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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax

 

Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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Of the 7 antibiotics tested, clarithromycin showed the greatest activity against C. trachomatis isolates with MIC90 of 0.032 μg/mL and MBC90 of 0.064 μg/mL, followed by doxycycline with MIC90 0.064 μg/mL and MBC90 0.064 μg/mL, and azithromycin with MIC90 0.160 μg/mL and MBC90 0.320 μg/mL. Azithromycin had roughly the same MIC50 values (0.08 μg/mL) as the other serovars isolates tested, and other antibiotics showed a 2- to 4-fold difference in MICs50 between serovars. In addition, an increase in the azithromyin MIC was observed by 8 hours and the ofloxacin MIC by 16 hours. At 24 hours, the azithromycin MICs were greater than 40 μg/mL and ofloxacin MICs were greater than 64 μg/mL.

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The in vitro activity of azithromycin (CP 62,993 or XZ-450) against Haemophilus influenzae was greater than that of three other macrolides. However, azithromycin was four- to eightfold less active than erythromycin against the gram-positive cocci and against Listeria monocytogenes. Erythromycin and azithromycin were similar in their activity against Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Branhamella catarrhalis.

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We studied the immunological and histopathological factors that affect the prognosis of chronic rhinosinusitis under long-term low-dose macrolide therapy. Sixteen patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were given 200 mg clarithromycin or 150 mg roxithromycin orally once a day without other concurrent treatments for 2-3 months. Measurement of the serum IgE level, blood cell count and differential leukocyte count of the peripheral blood, cytological assessment of the nasal smear and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the paranasal sinuses were performed before treatment. The opacity of the sinuses was estimated and scored by the CT images. After treatment, anterior ethmoidal mucosa samples were collected, an infiltrated inflammatory cells, interferon (IFN)-gamma-positive cells and interleukin (IL)-4-positive cells were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The severity of nasal symptoms was scored before and after treatment, and the improvement rate of the score (symptomatic improvement rate) was calculated. Patients with normal levels of serum IgE (

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Universal quantitative models using NIR reflectance spectroscopy were developed for the analysis of API contents (active pharmaceutical ingredient) in roxithromycin and erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets from different manufacturers in China. The two quantitative models were built from 78 batches of roxithromycin samples from 18 different manufacturers with the API content range from 19.5% to 73.9%, and 66 batches erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets from 36 manufacturers with the API content range from 28.1% to 70.9%. Three different spectrometers were used for model construction in order to have robust and universal models. The root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of the model for roxithromycin tablets were 1.84% and 1.45%, respectively. The values of RMSECV and RMSEP of the model for erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets were 2.31% and 2.16%, respectively. Based on the ICH guidelines and characteristics of NIR spectroscopy, the quantitative models were then evaluated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and model transferability. Our study has shown that it is feasible to build a universal quantitative model for quick analysis of pharmaceutical products from different manufacturers. Therefore, the NIR method could be used as an effective method for quick, non-destructive inspection of medicines in the distribution channels or open market.

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The efficacy and safety of roxithromycin 300 mg once a day was compared with that of erythromycin 500 mg twice a day, both for seven days, in a double blind study of 281 patients (188 men, 93 women) with genitourinary chlamydial infections. At the end of the treatment 251 (89%) patients were evaluable, and at follow up two weeks later 227 (81%) were evaluable. The bacteriological cure rate was close to 100% at the end of both treatment regimens. At follow up 55/75 (73%) evaluable men and 38/39 (97%) evaluable women treated with roxithromycin were chlamydia negative compared with 50/71 (70%) evaluable men and 37/42 (88%) evaluable women treated with erythromycin. Of the 47 who were still chlamydia positive, reinfection could not be excluded in half the men and all the women. Side effects were mainly gastrointestinal and were found in about 15% of patients receiving each treatment, but did not necessitate discontinuing treatment in any case. Roxithromycin seems to be as safe and efficacious as erythromycin in treating chlamydial infections in men and women, and it has the advantage that treatment is by a single daily dose.

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Infantile exposure to macrolides has been associated with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis causing projectile vomiting, dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and in rare cases death possibly via macrolide interaction with gastric motilin receptors. Large population-based cohorts have suggested that exposure to macrolides via breastmilk may be associated with pyloric stenosis.

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Seven RCTs were found in the systematic review and six studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Macrolides treatment showed a significant reduced rate of pulmonary exacerbation (RR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.43-0.70) compared with control groups. However, subgroup analysis failed to find any significant changes in total 46 patients (RR = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.03-1.58) for treatment not more than 3 months. The incidence rates of total adverse events showed no significant difference among the macrolides group and control groups.

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To test the efficacy of short-term administration of RXM, elder IL-10-deficient mice (16-20 weeks old) with established colitis were orally treated for 10 days with RXM (20 mg/kg per day). To test the long-term preventive effects of RXM, for 20 weeks young adult IL-10-deficient mice (4-5 weeks old) also were administered RXM orally (20 mg/kg per day).

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Low dose Roxithromycin has good long term curative effect in treating chronic sinusitis. Low dose Roxithromycin can greatly urge the apoptosis of endothelial cell.

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We evaluated the effect of roxithromycin therapy (150 mg twice daily for 30 days) on the progression of the intima-to-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery using duplex ultrasonography in a prospective and randomized trial with a follow-up of 2 years in 272 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke aged over 55 years in whom the first IMT measurement and Cp testing (IgG and IgA) were performed at least 3 years before the roxithromycin treatment. Cp IgG antibodies (> or =1:64) were initially found in 123 (45%) patients and IgA antibodies (> or =1:16) in 112 (41%) patients. During the 3 years before antibiotic therapy, Cp-positive patients showed an enhanced IMT progression, even after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors (0.12 [95% CI, 0.11 to 0.14] versus 0.07 [0.05 to 0.09] mm/year; P<0.005). The 62 Cp-positive patients given roxithromycin showed a significantly decreased IMT progression after 2 years compared with the Cp-positive patients without therapy (0.07 [0.045 to 0.095] versus 0.11 [0.088 to 0.132] mm/year; P<0.01). No significant difference in the occurrence of future cardiovascular events was found between both groups during follow-up. No change of IMT was observed in Cp-negative patients given roxithromycin (n=74) compared with those without therapy (0.06 [0.03 to 0.09] versus 0.07 [0.05 to 0.09] mm/year).

