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Random sampling was applied, proportionally to population distribution into urban or rural areas. All the subjects underwent a basic eye examination by trained nurses. In the presence of any ocular affection or a visual acuity of less than 0.3, the subject was visited by the ophthalmologist. This visit included direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, and intraocular pressure recording. Blindness and visual impairment were defined by using the WHO criteria.
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Three rare cases of pediatric Québec-based zoonotic filarial nematode deep skin infections were reviewed. These rare cases were processed at our pediatric hospital within the last 6-year period. Patient age, travel information, lesional characteristics, systemic findings, serology, histopathology, treatment, and follow-up were gathered from the submitting specimen and the treating physicians. Species identification was performed by the Parasitic Disease Branch, Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases Pathology, AFIP, Washington, DC.
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The effect of ivermectin on soil organisms was assessed in Terrestrial Model Ecosystems (TMEs). Intact soil cores were extracted from a pasture in England and kept for up to 14 weeks in the laboratory. Ivermectin was applied to the soil surface via spiked cow dung slurry at seven concentration rates ranging from 0.25 to 180 mg/TME, referring to concentrations of 0.19-227 mg ivermectin/kg soil dry weight in the uppermost (0-1 cm) soil layer. After 7, 28 and 96 days following the application soil cores were destructively sampled to determine ivermectin residues in soil and to assess possible effects on microbial biomass, nematodes, enchytraeids, earthworms, micro-arthropods, and bait-lamina feeding activity. No significant effect of ivermectin was found for microbial respiration and numbers of nematodes and mites. Due to a lack of dose-response patterns no effect concentrations could be determined for the endpoints enchytraeid and collembolan numbers as well as total earthworm biomass. In contrast, EC50 values for the endpoint feeding rate could be calculated as 0.46, 4.31 and 15.1 mg ivermectin/kg soil dry weight in three soil layers (0-1, 0-5 and 0-8 cm, respectively). The multivariate Principal Response Curve (PRC) was used to calculate the NOEC(community), based on earthworm, enchytraeid and collembolan abundance data, as 0.33 and 0.78 mg ivermectin/kg soil dw for day 7 and day 96, respectively. The results shown here are in line with laboratory data, indicating in general low to moderate effects of ivermectin on soil organisms. As shown by the results of the bait-lamina tests, semi-field methods such as TMEs are useful extensions of the battery of potential test methods since complex and ecologically relevant endpoints can be included.
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Localities I and II had, respectively, an average of 391 (+/- 32) and 358 (+/- 14) resident inhabitants, and 70 (+/- 52) and 498 (+/- 289) temporary labourers. The ratio of migrants to residents ranged from 0.1:1 in locality I to 2.4:1 in locality II. The proportion of infected Simulium ochraceum s.l. parous flies was significantly lower in locality I than in locality II, and significantly higher during the stay of the migrants than before their arrival or after their departure. Parity and infection were higher in May-July than in November-February (in contrast with the latter being typically considered as the peak onchocerciasis transmission season by S. ochraceum s.l.).
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Lines of Oesophagostomum dentatum artificially selected or not selected for resistance to pyrantel, levamisole and ivermectin were used in this study. From the 10th generation of selection eggs were collected from each line and subjected to an in vitro larval development assay (LDA) and an egg hatch assay (EHPA). Significant differences were observed between an unselected line of O. dentatum and the lines selected for resistance to levamisole or pyrantel in both assays. The LDA was more sensitive than EHPA in detecting anthelmintic resistance in O. dentatum. The results obtained from the LDA confirmed side-resistance between levamisole and morantel/pyrantel. The in vitro tests failed to show significant differences between ivermectin-sensitive and resistant lines.
Randomised controlled trials in people with moderate to severe rosacea.
