retrovir syrup zidovudine
Concentration-controlled therapy implemented simultaneously for three antiretroviral agents was feasible, as well tolerated as conventional therapy, and resulted in a greater proportion of recipients with HIV-RNA levels < 50 copies/ml after 52 weeks. These findings provide a scientific basis to challenge the accepted practice of administering the same dose of antiretroviral agents to all adults, ignoring the concentrations actually achieved.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy affects about 4 percent of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and survival after the diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy averages only about three months. There have been anecdotal reports of improvement but no controlled trials of therapy with antiretroviral treatment plus intravenous or intrathecal cytarabine.
retrovir drug name
Nucleoside analog chain terminators such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) represent an important class of drugs that are used in the clinic to inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Recent data have suggested that mutant enzymes associated with AZT resistance are capable of removing the chain-terminating residue with much greater efficiency than wild-type RT and this may, in turn, facilitate rescue of DNA synthesis; these experiments were performed using physiological concentrations of pyrophosphate or nucleoside triphosphates, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the M184V mutation, which confers high-level resistance to 3TC, can severely compromise the removal of chain-terminating nucleotides. Pyrophosphorolysis on 3TC-terminated primer strands was not detectable with M184V-containing, as opposed to wild-type, RT, and rescue of AZT-terminated DNA synthesis was significantly decreased with the former enzyme. Thus, mutated RTs associated with resistance to AZT and 3TC possess opposing, and therefore incompatible, phenotypes in this regard. These results are consistent with tissue culture and clinical data showing sustained antiviral effects of AZT in the context of viruses that contain the M184V mutation in the RT-encoding gene.
Between 26 and 35 wk, haemoglobin, leucocytes, and absolute neutrophil counts decreased in zidovudine-exposed compared to unexposed women (mean difference [95% CI] -0.4 [-0.5 to -0.3], -423 [-703 to -142], -485 [-757 to -213], respectively). However, between 35 wk and delivery, the haematological parameters increased faster in women exposed to long rather than short durations of zidovudine (0.1 [0.0 to 0.1]; 105 [18 to 191]; 147 [59 to 234], respectively). At delivery, the differences were not statistically significant, except for mean haemoglobin level, which remained slightly lower in the long zidovudine treatment group (difference: 0.2 g/dl). Zidovudine had no negative impact on the absolute lymphocyte counts.
retrovir drug class
Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rHu GM-CSF) enhances bone marrow production of and stimulates granulocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor may be used concomitantly with zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients to minimize zidovudine-associated neutropenia. This open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic disposition of rHu GM-CSF in HIV-positive, asymptomatic patients in the absence and presence of concomitant zidovudine administration. Eight participants received rHu GM-CSF (5 micrograms/kg subcutaneously) daily for 4 days in combination with placebo or zidovudine (200 mg orally every 8 hours) in a randomized, crossover fashion, with each study period separated by a 3-day washout phase. Pharmacokinetic blood sampling was performed over 16 hours on days 1 and 4 of both treatment periods, and subsequent analysis of serum was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pharmacokinetic results of rHu GM-CSF at steady state (days 4 of periods I and II) in the absence (placebo) and presence of zidovudine included apparent total body clearance, half-life, and apparent volume of distribution, all of which were not significantly altered with concomitant administration of zidovudine. Mean pharmacokinetic results of rHu GM-CSF after the first dose (days 1 of periods I and II) were similar to steady-state values; however, total body clearance was significantly increased at steady state compared with the results of the first dose. Concurrent administration of zidovudine does not influence the pharmacokinetic disposition of rHu GM-CSF after single or multiple doses.
To assess the impact of treatment with zidovudine plus lamivudine or zalcitabine on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with HIV.
retrovir generic name
Sixty patients were enrolled and evaluated over 24 weeks. Quality of life was assessed using a modified version of the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey. For analysis, we calculated two summary scores reflecting the physical (PHS) and the mental (MHS) components of health.
Samples were obtained from previously antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects enrolled into two studies, AVANTI 2 and AVANTI 3. Subjects were randomized to receive either: ZDV/3TC or ZDV/3TC plus indinavir (IDV) for 52 weeks (AVANTI 2), and ZDV/3TC or ZDV/3TC and nelfinavir (NFV) for 28 weeks (AVANTI 3). Emergence of viral resistance mutations was monitored by population sequencing and phenotypic resistance was determined by the recombinant virus assay.
retrovir oral suspension
We compared total BMD changes over 96 weeks in 106 ART-naive HIV-infected subjects who were randomized to receive efavirenz (EFV) + zidovudine/lamivudine (n = 32) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + zidovudine/lamivudine induction (n = 74) for 24-48 weeks followed by LPV/r monotherapy. We also sought to identify factors associated with BMD loss, including markers of systemic inflammation [soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors (sTNFR I and II)].