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Macrolide treatment has been reported to lower the risk of recurrent ischaemic heart disease. The influence of macrolides on the expansion rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown. The aim was to investigate the effect of roxithromycin on the expansion rate of small AAAs.

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CT infection rates (14.99%), UU infection rates (23.24%), UU + MH infection rates (29.05%),CT + UU + MH infection rates (9.17%) and total infection rates (88.99%) in infertility group is higher than those (order: 2.80%, 6.99%, 8.39%, 4.55%, 29.02%) in the control group, comparisons of two groups are statistically significant differences (P < 0.05), the susceptibility of UU to roxithromycin (sensitivity is 96.05%), josamycin (sensitivity is 96.05%), tetracycline (sensitivity is 82.89%), vibramycin( sensitivity is 92.11%) and clarithromycin (sensitivity is 96.05%) were relatively high and low to ciprofloxacin and acetyl spiramycin. The susceptibility of MH to josamycin (sensitivity is 95.83%), vibramycin (sensitivity is 91.67%), minocin (sensitivity is 83.33%) and actinospectacin (sensitivity is 75.00%) were relatively high and low to erythromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin. UU + MH was only sensitive to josamycin (sensitivity is 90.52%), high resistance (77.89% -91.58%) to erythromycin, azithromycin, acetyl spiramycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and clarithromycin.

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Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic 14-membered-ring macrolide antibiotic in which the erythronolide A lactone ring has been altered to prevent inactivation in the gastric milieu. The in-vitro activity of roxithromycin is well documented and similar to that of other macrolide antibiotics. Roxithromycin is active against gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, gram-positive bacilli and some gram-negative bacilli, but has no significant effect on the predominant faecal flora. It also displays good activity against atypical pathogens, such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Helicobacter pylori and Borrelia spp. It penetrates and accumulates within cells, such as macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), where it is distributed between the cytosol and cellular granules. Once inside the cells, it is active against intracellular pathogens, such as Legionella, Chlamydia, Mycobacterium, Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. Like other macrolides, roxithromycin displays a significant post-antibiotic effect which is dependent on the pathogens under study, the concentration of roxithromycin and the duration of exposure. In vivo, roxithromycin is as effective or more effective than other macrolides in a wide range of infections.

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As Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer, therapeutic strategies aimed at maintaining long term remission have shifted from the control of intragastric pH to targeting H. pylori. According to recent international guidelines the clinical goals--rapid ulcer healing and prevention of relapse--can be best accomplished by combination therapy consisting of an antisecretory drug (proton pump inhibitor or ranitidine) and 2 antimicrobial agents (preferable amoxicillin, clarithromycin or metronidazole). When applying such multidrug regimens, possible synergy between the agents suggests that pharmacokinetic considerations might help to improve H. pylori eradication rates, which should be above 85 to 90% on an intention-to-treat basis. The present review summarises the pharmacokinetic properties and interaction potential of all drugs presently used in the various H. pylori eradication regimens, with emphasis on particular patient populations such as the elderly and those with renal impairment. The drugs considered are omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, ranitidine and ranitidine bismutrex, bismuth salts, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, metronidazole, tinidazole and tetracycline. When addressing the clinically important questions of the efficacy, safety and costs of the recommended regimens, the impact of drug disposition on H. pylori eradication should not be neglected.

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We previously reported antiangiogenic activity of roxithromycin and clarithromycin, 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of roxithromycin and clarithromycin, alone and in combination with several cytotoxic drugs, on mouse B16BL6 melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Both roxithromycin and clarithromycin potentiated the inhibition of tumor growth induced by cyclophosphamide, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), Adriamycin and vindesine in vivo. However, neither roxithromycin nor clarithromycin, altered the cytotoxicity of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), Adriamycin or vindesine in an in vitro cell proliferation assay. These results suggest that the antiangiogenic activity of roxithromycin and clarithromycin may provide beneficial effects in combination with cytotoxic therapies against solid tumors.

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This paper describes a simple spectrofluorometric method for the analysis of 4 macrolide antibiotics. The method is based on the condensation of 10% (w/v) malonic acid and acetic acid anhydride under the catalytic effect of tertiary amine groups of the studied macrolides. The relative fluorescence intensity of the condensation product was measured at 397/452 nm (excitation/emission) for azithromycin dihydrate and at 392/445 nm (for clarithromycin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and roxithromycin. All variables affecting the reaction conditions were studied. The effects of potential interference due to common excipients, such as starch, lactose, sucrose, glucose, gum acacia, and magnesium stearate, as well as trimethoprim and sulfisoxazole acetyl formulated in primomycin capsules and pediazole oral suspension, respectively, were studied. A validation study for the proposed method was carried out according to U.S. Pharmacopeia 2002. The linearity ranges were 3-80 ng/mL for all of the cited macrolides. The limit of detection range was 0.74-1.20 ng/mL, while the limit of quantitation range was 2.47-4.02 ng/mL. The method was applied for the assay of the studied macrolides in pure pharmaceutical formulations and in spiked biological fluids. Results were compared with those obtained from the reported method, where calculated t- and F-values indicated high accuracy and good precision for the proposed method.