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A series of 10 dose confirmation studies was conducted to evaluate the persistent activity of an extended-release injectable (ERI) formulation of eprinomectin against single point challenge infections of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes of cattle. The formulation, selected based on the optimal combination of high nematode efficacy, appropriate plasma profile, and satisfactory tissue residue levels, includes 5% poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) and is designed to deliver eprinomectin at a dose of 1.0mg/kg bodyweight. Individual studies, included 16-30 cattle blocked based on pre-treatment bodyweight and randomly allocated to treatment with either ERI vehicle or saline (control), or the selected Eprinomectin ERI formulation. Treatments were administered once at a dose volume of 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder. In each study, cattle were challenged with a combination of infective stages of gastrointestinal and/or pulmonary nematodes 100, 120 or 150 days after treatment and were processed for parasite recovery according to standard techniques 25-30 days after challenge. Based on parasite counts, Eprinomectin ERI (1mg eprinomectin/kg bodyweight) provided >90% efficacy (p<0.05) against challenge with Cooperia oncophora and Cooperia surnabada at 100 days after treatment; against challenge with Ostertagia ostertagi, Ostertagia lyrata, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Ostertagia circumcincta, Ostertagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus axei, and Cooperia punctata at 120 days after treatment; and against challenge with Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Dictyocaulus viviparus at 150 days after treatment. Results of a study to evaluate eprinomectin plasma levels in cattle treated with the Eprinomectin ERI formulation reveal a characteristic second plasma concentration peak and a profile commensurate with the duration of efficacy. These results confirm that the Eprinomectin ERI formulation can provide high levels of parasite control against a range of nematodes of cattle for up to 5 months following a single treatment.
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The anthelmintic effects of levamisole (100-50 mg kg-1 live bodyweight), ivermectin (2 mg kg-1 bodyweight), albendazole and fenbendazole (both 100 mg kg-1 bodyweight), were tested against second stage Toxocara canis larvae in mice. Anthelmintic treatment on days 2 to 7 after infection inclusive resulted in significant (P less than 0.05) retention of larvae in the liver, and fewer larvae migrated subsequently to the brain and the musculature of treated mice compared to untreated controls. Most of the larvae retained in the liver subsequently died there and were not recoverable by day 35 after infection, causing significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in the total larval recoveries compared to the controls. The oral route of drug administration caused higher larval retention in the liver than the subcutaneous route. All infected levamisole treated mice survived for four months, whereas half the similarly infected but untreated mice died within the same period. Treatment on days 8 to 13 inclusive after infection had no effect on second stage T canis larvae suggesting that once the larvae have reached the brain and musculature they are not susceptible to anthelmintic agents.
Treatment with ivermectin at the dosage of 200 microgram/kg in 28 Congolese loiasis patients led to an important decrease of the microfilaremia on day 7, with a reduction of about 90% of the initial parasite load. However, no negativation was observed and, moreover, the parasitemia did not change from day 7 to day 14. Tolerance was quite good, but weak to moderate reactions, linked to the lysis of the microfilariae, were observed in one third of the patients with a microfilaremia greater or equal to 2,500/mm3.
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Horner-Emmons reaction of 4"-dehydro-5-O-TBDMS-avermectin B(1a) with a variety of phosphorus ylides using LHMDS gave novel 4"-alkylidene avermectin derivatives in high yields. Further modifications led to derivatives bearing diverse functional groups. The new avermectin derivatives showed potent growth inhibitory activity against Artemia salina and Caenorhabditis elegans.
A 37-year-old woman with a 12-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus treated with prednisone, methotrexate, and plaquenil presented with a three-week history of a painful scalp rash with adherent yellow scale. Skin biopsy and tissue culture were consistent with a diagnosis of crusted scabies with superficial bacterial infection. The patient was treated with oral ivermectin and permethrin cream, as well as ciprofloxacin for the bacterial infection. At one-week follow-up, the scalp was no longer tender and hyperkeratotic plaques had significantly improved. At one-month follow-up, the affected scalp demonstrated further improvement with decreasing erythema and alopecia with follicular ostia.
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The ONCHOSIM model was extended with new output on the Ov16 antibody serostatus of individuals. Seroconversion was assumed to be triggered by the first worm establishing in the host, with seroconversion occurring either before maturation, after maturation or only after the start of mf production. We are mainly interested in seroconversion rates in children, and for now ignore the possibility of seroreversion to simplify the model.
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Frequency of sea louse treatment increased substantially, with an increase in multiagent and follow-up treatments. This increase in treatment activity is expensive to the industry and increases exposure of the neighbouring environment. This indicates that earlier louse control practices were not sustainable and so adapted.
