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To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and risks of pharmacological, behavioural and physical interventions for tics in children and young people with TS (part 1) and to explore the experience of treatment and services from the perspective of young people with TS and their parents (part 2).
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To review the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone as treatment for mania.
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Long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) is a novel, intramuscular formulation of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, which has shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Long-acting risperidone is pharmacokinetically equivalent to and causes less plasma drug concentration fluctuation than the oral formulation. This novel formulation is an aqueous suspension of microspheres comprising risperidone and a biodegradable copolymer. Significant release of risperidone from the microspheres begins 3 weeks after the first injection: thus, administration of another antipsychotic is necessary during this period only. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached after the fourth injection. Elimination is complete 7-8 weeks after the last injection.Long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg every 2 weeks demonstrated significantly greater antipsychotic efficacy than placebo and equivalent efficacy to oral risperidone 2-6 mg/day in two randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week trials of patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, in one of these trials, improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were superior with long-acting risperidone than placebo. Compared with baseline, improvements in the symptoms of schizophrenia in stable patients were significant with long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg (12-month trial) and 25, 37.5 or 50mg (12-week trial) every 2 weeks, in two noncomparative, multicentre trials. Patient satisfaction with their medication and patient HRQOL mental health scores improved significantly in the 12-month trial.Long-acting risperidone is generally well tolerated, with a low incidence of injection site pain and an otherwise similar profile of adverse effects to the oral formulation. The overall incidence of extrapyramidal disorders in clinical trials was low (< or= 10%) with similar, yet minimal, changes in extrapyramidal symptom severity between patients treated with long-acting risperidone, oral risperidone or placebo. Tardive dyskinesia was reported in the 12-month trial, in 0.7% of patients.
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This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics and determine bioequivalence of two risperidone immediate release oral tablets, a test formulation (Risperidone GPO® or "Test") and a reference formulation (Risperdal® or "Reference").
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Types of studies included unconfounded, randomised trials with concealed allocation of subjects. For inclusion trials had to have assessed patients pre- and post-treatment. Where cross-over studies are included, only data from the first part of the study were examined. Interrupted time series were excluded. Length of trial and number of measurements did not influence the selection of trials for study. Where indicated, individual patient data were requested for further examination.
The study was carried out in 32 healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations in plasma were determined using HPLC/MS/MS.
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The database for the analyses comprised 22 studies including 16 open-label and six placebo-controlled studies. Based on the quality, sample size, and study design of studies prior to 2000, the database was then restricted to articles published after the year 2000. Effect sizes were calculated for each reported measure within a study to calculate an average effect size per study.
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Six trials (1343 participants) of risperidone as monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment to lithium, or an anticonvulsant, were identified. Permitted doses were consistent with those recommended by the manufacturers of Haldol (haloperidol) and Risperdal (risperidone) for treatment of mania and trials involving haloperidol allowed antiparkinsonian treatment. Risperidone monotherapy was more effective than placebo in reducing manic symptoms, using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (weighted mean difference (WMD) -5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.46 to -4.04, P<0.00001; 2 trials) and in leading to response, remission and sustained remission. Effect sizes for monotherapy and adjunctive treatment comparisons were similar. Low levels of baseline depression precluded reliable assessment of efficacy for treatment of depressive symptoms. Risperidone as monotherapy and as adjunctive treatment was more acceptable than placebo, with lower incidence of failure to complete treatment (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.82, P = 0.0003; 5 trials). Overall risperidone caused more weight gain, extrapyramidal disorder, sedation and increase in prolactin level than placebo. There was no evidence of a difference in efficacy between risperidone and haloperidol either as monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment. The acceptability of risperidone and haloperidol in incidence of failure to complete treatment was comparable. Overall risperidone caused more weight gain than haloperidol but less extrapyramidal disorder and comparable sedation.
