in RIC HSCT compared to matched related donors (MRD), we retrospectively studied 433 consecutive T-replete 6/6 HLA matched URD (n = 246) and MRD (n = 187) RIC HSCT for hematologic malignancies at our institution. Diseases included: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (127), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (71), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (68), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (64), Hodgkin disease (HD) (40), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (25), multiple myeloma (MM) (23), myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) (12), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (7), and other leukemia (1). All received uniform fludarabine and intravenous busulfan conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus/mini-methroxate (mini-MTX) or tacrolimus/sirolimus ± mini-MTX. Unrelated donors were younger compared to MRD (median donor age: 33 years versus 52 years, P < .0001), and provided larger CD34(+) products (median CD34(+) cells infused: 8.7 × 10(6)/kg versus 7.5 × 10(6)/kg, P = .002). Distribution of diseases, disease risk, prior transplant, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) status was similar in both cohorts. Cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (at day +180), 2-year chronic GVHD, and 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 20% versus 16%, 55% versus 50%, and 8% versus 6% in URD and MRD, respectively (P = NS). Cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was lower in URD, 52% versus 65% (P = .005). With median follow-up of 26.5 and 35.8 months, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better in unrelated donor transplants, 39.5% for URD, and 29% for MRD (P = .01). Overall survival (OS) at 2 years were 56% for URD versus 50% for MRD (P = .53). In multivariable analysis, URD was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, P = .002) and superior PFS (HR 0.69, P = .002). These results suggest that URD is associated with greater GVL activity than MRD, and could have practice changing impact on future donor selection in RIC HSCT.
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The Allgemeines Krankenhaus Informations Management (AKIM) project was started at the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) several years ago. This led to the introduction of a new hospital information system (HIS), and the installation of the expert system platform (EXP) for the integration of Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). In this report we take a look at the milestones achieved and the challenges faced in the creation and modification of CDSSs, and their integration into the HIS over the last three years.
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We developed a novel sustained drug-eluting device using tacrolimus-eluting biodegradable nanofiber to prevent anastomotic stricture and evaluated the effects in a rat abdominal aortic anastomosis model.
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A range of treatment options are available in rosacea, which include several topical (mainly metronidazole, azelaic acid, other antibiotics, sulfur, retinoids) and oral drugs (mainly tetracyclines, metronidazole, macrolides). In some cases, the first choice is a systemic therapy because patients may have sensitive skin and topical medications can be irritant. Isotretinoin can be used in resistant cases of rosacea. Unfortunately, the majority of studies on rosacea treatments are at high or unclear risk of bias. A recent Cochrane review found that only topical metronidazole, azelaic acid, and oral doxycycline (40 mg) had some evidence to support their effectiveness in moderate to severe rosacea and concluded that further well-designed, adequately-powered randomised controlled trials are required. In our practice, we evaluate our patients for the presence of two possible triggers, Helicobacter pylori infection and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. When they are present we use adapted antibiotic protocols. If not, we use oral metronidazole or oral tetracycline to treat papulopustolar rosacea. We also look for Demodex folliculorum infestation. When Demodex concentration is higher than 5/cm(2) we use topical crotamiton 10% or metronidazole.
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Transplant rates are low among highly sensitized patients with preformed anti-HLA antibodies, because of the additional immunologic barrier, the increased risk of rejection, and the greater chance of early graft loss. Intravenous infusion of pooled human immune globulin (IVIG) is immunomodulatory, neutralizing circulating antibodies and reducing rejection rates, two factors that may improve long-term transplantation outcomes.
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In the whole study group MPA level increased with the dose of MPA (p=0.013). MPA level was below the therapeutic range in 40% (Group A) and 45% (Group B) of patients, respectively. MPA was 1.9 ± 1.56 mg/L in Group A, 2.4 ± 1.69 mg/L in Group B. In Group A MPA level increased and cyclosporine decreased with the progress of renal disease.
Little is known about the mechanisms governing neonatal growth and maturation of organs. Here we demonstrate that calcineurin/Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (Cn/NFAT) signaling regulates neonatal pancreatic development in mouse and human islets. Inactivation of calcineurin b1 (Cnb1) in mouse islets impaired dense core granule biogenesis, decreased insulin secretion, and reduced cell proliferation and mass, culminating in lethal diabetes. Pancreatic β cells lacking Cnb1 failed to express genes revealed to be direct NFAT targets required for replication, insulin storage, and secretion. In contrast, glucokinase activation stimulated Cn-dependent expression of these genes. Calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus, used for human immunosuppression, induce diabetes. Tacrolimus exposure reduced Cn/NFAT-dependent expression of factors essential for insulin dense core granule formation and secretion and neonatal β cell proliferation, consistent with our genetic studies. Discovery of conserved pathways regulating β cell maturation and proliferation suggests new strategies for controlling β cell growth or replacement in human islet diseases.
Tacrolimus is the first-line immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. It is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A (CYP3A) enzymes, but there are large individual differences in metabolism. Interleukin 6 (IL6) has been shown to cause a pan-suppression of mRNA levels of ten major CYP enzymes in human hepatocyte cultures. IL6 has been shown to provide hepatoprotection in various models of liver injury. Rs1800796 is a locus in the IL6 gene promoter region which regulates cytokine production. We speculated that IL6 rs1800796 polymorphisms may lead to individual differences in tacrolimus metabolism by affecting CYP3A enzymes levels and liver function after liver transplantation.
Seven time point blood concentration profiles were collected from 31 stable kidney transplant recipients who received oral tacrolimus twice daily. The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay method was used to determine the tacrolimus concentration. Measured AUC0-12 (AUCm) was calculated by the linear trapezoidal rule. Predicted AUC0-12 (AUCp) was calculated using the equation that used tacrolimus concentrations measured at 2 hours (C2) and 4 hours (C4) after dose: 16.2 + 2.4(C2) + 5.9(C4). Predictive performance of the equation was determined by calculating bias and precision. Agreement between AUCp and AUCm was assessed. The effects of hemoglobin and duration of tacrolimus therapy on bias and precision were also evaluated.