Bancroftian filariasis is a major public health and socioeconomic problems in the humid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A study was undertaken to investigate the status of the disease in some rural communities of Cross River State, Nigeria, with a view to enriching the epidemiological baseline data of the disease in Nigeria.
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Between 1999 and 2002, the effect of mid-season doramectin treatments on the level of resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly populations was examined at three separate Louisiana State University Agricultural Center research stations. The cattle were treated with pyrethroid ear tags in all years at all farms, and each farm received a mid-season doramectin treatment in 1 year. The number of weeks of control at Red River was 11 weeks higher in the year following the mid-season treatment of doramectin. At Macon Ridge, the number of weeks of control was 2 weeks higher in the year following the doramectin treatment. No change was observed at St. Joseph. The LC50s for fly populations tested at Macon Ridge and St. Joseph were found to increase for pyrethroids from the spring populations to the fall populations between 2000 and 2002. The LC50s for fly populations at Red River followed the same trends except in 2000, the year when the doramectin treatment was administered. Flies collected pre and post-treatment each year from St. Joseph and Red River were assayed for two alleles (kdr and skdr) associated with target site resistance to pyrethroids. Flies collected pretreatment at Macon Ridge in 1999 also were assayed for the kdr and skdr, and this population of flies had a frequency of 85.6% R-kdr alleles. At St. Joseph and Red River there was a general decline in the frequency of homozygous susceptible skdr (SS-skdr) and homozygous susceptible kdr (SS-kdr) individuals, as well as a general increase in homozygous resistant skdr (RR-skdr) and homozygous resistant kdr (RR-kdr) individuals, during the 4-year study. At both sites, the frequency of R-kdr alleles increased significantly in flies collected in the fall compared to flies collected in the spring with the exception of Red River in 2000, when dormacetin was applied. The frequency of the R-kdr alleles was significantly higher in flies collected in the fall compared to flies collected in the spring in the following year at both sites in two out of three comparisons. The frequency of R-skdr alleles was significantly lower in fly populations tested in the spring compared to fly populations tested in the fall at both farms in years when doramectin was not applied but there were no differences in the years when doramectin was applied. The frequency of R-skdr alleles was significantly higher in fly populations tested in the fall compared to in the spring the following year during all three comparisons at Red River and in one of three comparisons at St. Joseph.
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We describe a case of a 32-year-old man, resident in Buenos Aires, with dermatologic manifestations compatible with gnathostomiasis. The patient had traveled to Colombia in the month prior to the onset of symptoms. There, he repeatedly ate ceviche (raw fish marinated in lemon juice). He presented with an erythematous migratory panniculitis accompanied by eosinophilia. He underwent skin biopsy of a lesion and pathological diagnosis was "eosinophilic panniculitis". The triad of migratory panniculitis, eosinophilia and consume of raw fish during the trip to Colombia was suggestive of gnathostomiasis. Ivermectin treatment started out with good initial response but subsequent relapse. We performed a new treatment with the same drug with good results and no relapses during three years of follow up. The dermatological disease is common upon return from a trip, and is the third leading cause of morbidity in travelers. It is very important to recognize cutaneous manifestations of disease as many of them are potentially serious and may compromise the patient's life if not promptly diagnosed and treated.
The objective of the study was to investigate different aspects on the efficacy of three anthelmintics on cyathostomin nematodes of Swedish horses. A faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was performed on 26 farms. Horses were treated orally with recommended doses of ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate or fenbendazole. Faecal samples were collected on the day of deworming and 7, 14 and 21 days later. No resistance was shown against ivermectin; the FECR was constantly >99%. The effect of pyrantel was assessed as equivocal in 6 farms 14 days after treatment; the mean FECR was 99%. As many as 72% of the fenbendazole-treated groups met the criteria for resistance; the mean FECR was 86%, ranging from 56% to 100%. A re-investigation of two farms where pyrantel resistance had been suspected clearly revealed unsatisfactory efficacy of pyrantel on one of these farms; the FECR varied from 72% to 89%. Twenty-six of the horses previously dosed with pyrantel or fenbendazole, and which still excreted >/=150 eggs per gram of faeces 14 days after treatment, were dewormed with ivermectin and fenbendazole or pyrantel in order to eliminate the remaining cyathostomins. A total of 13 cyathostomin species were identified from horses that initially received fenbendazole and seven species were identified from pyrantel-treated individuals. The egg reappearance period (ERP) following treatment with ivermectin and pyrantel was investigated on two farms. The shortest ERP after ivermectin treatment was 8 weeks and after pyrantel was 5 weeks. We conclude that no substantial reversion to benzimidazole susceptibility had taken place, although these drugs have scarcely been used (<5%) in horses for the last 10 years. Pyrantel-resistant populations of cyathostomins are present on Swedish horse farms, but the overall efficacy of pyrantel is still acceptable.
