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Urine dipsticks have to be used more frequently for the screening of urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile infants and children (grade A). Confirmation of the UTI by urine culture should prefer other methods of sampling than the urine bag: sampling jet, urethral catheterization, or pubic puncture (grade A). The percentage of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in children accounts for less than 10 % in France and does not justify revising the 2007 recommendations (grade B). An increase in the use of carbapenems in first-line treatment is a major environmental hazard and exposes the patient to the risk of untreatable infections. For febrile UTI, the expert group recommended: (1) recover the results of susceptibility testing as soon as possible to quickly adapt treatment for possible resistant strains; (2) favor initial treatment with aminoglycosides (particularly amikacin) which remain active in the majority of ESBL strains for patients seen in the pediatric emergency department and/or hospital; (3) ceftriaxone (IV or IM) remains an appropriate treatment for patients seen in the emergency department or outpatient clinic because the percentage of ESBL-producing enterobacteria strains remains low; (4) use oral cefixime (grade B) in nonsevere cases and low-risk patients defined as age>3 months, general condition preserved, disease duration of fever<4 days, no associated comorbidity, and no history of urinary tract infection, uropathy, or prior antibiotic therapy in the last 3 months; (5) oral relay for parenteral treatment is guided by in vitro susceptibility testing, in an attempt to reduce the use of oral cephalosporins to limit the selection of resistant bacterial strains. The total duration of treatment recommended is usually 10 days. Except for special circumstances, there is no need to prescribe retrograde cystography or antibiotic prophylaxis after a first febrile urinary tract infection. For cystitis, the panel recommends systematic urinalysis and initial prescription before the results of the urine culture of one of the three following oral antibiotics: amoxicillin-clavulanate, cotrimoxazole, cefixime. The total duration of antibiotic treatment is 5days to tailor treatment based on clinical progression and antibiotic susceptibility.
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children. By the age of seven 8.4% of girls and 1.7% of boys will have suffered at least one episode. Symptoms include fever, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. UTI is caused by Escherichia coli in over 80% of cases and treatment consists of a course of antibiotics. Due to acute illness caused by UTI and the risk of pyelonephritis-induced permanent kidney damage, many children are given long-term antibiotics aimed at preventing recurrence.
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In this randomized, investigator-blinded multicenter study, tympanocentesis for acute otitis media with effusion in 137 ears from 108 children, 6 months to 12 years of age, revealed 84 definite pathogens and 32 potential pathogens. Twenty-nine aspirates from 23 subjects were sterile. Of the 116 isolates 42 (36%) were Streptococcus pneumoniae, 24 (21%) were Haemophilus influenzae, 9 (8%) were Moraxella catarrhalis, 9 (8%) were Streptococcus pyogenes and 1 (1%) was Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-two (19%) definite pathogens produced beta-lactamase. Patients were randomized to cefixime (8 mg/kg/day daily) or cefaclor (40 mg/kg/day divided into two doses). Efficacy was determined by pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry at the end of therapy visit on Days 11 to 14 and up to 4 weeks of follow-up. At end of therapy subjects with definite pathogens exhibited a satisfactory clinical outcome in 26 of 36 (72%) ears for cefaclor and 40 of 48 (83%) ears for cefixime recipients (P = 0.12). For ears with beta-lactamase-producing isolates there were no (0 to 12) cefixime failures but 4 of 10 cefaclor failures (P = 0.03). Diarrhea/loose stools were more frequent in cefixime (16 of 58) than cefaclor (4 of 50) recipients. One cefixime subject required discontinuation of drug. Overall efficacy for treatment of acute otitis media with effusion was not different; however, cefixime appeared more effective for infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing organisms.
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Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90) underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day) and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days), while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days). To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL).
The spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi has been only partially defined. In the present study the effectiveness of 12 antimicrobials, belonging to six different antibiotic classes have been tested against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (N=3), Borrelia garinii (N=3), Borrelia afzelii (N=3), Borrelia valaisiana (N=1), and Borrelia bissettii (N=1) isolates. These isolates were analysed by a new standardised colorimetric minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method based upon colour changes that result from actively metabolizing spirochaetes after 72 h of incubation. Piperacillin (MIC90: 0.08 mg/l), ceftriaxone (MIC90: 0. 04 mg/l), cefotaxime (MIC90: 0.15 mg/l), azithromycin (MIC90: 0.015 mg/l), roxithromycin (MIC90: 0.05 mg/l) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90: 0.12 mg/l) gave the lowest MIC values. Minimal inhibibitory activity of amoxycillin (MIC90: 1.04 mg/l), cefixime (MIC90: 1.33 mg/l), cefoperazone (MIC90: 0.83 mg/l) tetracycline (MIC90: 0.29 mg/l) and minocycline (MIC90: 0.30 mg/l) was slightly lower, whereas borrelia were resistant to amikacin (MIC90: >128 mg/l). Mean minimal borreliacidal concentrations (MBCs) were representatively determined for piperacillin (MBC: 1.8 mg/l), ceftriaxone (MBC: 2.0 mg/l), azithromycin (MBC: 0.82 mg/ml), roxithromycin (MBC: 1.8 mg/l), quinupristin/dalfopristin (MBC: 5.0 mg/l), minocycline (MBC: 5.8 mg/l), and amikacin (MBC: >128 mg/l) by using conventional subculture for three weeks in combination with dark-field microscopy. B. garinii proved to be the most susceptible of the genospecies tested. Our study showed excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of all classes of antibiotics tested, except the aminoglycosides and hence their suitability for therapy of Lyme disease.
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In order to evaluate antimicrobial activity of cefetamet (CEMT), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CEMT and control drugs were determined against Gram-negative rods mainly from complicated urinary tract infections examined in our laboratory from April to September of 1994. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The obtained strains were Citrobacter diversus 20, Citrobacter freundii 30, Enterobacter aerogenes 20, Enterobacter cloacae 30, Serratia marcescens 30, Proteus mirabilis 30, Proteus vulgaris 20 and Morganella morganii 30 strains, a total of 210 strains. 2. Excluding some resistant strains, the MIC-distribution showed showed that CEMT had strong antimicrobial activities against those strains from the MIC-distribution of this investigation. Compared to reports on CEMT in 1989, the MIC80 of CEMT in this investigation against clinical isolates were similar. The MIC50's of CEMT against E. aerogenes, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and M. morganii in the previous examination were equal to or similar to the current results, but the MIC50's against C. freundii and E. cloacae were lower than the value of this report. The detection frequency of highly resistant strains of C. freundii and E. cloacae to cefteram and cefixime were similar to that of CEMT-resistant strains. Multiple drug resistant strains, among these bacterial species seemed to be increasing. 3. Compared to oral antibacterial agents of oxime cephems that were used in the past, CEMT showed higher peak values of urinary excretion concentration and higher blood levels were sustained for a longer period of time. CEMT-PI will be effective against urinary tract infections.
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Despite rapidly diminishing treatment options for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance worldwide, Norwegian guidelines still recommend ciprofloxacin as empirical treatment for gonorrhea. The present study aimed to characterize phenotypical and genotypical properties of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Norway in 2009. All viable N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 114) from six university hospitals in Norway (2009) were collected, representing 42% of all notified gonorrhea cases. Epidemiological data were collected from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and linked to phenotypical and genotypical characteristics for each N. gonorrhoeae isolate. Resistance levels to the antimicrobials examined were: ciprofloxacin 78%, azithromycin 11%, cefixime 3.5%, ceftriaxone 1.8%, and spectinomycin 0%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin varied from 1.5 to 8 mg/L. Forty-one (36%) of the isolates were β-lactamase-producing, 17 displayed penA mosaic alleles, and 72 different N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (ST; 37 novel) were identified. The most common ST was ST1407 (n = 11), containing penA mosaic allele. Four of these isolates displayed intermediate susceptibility/resistance to cefixime. The N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in Norway were highly diverse. The level of ciprofloxacin resistance was high and the Norwegian management guidelines should promptly exclude ciprofloxacin as an empirical treatment option for gonorrhea.
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We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin.
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Twenty three studies (3295 children) were eligible for inclusion. No significant differences were found in persistent renal damage at 6 months (2 studies, 424 children: RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.16) or in duration of fever (2 studies, 693 children: WMD 1.54, 95% CI -1.67 to 4.76) between oral antibiotic therapy (10 to 14 days) and IV therapy (3 days) followed by oral therapy (10 days). Similarly no significant differences in persistent renal damage (3 studies, 341 children: RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.49) were found between IV therapy (3 to 4 days) followed by oral therapy and IV therapy for 7 to 14 days. No significant differences in efficacy were found between daily and thrice daily administration of aminoglycosides (1 study, 179 children, persistent symptoms at 3 days: RR 1.98, 95% CI 0.37 to 10.53).
