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To assess the estimated effect of finasteride prevention of prostate cancer on overall survival.
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We conducted a clinical trial from November 2009 to November 2010 that included 5751 patients who were enrolled in 46 urological centres in Poland. The researchers who conducted the clinical trial were urologists from different regions of Poland. The clinical trial involved 6 follow-up visits. The mean age of the patients was 67 years (range, 45-93 years; median, 67.00; SD, 8.507). The inclusion criteria were as follows: LUTSs, finasteride therapy for at least 2 weeks, age>40 years, and BPH.
While on this combination therapy for prostate carcinoma, 4 of 6 patients experienced a decrease in PSA level to less than 0.5 ng/mL. All patients remained potent. Serum testosterone increased in each patient who had a baseline level drawn. Estradiol levels were noted to be elevated in 4 of 6 patients at the time of evaluation for gynecomastia. After treatment with tamoxifen, circulating estradiol levels increased in 3 patients from 1.3 to 2.2 times the baseline level. Five patients experienced complete resolution of breast and nipple pain on tamoxifen 10 mg/day within the first month. The other patient had to be treated with 30 mg/day for 1 additional month, which subsequently resulted in pain resolution.
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Finasteride mediates salutary effects on the pulmonary immune response using a therapeutical approach following TH-CLP in mice. Thus, finasteride might represent a relevant therapeutic substance following major trauma also in the clinical setting.
Finasteride appears to lower total and free PSA levels equally in men with BPH and does not appear to change the ratio of free to total serum PSA. Terazosin does not appear to alter total or free serum PSA levels in men with BPH. The percent free PSA could potentially be used to screen for prostate cancer in men taking finasteride. Prospective studies are needed to further evaluate this issue.
In the benign prostatic hyperplasia study, exposures were classified as 5-α reductase inhibitors only, 5-α reductase inhibitors+α blockers, or α blockers only. In the alopecia study, exposures were finasteride 1 mg or no treatment.
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Dutasteride can be used to improve urinary symptoms (IPSS and Q max) and reduce TPV but with awareness of its potential adverse events. Combination therapy with tamsulosin can be considered when further improvements in symptoms are desired.
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Androgenetic alopecia is a highly prevalent condition that can profoundly impair the quality of life in both men and women.
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Finasteride inhibits angiogenic growth factors leading to reduced vascularity, and this is the basis of its action in reducing haematuria of prostatic origin. The present study shows that finasteride influences the prostatic microvasculature after only 2 weeks exposure.
The mechanism of androgen action varies in different tissues, but in the majority of androgen target tissues either testosterone or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binds to a specific androgen receptor to form a complex that can regulate gene expression. Testosterone is metabolized to DHT by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase. The autosomal recessive genetic disorder of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency has clearly shown that the requirement for DHT formation varies with different tissues. In this syndrome genetic males contain normal male internal structures including testes, but exhibit ambiguous or female external genitalia at birth; at puberty they undergo partial virilization which includes development of a male gender identity even if brought up as females. Their development suggests that testosterone itself is able to stimulate psychosexual behaviour, development of the embryonic wolffian duct, muscle development, voice deepening, spermatogenesis, and axillary and pubic hair growth; DHT seems to be essential for prostate development and growth, the development of the external genitalia and male patterns of facial and body hair growth or male-pattern baldness. How different hormones operate to regulate genes via the same receptor is currently unknown, but appears to involve cell-specific factors. The 5-alpha-reductase enzyme has proved difficult to isolate biochemically, but recently at least two human isoenzymes have been identified using molecular biological methods. All the various 5 alpha-reductase-deficient kindreds have been shown to have mutations in 5 alpha-reductase 2, the predominant form in the prostate. The biological role of 5 alpha-reductase 1 has not yet been ascertained, but at present it cannot be ruled out that some of the actions ascribed to testosterone are indeed in cells producing DHT via this enzyme. The activity of 5 alpha-reductase is also implicated in benign prostatic hypertrophy, hirsutism and possibly male-pattern baldness; recent evidence discounts the role of 5 alpha reductase 2 in sebaceous glands and acne. Specific inhibitors of both enzymes are now available and finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase 2 inhibitor, has been used successfully in clinical trials of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Knowledge of 5 alpha-reductase is expanding dramatically at the moment with the application of molecular biological methods. The advent of antibodies to the isoenzymes should herald further understanding of their biological and clinical roles.