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in invertebrate nervous systems. cDNAs encoding two alternative splice variants (MdGluClB and C) of the GluCl subunit were cloned from the housefly Musca domestica. The expression patterns of three variants, including the previously reported MdGluClA, differed among the body parts (head, thorax, abdomen, and leg) of the adult housefly and among developmental stages (embryo, larva, pupa, and adult). The MdGluClA and B transcripts were abundant in the central nervous system of the adult, whereas the MdGluClC transcript was expressed in the central nervous system and as the predominant variant in the peripheral tissues. The sensitivities to the agonist glutamate and the allosteric activator ivermectin B1a did not differ between channels containing MdGluCl variants when they were singly or co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes. By contrast, MdGluClA and B channels were more sensitive to the channel blockers fipronil and picrotoxinin than was MdGluClC channels. Heteromeric channels containing different subunit variants were more sensitive to picrotoxinin than were homomeric channels. Heteromeric channels were more sensitive to fipronil than were homomeric MdGluClC channels but not than homomeric MdGluClA and B channels. These results suggest that functionally indistinguishable but pharmacologically distinct GluCls are expressed in a spatially and temporally distinct manner in the housefly.
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The gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor of codfish brain has been purified to homogeneity and contains a single polypeptide band of 56 kDa molecular mass. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) of codfish GABA receptor photoaffinity-labeled by both [3H]flunitrazepam ([3H]Flu) and [3H]muscimol showed a single radioactive peak with molecular mass of 56 kDa, in contrast to the multiple subunits found in other vertebrate species. The codfish receptor, purified using benzodiazepine (BZ, Ro 7-1986/1) affinity chromatography, contains an apparent single band both by isoelectric focussing and on a silver-stained SDS gel. The receptor density and affinity constants for [3H]muscimol and [3H]Flu binding are comparable to those in mammalian brain, and the specific activity (greater than 1,000 pmol/mg of protein) is comparable to that of preparations purified from those sources. The pharmacological specificity of the codfish GABA-BZ receptor is generally similar to that of mammalian brain, including GABA-BZ coupling. The BZ binding exhibits homogeneous kinetic properties resembling those of the mammalian BZ2 receptor type, and shows strong GABA enhancement of [3H]Flu binding and weaker pentobarbital potentiation. This is consistent with other observations of an earlier phylogenetic, as well as ontogenetic, emergence in mammals of the BZ2 receptor subtype than the BZ1. Codfish GABA receptor is postulated to be a homo-oligomer in which the conformation of GABA and BZ recognition sites is very similar to that in the mammalian hetero-oligomeric GABAA receptor. The codfish receptor appears to be encoded by an ancestral gene and indicates an early development of BZ-GABA coupling.