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This study investigated the residues of antibiotics present in the Yellow River and its tributaries. Ofloxacin, norfloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole, were found in the river with mean concentrations from 25 to 152 ng/L, and in certain tributaries from 44 to 240 ng/L. The other four analytes were all below the limits of quantification. The results indicated that the detected antibiotics in the middle and lower Yellow River were primarily from its tributaries and ambient wastewater discharge. The concentrations of the antibiotics detected in the river were greater than that in other rivers in Europe. The antibiotics in the river and its tributaries at ng/L concentrations found in this study are unlikely to induce lethal toxicity to aquatic organism but could cause chronic ecological effects.

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A very favorable outcome after chemotherapy of 122 cases of M. kansasii lung disease was reported by Dr. Mizutani, who emphasized RFP as the "Key drug", and concluded that three-drug combination (not two-drug), including RFP (RFP.INH.EB or SM) for 1 year, could be a standard regimen for M. kansasii lung disease at the time of the moment. In addition, the following itemes were discussed. (1) In cases resistant to RFP, one could possibly replace RFP by TH, one of new quinolones (NQ), or the new macrolide (NM) (clarithromycin, CAM). (2) In low grade resistant cases to INH (0.1 microgram /ml) or EB (2.5 micrograms/ml), the replacement of the drugs may not be necessary, however, in higher-grade resistance to INH or EB, many cases were looked for the change of drugs according the results of the questionnaire done by the author. The present status of basic preclinical evaluations of new drugs were presented by Dr. Tomioka, who summarized in vitro and in vivo antimycobacterial activities of NMs and NQs. The most potent activity among NMs was demonstrated in CAM, which is probably the candidate for M. kansasii and possibly for M. avium complex (MAC) disease, followed by roxithromycin (RXM) and azithromycin (AZM) in sequence. NQs including the ones under development were generally potent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii and M. fortuitum. NQs were not potent enough for MAC. In addition, the author discussed more suitable in vitro techniques which should reflect in vivo evaluations, and proposed the observation of in vitro bactericidal activity using both Cmax (maximal in vivo concentration) and C (0-8h) (the average concentration during 8 hours after administration) of drugs, and also the assessment of bactericidal activities of drugs in macrophages as better choices. As additional comments, the results of in vitro activities of NQs and NMs against MAC were supplemented by two authors, Dr. Tsuyuguchi and Dr. Kawahara. The assessment using 7 H 9 liquid medium by the former author demonstrated the potent activities of both CS-940* and sparfloxacin (SPFX), followed by AM-1155*, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), levofloxacin (LVFX), OPC-17116*, NM-394* in sequence. The author gave attention also to a high Cmax in CS-940*. In vitro activities with 7 H 11 agar medium reported by Dr. Kawahara demonstrated generally higher activities against M. avium than M. intracellulare, and reported potent activities of CPFX, SPFX, LVFX, grepafloxacin (GPFX), AM-1155*, and DU-6859 a* among 14 NQs tested. The author reported a rather potent activity of CAM against MAC followed by RXM and AZM in sequence. There was an impression that the MICs in both liquid and agar medium were comparable. (* : under development). The present status in the treatment of MAC lung disease was precisely reported by Dr. Harada, who summarized the results of survey both in 13 National Chest Hospitals (by questionnaire) and in the author's Hospital. The former survey demonstrated that 73% of the cases with the initial chemotherapy became consecutively negative for 6 months in the span of 9 months observation, which clearly showed the early response of MAC disease was rather favorable, in spite of very few cases with 4 drug-or more combinations. However, longer the follow up, the percentage of negative cases went down, which suggested bacteriological relapse occurred in relatively high percentage of the early converted cases. The evaluation of 117 cases of pulmonary MAC disease in the author's Hospital disclosed 2 drug-combination, RFP and INH, was clearly less potent than 3-drug combination, RFP.IHN.SM or EB, and 1 year after the begining of initial chemotherapy, around 60% of cases were negative, while only a little more than 40% of cases were negative in retreatments. The author suggested that around 50% of MAC lung disease may progress with episodes of "relapse". Death occurred 20% in the cases

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These findings show that 14-MRMLs clearly attenuated the expression of VCAM-1mRNA, and tended to attenuate the induction of ICAM-1 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and subsequently inhibited leucocyte, especially neutrophil migration into the airspace during the early phase of BLM-induced lung injury and finally inhibited lung fibrosis. This might be one potent mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of 14-MRMLs in BLM-induced acute lung injury. The findings suggest that prophylactic administration of 14-MRMLs may be clinically efficacious in preventing acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and acute lung injury.

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During a 3-year period, we retrieved the results from placental and amniotic membrane cultures obtained at delivery in cases of maternal fever, chorioamnionitis, and PPROM, and from blood cultures obtained from neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS) in three participating hospitals. Sensitivity of pathogens to antimicrobial agents was performed using routine microbiologic techniques.

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Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an important source of pharmaceuticals released into the environment. Understanding how various pharmaceuticals are distributed and handled in WWTPs is a prerequisite to optimize their abatement. Here we investigated the spatial distribution and removal efficiencies pharmaceuticals in China's WWTPs. A total of 35 pharmaceuticals in wastewater samples from 12 WWTPs at different cities of China were analyzed. Among these detected pharmaceuticals, caffeine showed the highest concentration (up to 1775.98ngL(-1)) in the WWTP influent. In addition, there were significant regional differences in pharmaceutical distribution with higher influent concentrations of total pharmaceuticals detected in WWTPs in the northern cities than the southern ones. The state-of-the-art treatment processes were generally inefficient in removing pharmaceuticals. Only 14.3% of pharmaceuticals were removed effectively (mean removal efficiency>70%), while 51.4% had a removal rate of below 30%. The anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrated process and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed better performance than the AAO and oxidation ditch (OD) processes. Ofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and sulfamethoxazole in WWTP effluents exhibited a high or medium ecological risk and deserved special attention.