HIV-associated pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) or PRP type VI designates a new distinctive entity reported in HIV patients. It is characterized by cutaneous lesions of PRP and variable association with lesions of acne conglobata, hidradenitis suppurativa and lichen spinulosus. We report a patient with HIV-associated PRP which was treated by triple antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine, lamivudin and saquinavir) with complete response. The patient has remained free from symptoms for 20 months of follow-up. We review the clinical features, pathology, evolution, treatment and possible aetiology of this recently described entity.
retrovir tablets spc
In Uganda, ART appears highly cost-effective for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, even if continued over the patients' lifetimes. Given the additional public health benefits of ART, efforts to ensure that all HIV-positive pregnant women have access to lifelong ART should be intensified.
retrovir dosage forms
Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.
A total of 58 HIV positive women were enrolled at the time of delivery and their plasma samples were obtained within 24 h of delivery for estimation of viral load. Viral load analysis was completed in 38 women. Infants received single dose nevirapine within 2 h of birth and zidovudine for 6 wk. At the end of 18 month follow up, HIV positive or negative status was available in 28 infants.
The object of this paper is to explore the health beliefs associated with taking AZT in asymptomatic HIV seropositive individuals. Twenty-eight asymptomatic gay men receiving out-patient care completed self-report questionnaires. Information was gathered on demography, general state of health, health locus of control and health beliefs about AZT therapy. Analyses revealed that 'acceptors' and 'decliners' of early (controversial) medical intervention in HIV disease hold distinctly different beliefs regarding their own health and its relation to treatment. An awareness of the fact that a patient's view of themselves is likely to accord with any action or treatment decision they may have taken, could help to promote a better understanding of why treatment behaviours may or may not appear to be in harmony with the doctors own views and any current medical advice being offered.
Three-drug antiretroviral regimens are standard of care for initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, but a 4-drug regimen could improve antiretroviral activity and be more effective than a 3-drug regimen.
retrovir 250 mg
We compared the long-term effects of stavudine (10 microM), zidovudine (1 muM), didanosine (10 microM), abacavir (4 microM), lamivudine (10 microM), and tenofovir (1 microM), near their maximum concentration values, on the differentiation, lipid accumulation, survival and mitochondrial function of differentiating 3T3-F442A and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
HAART has dramatically decreased the incidence of cardiomyopathy among perinatally HIV-infected children. However, they remain at increased risk for cardiomyopathy and ongoing ZDV exposure may increase this risk.
Phosphoramidate pronucleotides have proven to be an effective strategy for the intracellular delivery of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates. This review will summarize our efforts to understand the in vitro and in vivo behavior of phosphoramidate monoesters of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (FLT) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR). Insights drawn from these studies have proved valuable for the future design of phosphoramidate-based pronucleotides.
retrovir 300 mg
Baseline viral load, CD4+ cell count, and change in CD4+ cell count predicted alterations in trunk fat, extremity fat, and lean mass. HAART use and zidovudine use were associated with bone loss, and zidovudine use was associated with fat loss, but HAART use was not associated with fat mass changes.
retrovir 200 mg
In an analysis of the primary endpoint, 61% of patients on d4T + ddI + IDV and 45% of patients on ZDV + 3TC + IDV had all HIV-1 RNA values obtained between weeks 40 and 48 < 500 copies/ml [95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between proportions, 1.7-30.3%; P = 0.038]. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the percentage of all patients randomized with all HIV-1 RNA levels < 500 copies/ml between 40 and 48 weeks were 53% for the d4T + ddI + IDV arm and 41% for the ZDV + 3TC + IDV arm (95% CI, -1.4% to 25.7%; P = 0.068). At 48 weeks 41% and 35% were < or = 50 copies/ml for the stavudine- and ZDV-containing arms respectively (P > 0.2). The median time-weighted average increases in CD4 cells count over 48 weeks were 150 x 10(6)/l cells for the d4T arm and 106 x 10(6)/l cells for the ZDV arm (P= 0.001). The occurrence of serious adverse events was not significantly different between arms.
retrovir drug interactions
No significant difference was observed in the overall rate of anaemia between HIV-infected individuals starting a ZDV-based treatment according to a standard- or reduced-dose regimen. Severe anaemia and treatment switches related to study drug, however, were more frequent with 600 mg than 400 mg ZDV.