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Four studies were conducted to a similar experimental design in the U.S. to evaluate the effectiveness of doramectin injectable administered to yearling stocker cattle in the control of gastrointestinal nematodiasis over the subsequent grazing period. Studies were conducted in Wisconsin (WI) and Arkansas (AR) during the summer season. The other two studies were conducted in Georgia (GA) and Mississippi (MS) during the winter/spring season. Doramectin was compared with both ivermectin injectable and ivermectin pour-on in the WI study, with ivermectin injectable alone in the GA study and with ivermectin pour-on alone in the other two studies. At each study site, an area of permanent pasture previously grazed by parasitized animals was subdivided by fencing into equal pasture units each with its own water supply. A treatment designation (non-medicated control, doramectin injectable, ivermectin injectable or ivermectin pour-on) was randomly assigned to each pasture unit. Weaned beef calves with confirmed gastrointestinal nematode infections were randomly allotted to a pasture unit and corresponding treatment group. Each treatment group consisted of three replicates of seven animals per pasture unit (total 21 animals) in the WI study, three replicates of four or six animals per pasture unit (total 16 animals) in the AR study, five replicates of six animals per pasture unit (total 30 animals) in the GA study and three replicates of 12 animals per pasture unit (total 36 animals) in the MS study. Treatments were 1% doramectin injectable solution, 1% ivermectin injectable solution, 0.5% ivermectin pour-on solution or non-medicated controls. The injectables were administered at a dose of 1 ml/50 kg body weight (200 micrograms doramectin or ivermectin/kg) by subcutaneous injection in the neck. Ivermectin pour-on solution was administered topically at a dose of 1 ml/10 kg body weight (500 micrograms ivermectin/kg). After receiving their prescribed treatment, animals were placed on their designated pasture unit where they remained for the entire grazing period (84-140 days). Fecal nematode egg counts and body weights were monitored at predetermined intervals throughout each study. Doramectin treatment reduced pretreatment egg counts by between 95 and 100% by 21 days post-treatment. Subsequent rises in egg output from exposure to infective pastures were delayed by two to four weeks resulting in substantial reductions in total egg deposition over the grazing period and, therefore, potential pasture recontamination. Doramectin treatment resulted in substantial average daily weight gain advantages (0.152-0.272 kg) over the grazing season compared to non-medicated controls. Advantages were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in three of the four studies. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in average daily gain between the doramectin and ivermectin injectable or ivermectin pour-on treated groups.
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Adult female Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer, important vectors of arboviruses affecting livestock in Australia, were fed on penned Hereford yearling cattle which had been given a single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at a dose of 200 mcg/kg. The mean mortality of engorged females 48 hr after feeding on the treated cattle was 99% for 10 days posttreatment and in excess of 40% for 18 days posttreatment. Based on these results, it appears that ivermectin administered subcutaneously could be a useful tool for the control of Culicoides-transmitted diseases and would provide an attractive alternative to "slaughter out" programs in the case of a major exotic disease threat.
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The launch of the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) in 1987, by Merck & Co., Inc., created a number of new opportunities for onchocerciasis control. The microfilaricide Mectizan was rapidly put to ?use by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP), for mass treatment by field teams in selected areas. Other milestones in Mectizan treatment included the establishment, in 1992, of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas, and the creation of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in 1995, the latter programme covering all African countries in need outside of the OCP area. In 1998, the donation of Mectizan was expanded to include the treatment of lymphatic filariasis in those African countries where that disease is co-endemic with onchocerciasis. In the past, the development of a broad partnership around the MDP played a very important role, including non-governmental development organizations collaborating with the ministries of health in endemic countries. A new community-directed treatment strategy, which made it easier to reach out to all those in need, including those in remote areas, was developed by the APOC in collaboration with the World Health Organization's Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). Several drug-management issues, including dosing, shelf-life, safety, and the reporting of severe adverse experiences, were addressed by the MDP, through its Mectizan Expert Committee, and by Merck & Co., Inc. A major research effort for the safe treatment of onchocerciasis in loiasis-endemic areas has also been supported by the MDP. Presently there are national programmes for Mectizan mass treatment in all 33 endemic countries in need of such treatment; >69 million Mectizan treatments for onchocerciasis were provided during 2006, and this number is expected to grow to at least 100 million treatments/year by 2010. This achievement has resulted in great public-health and socio-economic benefits for the populations concerned. Future challenges will include additional support to 'fragile states' resulting from conflicts or natural disasters, and the need for a strengthened primary healthcare (PHC) infrastructure. The community-directed-treatment approach has been a great success but there is still a need to link the treatments to PHC, for the long-term sustainability of the treatments. The presence of loiasis in vast areas of Central Africa imposes a need for the mapping of that disease, and the application of safety precautions when distributing Mectizan in those areas. The recent decision to extend the APOC up to 2015 should facilitate the building of sustainable Mectizan treatment programmes that are integrated with the control of other neglected tropical diseases, such as lymphatic filariasis, intestinal helminths and trachoma. It will be important to define the safe end-point for Mectizan treatment in various settings, and an ongoing study by TDR will address this issue. There is also a need to consider the application of more frequent Mectizan treatments, possibly with adjunct measures, such as ground-based vector control in selected areas, or new chemotherapeutic approaches (as and when they become available).