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A total of 1232 patients (70% men; mean age 37 years; median of 8 months since most recent admission) were included in the analyses; 79% had been receiving antipsychotic therapy prior to admission. All patients received RLAI post-stabilization. The main reasons for initiating RLAI were the need for long-term treatment (76%) and a low adherence to previous treatment (71%). RLAI doses administered during hospitalization were: 25 (26%), 37.5 (29%), 50 (42%) and 75-100 mg (3%). The mean number of injections per patient (2 +/- 1) and mean hospitalization time (25 +/- 16 days) indicated that RLAI was administered every 2 weeks as per the manufacturer's recommendations. All patients were discharged on RLAI treatment; 62% were prescribed concomitant therapy, mainly oral risperidone (39%), anxiolytics (25%), antiparkinsonians (15%), hypnotics (11%) and anticonvulsants (11%). Only 5.7% of patients reported adverse events, most commonly extrapyramidal symptoms (1.1%) and somnolence (0.9%).
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Risperidone (Risperdal) is a novel antipsychotic drug, with beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and with a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). These particular properties have been attributed to the predominant and very potent serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonism of the drug combined with less potent dopamine D2 antagonism. In order to provide data on the degree to which various central neurotransmitter receptors are occupied in vivo, we performed ex vivo receptor occupancy studies with risperidone in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol in rats and guinea pigs. Various types of receptors, to which the compounds were known to bind to in vitro, were investigated precisely using receptor autoradiography in sections of the same rat brain except for histamine H1 receptors that were measured in the guinea-pig cerebellum. Risperidone (2 h after s.c. treatment) occupied 5-HT2 receptors at very low doses (ED50 = 0.067 mg/kg). Nearly full occupancy (> 80%) was achieved before H1, D2, alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors became occupied (ED50 = 0.45, 0.66, 0.75 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively). Clozapine displayed occupancy of H1 and alpha 1 receptors at low doses (ED50 = 0.15 and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively) and of 5-HT2, 5-HT1C, D2, alpha 2, cholinergic muscarinic and 5-HT1A receptors at higher doses (ED50 = 1.3, 1.8, 9.0, 9.5, 11 and 15 mg/kg, respectively). Haloperidol occupied D2 and alpha 1 receptors at low doses (ED50 = 0.13 and 0.42 mg/kg, respectively) and 5-HT2 receptors at a higher dose (ED50 = 2.6 mg/kg). Occupancy of receptor types occurred with similar ED50-values in various brain areas, e.g. D2 receptors in striatum and mesolimbic areas. The ED50-values for the ex vivo measured occupancy of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors were in good agreement with ED50-values for functional effects putatively mediated by these central receptors. The dose-dependent occupancy of D2 receptors proceeded more gradually with risperidone (slope in the caudate-putamen: 0.85) than with clozapine (slope: 1.44) or haloperidol (slope: 1.51). It has previously been suggested that partial D2 receptor occupancy may suffice to control the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas higher D2 receptor occupancy would induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The dose ratio for high (75%) vs. low (25%) D2 receptor occupancy in the caudate-putamen, was 37.3 for risperidone, 8.4 for clozapine, and 7.9 for haloperidol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Two new cases are presented with delusions of parasitosis. Both were women, one middle-aged and one elderly, and exhibited classic symptoms of parasites and "strings" in the skin indicative of Morgellons disease. Each had an additional psychiatric disorder: drug addiction to cocaine and senile dementia. They also illustrate the difficulty encountered by the dermatologist in providing adequate therapy because of resistance to psychiatric referral as well as to standard accepted medication. Newer psychotropics, such as risperdal and lexapro, show promise in helping these patients and add to the therapeutic armamentarium of pimozide.