We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) from 2001 to 2010. We tabulated patient characteristics, the physicians who treated AA and what treatments were prescribed for AA.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), which can recur after renal transplantation, is associated with poor graft outcomes. The underlying genetic defect, namely, mutations in genes coding for the complement factor H, I (CFI), or membrane cofactor protein, greatly impacts the risk of aHUS recurrence. We report here the case of a patient with chronic renal failure due to aHUS in which screening for complement mutations, performed before wait-listing for kidney transplantation, showed a never described previously heterozygous mutation in the exon II of the CFI gene. Specifically, this mutation leads to a substitution of cytosine for guanosine at nucleotide 148, resulting in the change at amino acid 50 from arginine to proline. Subsequently, he received a renal allograft from deceased donor. Good graft function was established immediately, without clinical features of aHUS. Due to a lack of data on this mutation, we avoided prophylactic treatment for aHUS but closely monitored biochemical markers of aHUS to treat a possible recurrence. Immunosuppressive treatment was based on basiliximab, tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolic acid. At the time of discharge the serum creatinine was 1.4 mg/dL. Ten months after transplantation the patient is doing well without evidence of aHUS. Our case suggested that a heterozygous mutation in exon II of the CFI gene was not associated with a risk of early post-transplant aHUs recurrence adding new knowledge on complement mutations implicated in aHUS post-transplant recurrences.
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Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins regulate signal transduction and are highly conserved from yeast to humans. NCS homolog in fission yeast (Ncs1p) is essential for cell growth under extreme Ca(2+) conditions. Ncs1p expression increases approximately 100-fold when fission yeast grows in high extracellular Ca(2+) (>0.1 M). Here, we show that Ca(2+)-induced expression of Ncs1p is controlled at the level of transcription. Transcriptional reporter assays show that ncs1 promoter activity increased 30-fold when extracellular Ca(2+) was raised to 0.1 M and was highly Ca(2+)-specific. Ca(2+)-dependent transcription of ncs1 is abolished by the calcineurin inhibitor (FK506) and by knocking out the calcineurin target, prz1. Thus, Ca(2+)-induced expression of Ncs1p is linked to the calcineurin/prz1 stress response. The Ca(2+)-responsive ncs1 promoter region consists of 130 nucleotides directly upstream from the start codon and contains tandem repeats of the sequence, 5'-caact-3', that binds to Prz1p. The Ca(2+)-sensitive ncs1Delta phenotype is rescued by a yam8 null mutation, suggesting a possible interaction between Ncs1p and the Ca(2+) channel, Yam8p. Ca(2+) uptake and Ncs1p binding to yeast membranes are both decreased in yam8Delta, suggesting Ca(2+)-induced binding of Ncs1p to Yam8p results in channel closure. We propose that Ncs1p promotes Ca(2+) tolerance in fission yeast, in part by cytosolic Ca(2+) buffering and perhaps by negatively regulating the Yam8p Ca(2+) channel.
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This retrospective study reviews the results of our experience with the occurrence of CMV DNAemia in islet cell transplanted cynomolgus monkeys subjected to different immunosuppressive protocols, including induction treatment with thymoglobulin (TMG), with a combination of thymoglobulin and fludarabine (FLUD), with cyclophosphamide, or with daclizumab. CMV DNA in the peripheral blood (CMV DNAemia) of 47 monkeys was quantified by real-time PCR on a weekly to biweekly basis. As compared to other immunosuppressive regimens, and in association with greater decreases in WBC, lymphocyte, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ lymphocyte counts, frequent CMV DNAemia occurred earlier (within the first month posttransplant), and was of greater severity and duration in recipients of TMG ± FLUD. Treatment of recipients with alternative induction agents that resulted in less dramatic reductions in WBC and lymphocyte counts, however, resulted in occurrence of CMV DNAemia after postoperative day 60. The frequency, average intensity, duration, and area under the curve (AUC) for CMV DNAemia in animals receiving TMG ± FLUD were 75-100%, 4.02 ± 1.75 copies/ng DNA, 23.0 ± 5.3 days, and 367.0 ± 121.1 days × copies/ng DNA, respectively; corresponding values in animals receiving other treatments (0-44%, 0.19 ± 0.10 copies/ng DNA, 0.5 ± 0.3 days, and 75.4 ± 40.2 days × copies/ng DNA, respectively) were significantly different. The value of WBC, T and B cells at the nadir of cell depletion greatly affects the occurrence of CMV DNAemia. No animals developed CMV DNAemia within the next 3 weeks when the lowest value of WBC, lymphocyte, CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, or CD20+ cells was above 4500, 1800, 300, 200, 150, or 300 cells/μl, respectively. Oral valganciclovir prophylaxis did not completely prevent the appearance of CMV DNAemia.
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a type of scarring hair loss primarily observed in postmenopausal women and characterized by fronto-tempero-parietal hairline recession, perifollicular erythema, and loss of eyebrows. The incidence is unknown, but the number of women presenting with this condition has significantly increased in recent years. No effective therapy has been established.
At routine blood concentration, there is some difference in the regulatory effect of FK506 and CsA on T-cell subgroups and the expression of co-stimulators on T cells. The regulatory effect of FK506 on T-cell subgroups is stronger than that of CsA. FK506 can not only inhibit the expression of positive co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and ICOS but also promote the expression of negative co-stimulatory molecule CD152, while CsA can exert its immunosuppressive effect mainly through promoting the expression of CD152.