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The azalide antibiotic azithromycin and the newer macrolides, such as clarithromycin, dirithromycin and roxithromycin, can be regarded as 'advanced-generation' macrolides compared with erythromycin, the first macrolide used clinically as an antibiotic. Their pharmacokinetics are characterized by a combination of low serum concentrations, high tissue concentrations and, in the case of azithromycin, an extended tissue elimination half-life. Azithromycin is particularly noted for high and prolonged concentrations at the site of infection. This allows once-daily dosing for 3 days in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, in contrast to longer dosage periods required for erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and agents belonging to other classes of antibiotics. The spectrum of activity of the advanced-generation macrolides comprises Gram-positive, atypical and upper respiratory anaerobic pathogens. Azithromycin and the active metabolite of clarithromycin also demonstrate activity against community-acquired Gram-negative organisms, such as Haemophilus influenzae. Advanced-generation macrolides, and in particular azithromycin, are highly concentrated within polymorphonuclear leucocytes, which gravitate by chemotactic mechanisms to sites of infection. Following phagocytosis of the pathogens at the infection site, they are exposed to very high, and sometimes cidal, intracellular concentrations of antibacterial agent. Pharmacodynamic models and susceptibility breakpoints derived from studies with other classes of drugs, such as the beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, do not adequately explain the clinical utility of antibacterial agents that achieve high intracellular concentrations. In the case of azithromycin, attention should focus on tissue pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts.

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Endocervical swabs were taken from fifty normal pregnant women (normal group) and fifty-eight women with spontaneous abortion due to embryonic death. The swabs were used for ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and mycoplasma hominis (MH) Cultivation respectively. The isolation rates of the two groups were comparedf.

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of detection. A number of studies have sought to determine factors that lead to progression of aneurysmal disease that might be amenable to intervention during this period of observation. We review these studies and make recommendations for the medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis of our current knowledge of the causes of aneurysm, a number of approaches have been proposed to prevent progression of aneurysmal disease. These include hemodynamic management, inhibition of inflammation, and protease inhibition. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines rules of evidence have helped to define strength of evidence to support these approaches. Level A evidence (from large randomized trials) is available to indicate that observation of small aneurysms in men is safe up to a size of 5.5 cm and that propranolol does not inhibit aneurysm expansion. Level B evidence (from small randomized trials) suggests that roxithromycin or doxycycline will decrease the rate of aneurysm expansion. A number of studies agree that tobacco use is associated with an increased rate of aneurysm expansion. Level B and C evidence is available to suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may inhibit aneurysm expansion. There are animal data but no human data demonstrating that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, will decrease the rate of AAA expansion. A pharmacological agent without important side effects that inhibited aneurysm expansion could change current approaches to aneurysm treatment. Additional studies are needed to clarify the potential role of doxycycline, roxithromycin, and statin therapy in the progression of aneurysmal disease.

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The antimycobacterial spectrum of roxithromycin, a semisynthetic 14-membered ring macrolide, was determined against 28 strains belonging to 16 species of atypical mycobacteria by measuring radiometric MICs by BACTEC methodology at two different pH values, i.e., 6.8 and 7.4. The MICs obtained at pH 7.4 were 1 to 2 dilutions lower or more than those obtained at pH 6.8 for some of the species. Roxithromycin possessed promising MICs against such potential pathogens as the Mycobacterium avium complex, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. malmoense, M. xenopi, M. marinum, M. kansasii, and rare pathogens like M. chelonei subsp. chelonei and M. chelonei subsp. abscessus but not against M. simiae. Roxithromycin showed lower MICs against M. fortuitum var. peregrinum than M. fortuitum var. fortuitum.

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This method was found to be simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate for determination of RM in human serum.

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Since roxithromycin inhibits CYP3A4, which is involved with cyclophosphamide metabolism, a drug-drug interaction could have been responsible. In addition, roxithromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein, possibly leading to accumulation of cyclophosphamide in endothelial cells. Alternatively, since cyclophosphamide has been reported to induce apoptosis, roxithromycin could have rendered endothelial cells more vulnerable for apoptosis.

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The influence of roxithromycin (RXM), a macrolide antibiotic, on endogenous corticosterone (CS) levels was examined in BALB/c mice. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with two doses of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin at 1 week intervals. Mice were given orally 2.5 mg/kg RXM once a day for 14 days starting 7 days after the first sensitization. RXM administration caused markedly increase in endogenous plasma CS levels which was peaked at 60 min after the administration. However, josamycin did not influence on endogenous CS levels in plasma. Injection of dexamethasone inhibits the plasma CS hyperproduction induced by RXM treatment.

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The effect was studied on gastrointestinal motor activity of three different macrolides (erythromycin, roxithromycin and midecamycin acetate), administered by mouth in therapeutic doses. This placebo-controlled study was performed in 12 normal human subjects by means of intraluminal pressure measurements in the gastric antrum, duodenum and upper jejunum. In each subject, three manometries were done for 5 h in the interdigestive period and for 3 h postprandially. In the interdigestive period, midecamycin acetate did not affect the characteristics of the gastric migrating motor complex (MMC) and did not increase the number of antral contractions or the gastric motility index as compared to the placebo. Erythromycin and roxithromycin increased the number of antral contractions (24.5 +/- 11 versus 15.2 +/- 7 and 28.4 +/- 12 versus 14.9 +/- 5.9 respectively) and the motility index (4.05 +/- 0.5 versus 3.17 +/- 0.6 and 4.38 +/- 0.2. versus 3.64 +/- 0.7 respectively) as compared to the placebo. In the postprandial period, the number of antral contractions was not significantly increased by any of the three antibiotics. The postprandial antral motility index was not significantly increased by midecamycin acetate. In contrast, the postprandial antral motility indexes after erythromycin (4.4 +/- 0.5) and after roxithromycin (4.3 +/- 0.2) were significantly greater than after the placebo. In the upper small intestine, erythromycin elicited an increased number of phase-III-like activity events and roxithromycin shortened the MMC cycle length. Midecamycin acetate had no effect on interdigestive upper jejunal motility. The postprandial jejunal motor activity was not altered by any of the three antibiotics neither during the interdigestive nor the postprandial periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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rulide tablets 150mg 2016-05-29