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To confirm the ivermectin resistance status of a strain of Ostertagia circumcincta which was isolated from a sheep farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand and to assess the susceptibility of this strain to other macrocycliclactone anthelmintics.
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During a therapeutic trial, batches of 672 to 1979 laboratory-bred Aedes polynesiensis, the mosquito vector of lymphatic filariasis in French Polynesia, were fed on Wuchereria bancrofti carriers one, three and six months after they had been treated with either single doses of ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg or placebo. High mortality rates were observed during the 15-day period following the blood-meal in mosquitoes fed on carriers treated with microfilaricidal drugs and were significantly higher in mosquitoes fed on carriers treated with ivermectin than in those fed on carriers treated with DEC. Though its intensity decreased with the passage of time, the phenomenon was observed in mosquitoes fed on carriers up to six months after treatment, especially in those fed on carriers treated with ivermectin. By decreasing the number of mosquitoes able to transmit the infection, this lethal effect on Ae. polynesiensis might represent an additional advantage of ivermectin in lymphatic filariasis control programs.
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The most common adverse event was vomiting (14.3% and 2.4% of spinosad- and selamectin-treated cats, respectively). Evaluation 2 and 3 geometric mean flea counts for spinosad-treated cats were significantly lower than those for selamectin-treated cats. Percentage reductions in flea counts for the spinosad and selamectin groups were 97.5% and 88.8% (evaluation 2) and 99.3% and 97.7% (evaluation 3), respectively. At evaluations 2 and 3, 70.6% and 92.6% of spinosad-treated cats and 29.4% and 64.7% of selamectin-treated cats were free of fleas, respectively. Weighted FAD scores for spinosad- and selamectin-treated cats decreased 94.2% and 80.0% during the study, respectively. Spinosad tablets were successfully administered during 98.1% of treatments.
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This paper outlines methods which can be used in the field assessment of potentially toxic chemicals such as the avermectins. The procedures focus on measuring the effects of the drug on decomposer organisms and the nutrient cycling process in pastures grazed by sheep. Measurements of decomposer activity are described along with methods for determining dry and organic matter loss and mineral loss from dung to the underlying soil. Sampling methods for both micro- and macro-invertebrates are discussed along with determination of the percentage infection of plant roots with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. An integrated sampling unit for assessing the ecotoxicity of ivermectin in pastures grazed by sheep is presented.
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The geographical distribution of human infection with Wuchereria bancrofti was investigated in four West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Togo), using a commercial immunochromatographic test for filarial antigen. Efforts were made to cover each health-system implementation unit and to ensure no sampling point was >50 km from another, but otherwise the 401 study communities were selected at random. The aim was to enable spatial analysis of the data, to provide a prediction of the overall spatial relationships of the infection. The results, which were subjected to an independent random validation in Burkina Faso and Ghana, revealed that prevalence in the adult population of some communities exceeded 70% and that, over large areas of Burkina Faso, community prevalences were between 30% and 50%. Most of Togo, southern Benin and much of southern Ghana appeared completely free of the infection. Although there were foci on the Ghanaian coast with prevalences of 10%-30%, such high prevalences did not extend into coastal Togo or costal Benin. The prevalence map produced should be useful in prioritizing areas for filariasis control, identifying potential overlap with ivermectin-distribution activities undertaken by onchocerciasis-control programmes, and enabling inter-country and sub-regional planning to be initiated. The results indicate that bancroftian filariasis is more widely distributed in arid areas of Burkina Faso than hitherto recognized and that the prevalences of infection have remained fairly stable for at least 30 years. The campaign to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public-health problem in Africa will require significantly more resources (human, financial, and logistic) than previously anticipated.