To evaluate the impact on asthma-specific quality of life, efficacy, and safety of salmeterol versus albuterol in adult patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma.
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Safety and tolerability were similar and the response was related to the dose over the range used (50-400 micrograms) with both salmeterol inhalers. The salmeterol/HFA134a inhaler showed no differences from the current inhaler for pulse rate, blood pressure, tremor, QTc interval, and plasma glucose levels. The salmeterol/HFA134a inhaler had significantly less effect on plasma potassium levels.
There were 35 asthma deaths in 215 studies with 106,575 subjects. Two studies (SMART and SNS) contributed 30/35 (86%) asthma deaths, the overall findings largely reflecting the characteristics of these studies. The odds ratio for risk of asthma mortality with salmeterol was 2.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 5.3). In 54 placebo controlled studies the risk of death from asthma in patients not prescribed ICS was 7.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 29.4). In 127 studies in which patients were prescribed ICS, the risk of asthma death was 2.1 (95% CI 0.6 to 7.9). In 63 studies in which patients were randomised to receive the combination salmeterol/fluticasone propionate inhaler or ICS, there were no asthma deaths among 22,600 patients.
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In the past years, several drugs commonly used by allergy specialists have received a "black box" warning added to their package insert at the direction of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A "black box" warning is the highest level of 5 possible warning categories found in the package insert. The FDA has never articulated the basis for "black box" warnings. They generally appear to be based on clinical data, but occasionally can be based on serious animal toxicity. In the last several years, several drugs commonly used by allergists have received recommendations for "black box" warnings. Long-acting beta-agonists (salmeterol and formoterol) received "black box" warnings because of reports of the occurrences of severe asthma exacerbations in some patients with asthma, with some associated death. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and pimecrolimus) received a recommendation for application of a "black box" warnings because of a possible increase of cancer developing in patients taking these drugs. Although the addition of a "black box" warning was recommended by the FDA Pediatric Advisory Committee for these 2 topical agents, the FDA has not yet implemented this warning. Informed consent principles require that a patient be adequately informed of the risks (among other components) of any recommended treatment. The risks, as described, of the long-acting beta-agonists and topical immunosuppressants should be presented to the patients to aid them in deciding whether they are willing to take these drugs when recommended by their physician.
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Baseline FENO, CRP, IL-6, and IL-8 showed no correlations to FEV1 responses to ICS. ICS responders (increase in FEV1 > or = 200 mL after four weeks of ICS) did have significantly higher baseline FENO levels compared with non-responders (46.5 parts per billion [ppb] vs. 25 ppb, p = 0.028). The receiver operating characteristic curve for FENO to discriminate responders from non-responders had an area under curve of 0.72. Baseline serum inflammatory markers did not differ between responders and non-responders.
Multiple sites at clinics and university medical centers throughout the United States.
Both treatment groups had similar incidences of upper respiratory tract infections. Of those reporting an upper respiratory tract infection, statistically significantly fewer reported an asthma-related exacerbation comparing fluticasone propionate plus salmeterol with fluticasone propionate (p=0.0057).
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This was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, replicate treatment design comparative bioavailability study of SFC 50/250 delivered in a capsule-based inhaler (Rotahaler®) and a multidose dry powder inhaler (Diskus®). Subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease (n=60) were randomized to receive twice-daily SFC 50/250 via a Rotahaler and via Diskus each for two 10-day treatment periods (GlaxoSmithKline Protocol ASR114334).
To determine in vitro the effect of delay, inspiratory flow, and spacer washing on the drug output of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) used with different spacer devices.
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Although the physician responders agreed on the usefulness of the educational materials, the results suggest that the intervention had limited success in improving the pharmacologic management and no effect on the health outcomes. We believe that mailed educational materials to physicians can be effective to change prescribing behavior; however, a more multifaceted intervention may be necessary to improve health outcomes.
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Ten asthmatic volunteers who were able to withhold beta 2-agonist therapy for 4 weeks before and during the study participated in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study with two random-order treatment periods: inhaled salmeterol, 50 micrograms twice a day for seven doses, and placebo in similar fashion. Methacholine inhalation tests were done 1 h after doses 1, 3, 5, and 7, and then 24 h after the last dose of the study inhaler 10 minutes after 200 micrograms of salbutamol.