One hundred and sixty black South African gold miners with acute pneumococcal pneumonia were enrolled in a prospective randomized double-blind trial comparing roxithromycin (150 mg 2 X day) with cephradine (1.0 g 2 X day). Ninety patients with pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae were treated for buy rulide 5-10 days. Forty-three of 46 (93.4%) of the roxithromycin and all 44 (100%) of the cephradine treated groups had satisfactory clinical responses. In eight of the 46 (17%) roxithromycin treated patients and 10 of the 44 (23%) cephradine treated patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae was not eradicated from sputum cultures by the tenth day. Side effects in 18 patients (20%) were mild and were usually manifested by elevation of the transaminases; these were more common in the cephradine group (12) than in the roxithromycin group (5). Roxithromycin appears to be a safe and effective oral antibiotic for treatment of patients with mild to moderate pneumococcal pneumonia.

generic rulide tablet 2017-07-16

Recent evidence indicates that a variety of antibiotic residues may affect the integrity of streams located downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Aquatic communities comprising bacterial and fungal decomposers and invertebrate detritivores (shredders) play an important role in the decomposition of allochthonous leaf litter, which acts as a primary energy source for small running waters. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an antibiotic mixture consisting of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin buy rulide has an effect on such a decomposer-detritivore system. Leaf discs were exposed to these antibiotics (total concentration of 2 or 200 microg/L) for approximately 20 d before offering these discs and corresponding control discs to an amphipod shredder, Gammarus fossarum, in a food choice experiment. Gammarus preferred the leaf discs conditioned in the presence of the antibiotic mixture at 200 microg/L over the control discs (pair-wise t test; p = 0.006). A similar tendency, while not significant, was observed for leaves conditioned with antibiotics at a concentration of 2 microg/L. The number of bacteria associated with leaves did not differ between treatments at either antibiotic concentration (t test; p = 0.57). In contrast, fungal biomass (measured as ergosterol) was significantly higher in the 200 microg/L treatment (t test; p = 0.038), suggesting that the preference of Gammarus may be related to a shift in fungal communities. Overall these results indicate that mixtures of antibiotics may disrupt important ecosystem processes such as organic matter flow in stream ecosystems, although effects are likely to be weak at antibiotic concentrations typical of streams receiving wastewater treatment plant effluents.

rulide paediatric dose 2016-03-21

The microdilution MICs of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and pristinamycin against 50/90% of 249 Haemophilus influenzae and 50 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were 2/4, 0.06/0.125; 8/16, 0.25/0.25; 2/4, 0. buy rulide 06/0.125; 16/16, 0.25/0.25; 32/>32, 1/2; and 2/4, 0.5/0.5 microg/ml. Azithromycin was bactericidal against all 10 H. influenzae and 3 of 5 M. catarrhalis isolates and HMR 3647, erythromycin A, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and pristinamycin were bacteriostatic, against all 15 strains after 24 h at the MIC.

rulide roxithromycin dosage 2015-12-26

We searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane library and reviewed reference lists from 1980 through April 2015. Studies were included if they compared macrolides to other antibiotics in adults with various infections. The outcome measures were the overall mortality and the risk of cardiac buy rulide death.

rulide medication dosage 2015-07-17

Seventeen patients were included in a clinical open trial of macrolides for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. PASI scores, itch and ointment scores were used to evaluate their effectiveness. PASI scores dropped from 22.8 to 13.7; this was statistically significant. Itch reduced in 11 out of 13 patients, and the extent of itch reduced significantly by 54% on buy rulide average. Ointment scores reduced from 44.9 to 34.4, which was also statistically significant. Macrolides are known not only as potent anti-biotics, but also as immunomodulatory agents. These data suggest that macrolides could be used as one of the adjunctive therapies of psoriasis vulgaris, and this study is a first step toward the future evaluation of macrolides in a double blind trial.

rulide tablets 300mg 2015-08-02

When intermittent dosing is used during treatment, buy rulide the concentrations of antibiotics fluctuate and subinhibitory concentrations may occur between doses. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic subinhibitory effects (PA SMEs) on bacteria may provide additional, valuable information for the rational use of a drug in clinical practice. In this study tilmicosin was the most active antibiotic tested against P. multocida type D with MICs ranging from 4-16 mg/l. Roxithromycin and tilmicosin induced a statistically significantly longer PAE than did tylosin against P. multocida types A and D (P < 0.05). The duration of PAEs and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on P. multocida. Tilmicosin had a longer PA SME compared with erythromycin, roxithromycin and tylosin for P. multocida. The computerized incubator used in the present study provided an efficient and convenient determination of PAE and PA SME, allowing frequent measurements of the bacterial growth.