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Schizophrenia is a chronic disease characterized by psychotic symptoms as well as negative symptoms such as affective flattening, social withdrawal and occupational dysfunction. Anti-psychotic medications reduce the risk of psychotic exacerbations and hospitalization. Poor compliance is common among patients with schizophrenia. Long-acting medications have such advantages as stabilizing drug levels and improving compliance. Second generation anti-psychotic medications were found to be more effective and tolerable compared to first generation drugs. These medications cause less extra-pyramidal symptoms, and compliance with them was shown to be better. Until recently there were only first generation long-acting anti-psychotics in use. Recently a new second generation long-acting anti-psychotic drug was introduced in Israel. We present our experience with a first schizophrenic patient treated with long-acting Risperidone (Risperdal Consta). The patient was treated in the past with several first generation anti-psychotics and suffered severe extra-pyramidal symptoms. His compliance with treatment was poor. Under treatment with oral Risperidone a considerable improvement was recorded, however compliance remained poor. Under treatment with long-acting Risperidone, Intramuscularly 25 Mg every two week, both positive and negative symptoms improved substantially, as well as compliance with treatment. The results of this case study encourage us to believe that many more patients will benefit from the advantages of both a second-generation anti-psychotic and a long-acting preparation.
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A retrospective chart review within-subject mirror-image study using actual practice chart review data was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and annual hospital episodes for adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder before and after switching to Risperdal Consta in the period 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2005. Secondary endpoints included mean length of hospital stay per episode, the cost of hospitalization, and the cost of antipsychotic treatment. The base case analytical approach allocated all hospital episodes overlapping the switch date entirely to pre-switch treatment. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at the time of the switch, the change in bed-days per year was also estimated using an alternative analytical approach inspired by economic modelling.
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Randomised controlled trials comparing risperidone with placebo or other drugs in acute manic or mixed episodes.
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Risperidone, a serotonin-dopamine antagonist, is effective in preventing delusions and hallucinations by D2 receptor antagonism and treating negative symptoms by 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. It is less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms than conventional antipsychotics, enabling safe drug therapy for schizophrenia. Paliperidone, based on 9OH-risperidone(major metabolite of risperidone), was developed to make the best use of the high therapeutic efficacy of Risperdal and enable continued treatment with lower prevalence of adverse events. Its mechanism of action as an extended-release tablet ensures slow release of the active ingredient, contributing to the lower prevalence of adverse events. With these pharmacological characteristics in mind, the two drugs can serve as safe and effective drug therapy.
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This open-label, multi-centre study enrolled 82 adults from four diagnostic groups (major depressive disorder (MDD), n = 25; bipolar disorder (BP), n = 21; dementia (DE), n = 20; schizophrenia (SZ), n = 16). Patients were switched from their previous dosage of compressed tablets (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0 mg/day) to an equivalent dosage of orally disintegrating risperidone and followed for 4 weeks. The primary effectiveness parameter evaluated was the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale.
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A single-dose, randomized, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in 23 healthy Thai male volunteers. Blood samples were collected predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h following an oral administration of 2 mg risperidone. The plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Test and Reference were obtained by noncompartmental analysis.
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A randomized, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence, single dose, crossover with a washout period of 2 weeks, was conducted in 24 healthy Thai male volunteers. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h following drug administration. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined using a validated LC-MS-MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined using a non-compartmental model.
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Three studies were found that satisfied selection criteria. These studies compared haloperidol with risperidone, olanzapine, and placebo in the management of delirium and in the incidence of adverse drug reactions. Decrease in delirium scores were not significantly different comparing the effect of low dose haloperidol (< 3.0 mg per day) with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone (Odds ratio 0.63 (95% CI 10.29 - 1.38; p = 0.25). Low dose haloperidol did not have a higher incidence of adverse effects than the atypical antipsychotics. High dose haloperidol (> 4.5 mg per day) in one study was associated with an increased incidence of extrapyramidal adverse effects, compared with olanzapine. Low dose haloperidol decreased the severity and duration of delirium in post-operative patients, although not the incidence of delirium, compared to placebo controls in one study. There were no controlled trials comparing quetiapine with haloperidol.
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From our study, it was concluded that these optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™ and, therefore, could further improve patient compliance.
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Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is used to treat mania both alone and in combination with other medicines.
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The patient was referred for further medical investigation, as he was demonstrating signs suggestive of a psychiatric disorder. The patient was diagnosed with schizophrenia by a psychiatrist and was prescribed Risperdal.