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Time to asthma treatment failure in patients receiving salmeterol.
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Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer.
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Isolated case reports of asthmatic fatalities accompanied by the use of salmeterol have raised the question whether a paradoxical effect of salmeterol or its vehicle on the airways might contribute to these fatalities. We questioned whether salmeterol's solvent, xinafoic acid, has detrimental effects on the tone of airways or on beta-adrenoceptor binding.
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More fluticasone in small particles was recovered from the Babyhaler than the Volumatic or the Aerochamber spacers, and more beclomethasone and salmeterol was recovered from the Babyhaler and Volumatic spacers than from the Aerochamber. Washing the Babyhaler reduced the recovery of salmeterol, and did not alter the recovery of the other drugs tested.
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769 patients (158 in the placebo group and 611 in the dupilumab groups) received at least one dose of study drug. In the subgroup with at least 300 eosinophils per μL, the greatest increases (200 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0008; 300 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0063) in FEV1 compared with placebo were observed at week 12 with doses every 2 weeks in the 300 mg group (mean change 0·39 L [SE 0·05]; mean difference 0·21 [95% CI 0·06-0·36; p=0·0063]) and in the 200 mg group (mean change 0·43 L [SE 0·05]; mean difference 0·26 [0·11-0·40; p=0·0008]) compared with placebo (0·18 L [SE 0·05]). Similar significant increases were observed in the overall population and in the fewer than 300 eosinophils per μL subgroup (overall population: 200 mg every 2 weeks, p<0·0001; 300 mg every 2 weeks, p<0·0001; <300 eosinophils per μL: 200 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0034; 300 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0086), and were maintained to week 24. Likewise, dupilumab every 2 weeks produced the greatest reductions in annualised rates of exacerbation in the overall population (70-70·5%), the subgroup with at least 300 eosinophils per μL (71·2-80·7%), and the subgroup with fewer than 300 eosinophils per μL (59·9-67·6%). The most common adverse events with dupilumab compared with placebo were upper respiratory tract infections (33-41% vs 35%) and injection-site reactions (13-26% vs 13%).
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This review highlights the clinical studies on which safety analyses pertaining to salmeterol and formoterol have been based and then focuses on recent meta-analyses of safety outcomes with and without consideration of concomitant ICS.
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There was a significant increase in FEV1 one hour after the inhalation of salmeterol (P = 0.006), which did not differ significantly on days 0, 28, and 56 of the treatment period (increase, 9.8, 9.4, and 8.8 percent of predicted FEV1, respectively; P = 0.91). On the first treatment day, salmeterol afforded significant protection against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, as shown by a 10-fold increase in the PC20 as compared with the value at entry (P less than 0.001). After four and eight weeks of treatment, however, the salmeterol-induced change in the PC20 was significantly attenuated (P less than 0.001) to only a twofold increase. Two and four days after treatment ended, the PC20 was not significantly different from the value before treatment (P = 0.15).
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Bronchodilator therapy is lifelong mandatory for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. There is evidence of loss of bronchodilator effectiveness over time with beta2-agonists but not with anticholinergics. The aim of this study was to examine the development of tachyphylaxis to the long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol using as a control therapeutic regimen the combination of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate. Fifty-six subjects participated in a 20-week, crossover randomised clinical trial. The parameters forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and FEV1/forced vital capacity were measured via spirometry and the parameters triangle DeltaFEV1%pre, triangle DeltaPEFR%pre and triangle DeltaAUC(0-2 h) were calculated. FEV1 increased significantly after two weeks of treatment with the combination treatment but not with the salmeterol. The observed diminished increase could be attributed to the development of tolerance to the long acting beta2-agonist. Salmeterol seems to be an effective bronchodilator, however, its duration of action over time and its peak effect might be subject to tachyphylaxis.
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Increasing evidence suggests pharmacological treatments may impact on overall survival in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Individual clinical trials are rarely powered to detect mortality differences between treatments and may not include all treatment options relevant to healthcare decision makers.