rulide tablet price 2017-10-30

The clinical efficacy of long-term roxithromycin treatment was examined objectively in nine patients with chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible. Roxithromycin was administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/day for between 68 days and 66 months. In seven of the nine cases (77.8%), the symptoms disappeared 1-12 months after the start of therapy. Radiography showed that osteolytic changes ( buy rulide evident from 'moth-eaten' appearance of bone) had improved but that osteosclerosis had persisted or become more predominant by the end of therapy. Therefore, the optimum duration of treatment should be decided according to the amelioration of symptoms along with the disappearance of osteolytic findings in radiographs. Diarrhoea and stomach discomfort occurred in one case, and liver dysfunction in another, but these adverse reactions were relatively mild. The mechanism of action of roxithromycin in this study is not yet fully understood, but our results indicate that long-term roxithromycin treatment may be useful for diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible and should be attempted before surgical treatment is considered.

rulide medication ingredients 2017-05-01

When certain drugs are taken concomitantly with an oral contraceptive, the efficacy of the contraceptive may be obtunded, and pregnancy may ensue. Since the function of oral contraceptives is to suppress ovulation, the risk of ovulation is an buy rulide important parameter in clinical studies investigating interactions between drugs and oral contraceptives. The purpose of this paper is to compare a crossover design, and a new study design used for assessing a possible interaction between a drug and an oral contraceptive, and to discuss the statistical issues involved in the planning and evaluation of the results of such studies.

rulide review 2017-09-12

A simple and accurate liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the quantitation of 20 anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs in human plasma, was developed as a tool for therapeutic drug monitoring. Two protein precipitation methods were adopted; one using methanol containing 0.13N HCl, for precipitation of amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide, and the other using acetonitrile, for precipitation buy rulide of preamoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clofazimine, cycloserine, ethambutol, ethionamide, isoniazid, levofloxacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), prothionamide, rifabutin, rifampin and roxithromycin. Separation was performed either on an HILIC silica column or a reversed-phase dC18 column, with a gradient elution. Detection was carried out in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves were linear over a 50-fold concentration range, with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.9969 for all anti-TB drugs. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 14.3%, and the accuracy ranged between 84.8 and 113.0%. The developed method was successfully applied to the identification and quantitation of anti-TB drugs in patients with multi-drug resistant TB.

rulide dosage 2015-01-05

A novel class of polyurethane-polyurea nanoparticles (PUUa NPs) to install multifunctionality on biomaterials is presented. Biofunctionalization of titanium with roxithromycin loaded RGD-decorated PUUa NPs results in an outstanding improvement of osteoblast adhesion and strong suppression buy rulide of bacterial attachment. This strategy represents a powerful approach to enhance the osseointegration of implant materials.

rulide az syrup 2017-06-29

The anticryptosporidial activity of four macrolides alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents was investigated against ten clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from stools of AIDS patients. The susceptibility tests were performed by inoculation of the protozoa on to cell monolayers and determining the parasite count after 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was supplemented with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing serial dilutions of azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, spiramycin, alone or in combination with artemisin, atovaquone, dapsone, minocycline or pyrimethamine. Most of the agents had an inhibitory effect on parasite growth, but only at high concentrations. No agent was able to inhibit parasite growth completely, even at the highest concentrations used. The more effective agents, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, minocycline and pyrimethamine, produced no more than a 13.1-27.8% reduction in oocyst count and no more than a 15.1-35.7% in buy rulide schizont count. Positive interaction was clearly demonstrated when macrolides were tested in combination with minocycline or pyrimethamine.

rulide tab 2015-01-14

464 physicians treated 904 patients with moxifloxacin and 846 patients with one of the macrolides. Age, sex and body mass index were well matched between the two treatment groups. However, more moxifloxacin than macrolide patients presented with a generally bad condition (62.8% vs 48.6%). About 42% of patients in both groups had had chronic bronchitis for 1-5 years, and about 27% for 5-10 years. The mean number of AECBs in the previous 12 months was 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Moxifloxacin was administered to most patients for 5 (43.8%) or 7 days (42.4%). Patients in the macrolide group were treated in most cases with clarithromycin 500 mg for 4-7 days, roxithromycin 300 mg for 6-7 days or azithromycin 500 mg for 3 buy rulide days. Physicians assessed overall efficacy and tolerability as 'very good' or 'good' in 96.1% and 98.1%, respectively, of moxifloxacin-treated patients and in 67.5% and 91.7%, respectively, of macrolide-treated patients. The mean duration until improvement and cure of AECB was 3.2 days (+/- SD 1.5) and 6.2 days (+/- 2.6) in moxifloxacin-treated patients compared with 4.5 days (+/- 1.8) and 7.5 days (+/- 3.0) in macrolide-treated patients (p < 0.0001).

rulide medication 2015-10-19

All five macrolides inactivated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation by HLM and recombinant CYP3A4 with k (inact) values in the range of 0.023 to 0.058 min(-1). The potency of inactivation (K (I)) was higher using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. The oral AUCs for midazolam were predicted from HLM data to increase 16.6, 5.3, 4.6, 1.6 and 1.2-fold due to the inhibition of metabolic clearance by troleandomycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin, respectively. These results are within the range of the AUC ratios reported for clinical DDI studies. The predicted AUC increases generated using recombinant CYP3A4 overestimated the magnitude of the buy rulide DDIs.

rulide 300mg tablets 2016-08-13

The presence of C. pneumoniae in 9 tissue samples Cocaine Alcohol Depakote from atherosclerotic lesions obtained by carotid endarterectomy was investigated by 3 methods. Karnofsky-fixed specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isolation of C. pneumoniae was attempted in LLCMK2 cell structure (ICC), and the presence of chlamydial DNA was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The in vitro activities of azithromycin, roxithromycin and penicillin were tested in 4 isolations and the reference strain of C. pneumoniae (AR39).