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Previous studies by our group have shown that low intra-prostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced BPH epithelial cells (BECs) to recruit CD8+ T cells. However, the influence of the recruited CD8+ T cells on BECs under a low androgen level is still unknown. Here, we found CD8+ T cells have the capacity to promote proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition. Mechanism dissection revealed that interaction between CD8+ T cells and BECs through secretion of CCL5 might promote the phosphorylation of STAT5 and a higher expression of CCND1 in BECs. Suppressed CCL5/STAT5 signals via CCL5 neutralizing antibody or STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide led to reverse CD8+ T cell-enhanced BECs proliferation. IHC analysis from Finasteride treated patients showed PCNA expression in BECs was highly correlated to the level of CD8+ T cell infiltration and the expression of CCL5. Consequently, our data indicated infiltrating CD8+ T cells could promote the proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling. The increased secretion of CCL5 from the CD8+ T cells/BECs interaction might help BECs survive in a low DHT environment. Targeting these signals may provide a new potential therapeutic approach to better treat BPH patients who failed the therapy of 5α-reductase inhibitors.
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UR-EtOAc exhibited the highest potency of inhibition of 5αR and possessed potent antioxidants rich in phenolics and flavonoids contents. The active compound analyzed by HPLC was β-sitosterol. In vivo results show a significant reduction in prostate weight, PI, and AR in all treated groups when compared to the BPH model group (P<0.001). Also, the UR-EtOAc and finasteride treated groups had increased prostatic and serum testosterone levels when compared to the BPH model group. A histopathological investigation of the prostate glands supported the above results. UR-EtOAc elevated the antioxidant enzymes and reduced the malondialdehyde level in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, treatment of UR-EtOAc at all doses had no toxic effects on the vital organs and serum biochemical indices.
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Finasteride at these doses significantly decreased serum concentration of DHT in sexually intact adult male dogs. Concentrations of DHT and T before and 7 days after treatment did not differ by dosage of finasteride administered.
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These initial results suggest that a low daily dose of finasteride appears to represent an effective and safe form of treatment for recurrent priapism in children and adolescents with SCD. However, in order to confirm these initial findings, studies with a large population and a control group are essential.
These preliminary results suggest that low-dose tamoxifen is useful in treating painful gynecomastia for those patients on flutamide/finasteride combination therapy for advanced prostate carcinoma.
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Overall, serum PSA declined by more than 80% in 15 (83%) of 18 and to undetectable levels in 14 (78%) of 18. With a median+/-semi-interquartile range follow-up of 22+/-14.5 months from the initiation of hormone therapy, 12 (67%) of 18 currently have undetectable PSA levels. Two men having rising serum PSA levels above 100 ng/mL and 1 man has died from complications of metastatic prostate cancer.
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease in men. Here we tested the efficacy of Rapatar, a micellar nanoformulation of rapamycin, in two rat models of BPH: testosterone-induced and sulpiride-induced hyperplasia in ventral lobes and lateral/dorsal lobes, respectively. We found that Rapatar prevented hypertrophic and hyperplastic abnormalities and degenerative alterations in both BPH models. Rapatar normalized weight of the lateral lobes in sulpiride-induced BPH, the most relevant animal model of human BPH. Unlike Finasteride, a standard therapy of BPH, Rapatar reduced inflammation caused by sulpiride. No obvious side effects of Rapatar were detected. Our data provide a rationale for clinical trials of Rapatar in patients suffering from BPH.
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The whole blood loss, hemoglobin concentration of irrigating fluid used, blood loss per minute, blood loss per gram tissue resected, whole irrigation absorption, irrigation absorption per minute and per gram tissue resected in patients pretreated with finasteride were significantly less than those in patients without pretreatment (P<0.05). The blood transfusion volume, the incidence of hypotension and hyponatremia in patients pretreated with finasteride were significantly less than those in patients without pretreatment (P<0.05).