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is the key component of long acting drug products responsible for providing sustained release in a controlled manner. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate an analytical protocol to determine key properties of PLGA used in commercial long-acting drug products. Procedures to isolate PLGA from commercial products have been established and the key properties of PLGA, such as polymer molecular weight, lactide:glycolide (L:G) ratio, and nature of polymer end-cap, have been determined. Identification of the polymer end-cap was confirmed by using two PLGA polymers with acid and ester end-caps. Trelstar(®) and Risperdal Consta(®) were chosen as model products. The calculated L:G ratios of PLGA used in Trelstar(®) and Risperdal(®) are 52:48 and 78:22, respectively. PLGAs from both Trelstar(®) and Risperdal Consta(®) possess ester end-caps. Since the properties of specific PLGA in clinically used formulations are not readily available, this protocol will be useful in developing PLGA-based long acting drug products.
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The preparation and investigation of sustained-release risperidone-encapsulated microspheres using erodible poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of lower molecular weight were performed and compared to that of commercial Risperdal Consta™ for the treatment of schizophrenia. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of lower molecular weight PLGA50/50 or the blends of these PLGA polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order release kinetics properties. Solvent evaporation method was applied here while studies of the risperidone loaded microsphere were carried out on its drug encapsulation capacity, morphology, particle size, as well as in vitro release profiles. Results showed that microspheres prepared using 50504A PLGA or blends of 5050-type PLGAs exerted spherical and smooth morphology, with a higher encapsulation efficiency and nearly zero-order release kinetics. These optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™, which could further improve the patient compliance.
Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioural symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence and hyperglycaemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.
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Ziprasidone (Geodon), risperidone (Risperdal), and aripiprazole (Abilify) appear to be associated with a relatively low risk for hyperlipidemia, whereas quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and clozapine (Clozaril) are associated with a relatively high risk for hyperlipidemia. Possible underlying causes of lipid dysregulation include weight gain, dietary changes, and glucose intolerance. Given the multiple cardiovascular risk factors reported for patients with schizophrenia, great care must be exercised to minimize the additional risk for hyperlipidemia when choosing antipsychotic therapy. It is recommended that a lipid panel be obtained at baseline for all patients with schizophrenia and annually thereafter for patients taking relatively low-risk agents or quarterly thereafter for patients taking relatively high-risk agents. Patients with persistent dyslipidemia should be referred for lipid-lowering therapy or switched to a less lipid-enhancing antipsychotic agent.
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Poor adherence to pharmacotherapy during maintenance-phase treatment of bipolar disorder is a common occurrence, exposing patients to a high risk of illness relapses, rehospitalization and other negative outcomes. In view of this, there has been a reawakening of interest in the potential of long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications to improve treatment outcome during bipolar maintenance therapy. Indeed, long-acting injectable medications have practical advantages of assuring delivery of medication at a prescribed dose, and perhaps also making it easier to monitor adherence, at least to the long-acting drug. However, there are important limitations to the long-term use of depot typical neuroleptics in patients with bipolar disorder, including risk of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia, which may exceed that of patients with schizophrenia, and the potential for treatment-emergent exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI) has recently been approved for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. Evidence supporting the use of RLAI for this indication consists of several nonrandomized, open-label studies; one randomized, open-label trial; and two adequately powered randomized, double-blind trials. In general, these studies have shown RLAI to be effective for the prevention of relapse or hospitalization during bipolar maintenance treatment. In the double-blind studies, RLAI was associated with reduced relapse rates, increased time to relapse and greater control of clinical symptoms during maintenance treatment following initial stabilization, compared with oral medication treatment or placebo injection. RLAI appeared to be more effective for preventing manic/mixed episodes than depressive episodes. RLAI showed good tolerability across studies; however, dose-related extrapyramidal effects, sedation, weight gain and prolactin elevation may occur during long-term treatment. Responder-enriched designs and exclusion of important clinical subgroups in the double-blind trials may limit translation of these results to routine care settings.