rulide drug class 2017-04-04

The Oxyrase agar dilution method (Oxyrase, Inc., Mansfield, Ohio), which provides an anaerobic environment without added CO2, was compared with the reference agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (anaerobic chamber with 10% CO2) to test the susceptibilities of 302 gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobes to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin. For erythromycin, the overall MIC for 50% of isolates tested (MIC50) was 0.5 micrograms/ml and the MIC90 was 8.0 micrograms/ml by the Oxyrase method, whereas they were 4.0 and 64.0 micrograms/ml, respectively, under standard anaerobic conditions with CO2. At a breakpoint of 4.0 micrograms/ml, 88% of strains were susceptible to erythromycin by the Oxyrase method, whereas 63% were susceptible in the chamber. The corresponding MIC50s and MIC90s of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin by the Oxyrase method were 0.5 and 8.0, 0.25 and 4.0, and 0.5 and 16.0 micrograms/ml, respectively, whereas in the chamber they were 4.0 and > 64.0, 2.0 and 64.0, and 2.0 and 64.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. At a breakpoint of 8.0 micrograms/ml for these three Risperdal Syrup drugs, 89, 92, and 85% of the isolates, respectively, were susceptible by the Oxyrase method, whereas 67%, 72, and 68% of the isolates, respectively, were susceptible in the chamber. Most strains resistant to all four compounds by both methods were Bacteroides distasonis, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium varium and non-Clostridium perfringens Clostridium species. Results of the study may lead to a reappraisal of the role played by macrolides and azalides in the treatment of anaerobic infections.

syrup rulide az 2017-03-13

The spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi has been only partially defined. In the present study the effectiveness of 12 antimicrobials, belonging to six different antibiotic classes have been tested against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (N=3), Borrelia garinii (N=3), Borrelia afzelii (N=3), Borrelia valaisiana (N=1), and Borrelia bissettii (N=1) isolates. These isolates were analysed by a new standardised colorimetric minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method based upon colour changes that result from actively metabolizing spirochaetes after 72 h of incubation. Piperacillin (MIC90: 0.08 mg/l), ceftriaxone (MIC90: 0. 04 mg/l), cefotaxime (MIC90: 0.15 mg/l), azithromycin (MIC90: 0.015 mg/l), roxithromycin (MIC90: 0.05 mg/l) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90: 0.12 mg/l) gave the lowest MIC values. Minimal inhibibitory activity of amoxycillin (MIC90: 1.04 mg/l), cefixime (MIC90: 1.33 mg/l), cefoperazone (MIC90: 0.83 mg/l) tetracycline (MIC90: 0.29 mg/l) and minocycline (MIC90: 0.30 mg/l) was slightly lower, whereas borrelia were Lopressor 60 Mg resistant to amikacin (MIC90: >128 mg/l). Mean minimal borreliacidal concentrations (MBCs) were representatively determined for piperacillin (MBC: 1.8 mg/l), ceftriaxone (MBC: 2.0 mg/l), azithromycin (MBC: 0.82 mg/ml), roxithromycin (MBC: 1.8 mg/l), quinupristin/dalfopristin (MBC: 5.0 mg/l), minocycline (MBC: 5.8 mg/l), and amikacin (MBC: >128 mg/l) by using conventional subculture for three weeks in combination with dark-field microscopy. B. garinii proved to be the most susceptible of the genospecies tested. Our study showed excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of all classes of antibiotics tested, except the aminoglycosides and hence their suitability for therapy of Lyme disease.

rulide antibiotic dosage 2017-05-16

We studied the Atarax Usual Dosage effects of macrolides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation in the rat tracheal mucosa. Erythromycin and roxithromycin dose dependently inhibited microvascular leakage and neutrophil recruitment induced by LPS. This inhibitory action on vascular permeability was abolished by neutrophil depletion.

rulide buy 2017-11-22

Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is characterized by Effexor 600 Mg airway expansion and recurrent acute exacerbations. Macrolide has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic airway diseases.

rulide 150 mg 2017-12-14

Recovery of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae Paracetamol 650 Tablets from atheromas of coronary heart diseases patients has initiated pilot studies to eradicate C. pneumoniae from vascular tissue by antibiotic treatment. To provide data for the selection of effective antibiotics, we investigated the in vitro activity of anti-chlamydial antibiotics to eliminate vascular strains of C. pneumoniae from coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells, celltypes that are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

rulide drug information 2016-03-26

During a 3-year period, we retrieved the results from placental and amniotic membrane cultures obtained at delivery in cases of maternal fever, chorioamnionitis, and PPROM, and from blood cultures obtained from neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS) in three participating hospitals. Sensitivity of Augmentin Xr Generic pathogens to antimicrobial agents was performed using routine microbiologic techniques.

rulide generic name 2017-11-09

We hypothesized that bacterial biofilm formation could be an important factor that make some infection intractable. Interaction of P. aeruginosa biofilm with antibactial agents was examined in vitro.

rulide alcohol 2017-11-08

The striking impact that different preparation methods have on the characteristics of amorphous solid-state forms has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades. The pursuit of more extensive knowledge regarding polyamorphism therefore continues. The aim of this study was firstly, to investigate the influence of different preparation techniques to obtain amorphous solid-state forms for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient, namely roxithromycin. The preparation techniques also report on a method utilizing hot air, which although it is based on a melt intermediary step, is considered a novel preparation method. Secondly, to conduct an in-depth investigation into any physico-chemical differences between the resulting amorphous forms and thirdly, to bring our findings into context with that of previous work done, whilst simultaneously discussing a well-defined interpretation for the term polyamorphism and propose a discernment between true polyamorphism and pseudo-polyamorphism/atypical-polyamorphism. The preparation techniques included melt, solution, and a combination of solution-mechanical disruption as intermediary steps. The resulting amorphous forms were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, hot-stage microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vapor sorption. Clear and significant thermodynamic differences were determined between the four amorphous forms. It was also deduced from this study that different preparation techniques have a mentionable impact on the morphological properties of the resulting amorphous roxithromycin powders. Thermodynamic properties as well as the physical characteristics of the amorphous forms greatly governed other physico-chemical properties i.e. solubility and dissolution.