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In men with baseline prostate volume 30 ml or greater treatment with finasteride produced a significant (p <0.001) increase relative to placebo in the cumulative percentage of patients who did not experience clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (finasteride 88.1% vs placebo 77.8%). There was no significant (p = 0.441) between-group difference in men with baseline prostate volume less than 30 ml (91.4% vs 89.1%, respectively).
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Naturally receptive female rats with high endogenous estrogen (E2) and P and ovariectomized (ovx) rats administered E2 (10 microg) and P (500 microg) subcutaneously were administered finasteride (10 microg/microl), a Type II 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, or vehicle to the amygdala. Anxiety behavior (open field, elevated plus maze, defensive freezing) and depressive behavior (Porsolt forced swim test) were assessed.
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To compare the efficacy and tolerability of peripheral androgen blockade using combined low-dose flutamide plus finasteride vs low-dose flutamide monotherapy for treating biochemical relapse after the definitive management of prostate adenocarcinoma.
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The results of this preliminary study suggest that finasteride is an effective therapeutic option in HS.
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common urinary tract disorder that affects aging men. The molecular mechanisms underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia are obscure and the development of animal models to test novel treatment strategies is challenging. We report that the Bio 87.20 hamster strain (Bio Breeders, Watertown, Massachusetts) shows 5α-reductase-sensitive prostate enlargement and a decrease in circulating cholesterol reduces prostate size.
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After 6 months, 22 patients referred significant improvement, 12 moderate improvement, and 6 no improvement. Regarding to global photo assessment, 8 patients showed no improvement, 16 showed moderate improvement and 16 showed significant improvements at the 6(th) month. A slight improvement was observed over time from 6 to 12 and 18 months observation. Maintained libido reduction was referred by four patients and liver enzymes increase was observed in one patient. Older patients were more prone to worse response.
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This study was conducted to confirm the possibility of using minor ginseng saponin F2 by oral administration on hair anagen induction effects. The signaling pathway and anagen induction effect of ginsenoside F2 were investigated and compared with finasteride on the effect of hair growth induction. The cell-based MTT assay results indicated that the proliferation rates of HHDPC and HaCaT treated with F2 significantly increased by 30% compared with the finasteride-treated group. A western blot study showed that the expression of β-catenin Lef-1 and DKK-1 increased by 140, 200% and decreased by 40% in the F2-treated group, respectively compared to that of finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to the same treatments. The hair growth promotion rates were compared with groups treated with finasteride, which was 20% higher in the F2-treated group. Tissue histological analysis results showed the number of hair follicles, thickness of the epidermis, and follicles of the anagen phase which increased in the F2-treated group, compared with the finasteride-treated groups. Moreover, the effect of F2 on hair growth was confirmed through the immunofluorescence (IF) methods indicating the expression aspect of Wnt signal pathway-related factors in the tissue of C57BL/6 mouse. Our results considered the expression increase in β-catenin, Lef-1 which was suggested as a major factor related to the development and growth of hair follicle and the decrease in DKK-1 when entering catagen by F2. As the data showed, F2 might be a potential new therapeutic source for anagen induction and hair growth through the Wnt signal pathway.
Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use.
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In the intervention group markedly more subjects used an alpha-blocker at end of follow-up than in the usual care group (24% versus 6%). No significant differences were found between intervention and control group in IPSS, Q(max) or Dan-PSS.
We postulate that the high and low Km isozymes described here represent the dog type I and type II 5 alpha-reductase isozymes, respectively.
We assessed sexual dysfunction in 17,313 PCPT participants during a 7-year period. A battery of questionnaires assessed sexual dysfunction (Sexual Activity Scale score); age; race; SF-36 Mental Health Inventory-5, Physical Function, and Vitality scores; body mass index; smoking status; and the presence of diabetes and hypertension. Assessments began at month 6 after random assignment and included the Sexual Activity Scale score at randomization as a covariate. Two-sided general t tests, with a cutoff of P value less than .05, were used to determine the statistical significance for mixed model effects with correlated random time slopes and intercepts. The changing impact of covariates on sexual dysfunction was also assessed at 6 months, 3.5 years, and 6.5 years after randomization.
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