rulide tablets 2015-07-07

Recent information about drugs implicated in causing pancreatitis is summarized. Although the frequency of drug-induced acute pancreatitis is generally low, the disease is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, which makes timely identification of the offending agent important. Mechanisms suggested for drug-induced pancreatitis include pancreatic duct constriction; immunosuppression; cytotoxic, osmotic, pressure, or metabolic effects; arteriolar thrombosis; direct cellular toxicity; and hepatic involvement. Agents reported to have a definite association with pancreatitis are asparaginase, azathioprine, didanosine, estrogens, furosemide, mercaptopurine, pentamidine, sulfonamides, sulindac, tetracyclines, thiazides, and valproic acid. Agents reported to have a probable association with pancreatitis include cimetidine, clozapine, corticosteroids, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography contrast media, methyldopa, metronidazole, salicylates, and zalcitabine. Agents reported to have a questionable association with pancreatitis include acetaminophen, cyclosporine, cytarabine, erythromycin and roxithromycin, ketoprofen, metolazone, and octreotide. When ethanol abuse and biliary disease are ruled out as etiologies for pancreatitis, the possibility of drug-induced disease should be investigated.

rulide contraceptive pill 2015-09-10

The in vitro effect of macrolides at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) on the interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated by using a chemiluminescence assay. The PMN response to either mucoid or nonmucoid P. aeruginosa biofilm was strongly reduced compared with the response to planktonic bacteria (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). When biofilms were treated with erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin prior to incubation with PMNs, the chemiluminescence response was markedly enhanced as compared to untreated controls, and a dose-dependent effect was noted over the range of sub-MIC concentrations studied. In general, macrolides appeared to be slightly more active against mucoid biofilm. Azithromycin was shown to be the most active macrolide against P. aeruginosa biofilms. However, the treatment with sub-MICs of rokitamycin did not have any effect. On the other hand, treatment of planktonic bacteria with macrolides before being exposed to the PMNs did not affect the chemiluminescence response as compared to untreated controls. These findings suggest that macrolides inhibiting the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa may facilitate the phagocytosis of bacteria by PMNs.

rulide drug interactions 2015-11-27

Dermatologists must be aware of the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents as well as various drug interactions that may influence the choice of drug as well as specific drug schedules. The development of modern antibacterials has improved the treatment of cutaneous bacterial infections. Macrolide antibacterials continue to be an important therapeutic class of drugs with established efficacy in a variety of skin infections. All macrolides inhibit protein synthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA in the 50S-subunit. Erythromycin, the prototype of macrolide antibacterials, was isolated from the metabolic products of a strain of Streptomyces erytherus in 1952. Originally, erythromycin was introduced as an alternative to penicillin because of its activity against the Gram-positive organisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of erythromycin for various infectious diseases. Unfortunately, erythromycin is associated with a number of drawbacks including a narrow spectrum of activity, unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, poor gastrointestinal tolerability, and a significant number of drug-drug interactions. Newer macrolides have been developed to address these limitations. The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and clarithromycin allow for shorter dosing schedules because of prolonged tissue levels. The efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in adults and children is well established. The unique pharmakinetics of azithromycin makes it a suitable agent for the treatment of acne. Clarithromycin represents a clear advance in the macrolide management of patients with leprosy and skin infections with atypical mycobacteria. Dirithromycin and roxithromycin display no clinical or bacteriological adcantage over erythromycin despite a superior pharmacokinetic profile. An area of concern is the increasing macrolide resistance that is being reported with some of the common pathogens which may limit the clinical usefulness of this class of antimicrobial agents in future.

rulide suspension 2015-10-14

A strategy to identify potentially drug-induced AMI from electronic healthcare data has been proposed that takes into account not only statistical association, but also public health relevance, novelty, and biological plausibility. Although this strategy needs to be further evaluated using other healthcare data sources, the list of 'prime suspects' makes a good starting point for further clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic investigation.

rulide renal dose 2017-10-01

In our setting systemic antibiotics comprise one of the most extensively used treatment groups in Primary Care. Among these, the use of macrolides has increased considerably in recent years and has shown variations in consumption according to geographic areas. This work was performed to quantify these variations.

rulide with alcohol 2016-06-03

Roxithromycin, CAM, AZM, and INN significantly reduced the infarct volume in the high-dose group after 24 and 72 hours of reperfusion. All of the agents significantly decreased the edema in the high-dose groups at 24 and 72 hours, while only CAM and AZM significantly reduced the edema volume in the low-dose groups at 24 hours. All of the macrolide antibiotics at the high dose significantly improved neurological deficit scores at 24 and 72 hours. There were no differences in the CBF between the vehicle and respective antibiotic groups. In the experiment examining the interval, the 24-hour interval group exhibited the strongest neuroprotective effect.

rulide child dose 2016-10-09

The comparative in vitro activity of erythromycin, roxithromycin and doxycycline against 20 isolates of M. avium and 20 M. xenopi was evaluated by two technics: a standard macrobroth dilution (7H9) and the 1% standard proportion method on lowenstein medium. M. avium was highly and uniformly resistant to doxycycline (MIC 50: 64 mg/l). For macrolides some strains were moderately susceptible to roxithromycin and at a lower level to erythromycin the MIC 50 and MIC 90 were respectively 8 and 16 mg/l for roxithromycin, 16 and 64 mg/l for erythromycin. Both macrolides were active against most of the strains of M. xenopi MIC 90 and MBC 90 were respectively 0.25 and 1 mg/l for roxithromycin, 0.5 and 2 mg/l for erythromycin. Doxycycline was less active inhibiting 90% of strains only at 16 mg/l.