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Shigella infection was diagnosed in 45 cancer patients. The mean age of the patients was 36.02±19.30 years (range: 1-64 years), with 35(78%) patients being >18 years of age. Overall, 16(35.5%) patients had presented during winter months and 40(89%) presented as emergencies. Diarrhoea was present in 44(98%) patients and among them 20(45%) had dysentery whereas 28(64%) had fever and 21(47%) had abdominal pain. Of the total 45 cases, 41(91%) had isolates from stool. Besides, 39(87%) Shigella isolates were further speciated and Shigella flexneri was the most commonly isolated serotype in 25(64.1%). Overall, 42(93%) strains were sensitive to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Mean duration of symptoms resolution was 3.92±1.51 days (range: 1-10 days). No mortality was noted at 2 weeks.
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All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin by three methods. Ninety-nine (99%) strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 1% showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin by all methods. Statistically, there was a moderate level of agreement between the methods for penicillin.
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Renal scarring developed in 33% of the 110 children in the 10 day intravenous group and 36% of the 110 children in the three day group. Children older than 1 year had more renal scarring than infants (42% (54/129) and 24% (22/91), respectively). After adjustment for age, sex, duration of fever before treatment, degree of inflammation, presence of vesicoureteric reflux, and the patients' recruitment centres, there was no significant difference between the two treatments on renal scarring. During follow up, 15 children had recurrence of urinary infection with no significant difference between the two treatment groups.
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From 2000 to 2009, 40,875 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested by provincial laboratories and 10,993 of these were characterized by the Public Health Agency of Canada. There was an increasing incidence of N. gonorrhoeae isolates that were chromosomally resistant to penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin while the plasmid-mediated resistance strains (penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae, tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, and PP/tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain all had a declining trend. The percentage of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin significantly increased from 1.3% in 2000 to 25.5% in 2009. Only 0.17% of isolates tested were azithromycin resistant. Between 2000 and 2009, the modal MICs for ceftriaxone increased from 0.016 μg/mL to 0.063 μg/mL.
From April 2006 to August 2007, a total of 146 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 139 male patients in Taipei, Taiwan, were analyzed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The resistance rates of all isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and cefixime were 76.7 (112/146), 21.2 (31/146), and 16.4% (24/146), respectively. NG-MAST identified 71 sequence types (STs), of which 21 STs contained 2 to 21 isolates. The isolates that belonged to the three major ST clusters typically were from patients who had specific epidemiological characteristics (such as sexual orientation and human immunodeficiency virus status). The major ST clones exhibited distinct resistance profiles and are associated with specific groups at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis infections.
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Although cholera is an endemic disease in Bangladesh, India and other countries, it was never a significant cause of gastroenteritis in Pakistan before 1988. Since then, cases of cholera are identified each year, both in adults and children in Pakistan. In order to see the contribution of Vibrio cholerae as a cause of gastroenteritis in children, we reviewed the cases of cholera admitted in the pediatric ward of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Of 4346 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis during 1990 through 1995, 348 children (8%) were confirmed to have cholera. The youngest child with cholera was seven days old. The mean age was 31 +/- 34 months. The cases of cholera were received from all over the city. Most cases were due to Vibrio cholerae Ogawa biotype ELTOR but the new strain, i.e., Vibrio cholerae 0139 was isolated in 14% cases in 1994. The sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae has also changed. In 1994, the organisms were resistant to commonly recommended antibiotics, i.e., tetracycline, ampicillin and erythrocin but sensitive to ceftrioxone, cefixime, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Adequate measures to improve hygiene and sanitation and supply of safe potable water is needed to prevent any future epidemic of cholera in the city.
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Febrile neutropenia is a heterogeneous condition. Recently, several risk factors have been defined, permitting the definition of a lower risk group of patients who may benefit form less aggressive therapy. The use of an oral antibiotic approach was tested in the current trial.
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A total of 325 eligible paediatric patients were entered into an open, randomised, multicentre general practice study to assess the comparative efficacy of a new third-generation oral cephalosporin, cefixime, with respect to that of amoxycillin in the treatment of acute otitis media. The dose of cefixime was 100 mg once daily (six months to five years), 200 mg once daily (five to 10 years) and 300 mg once daily (10 to 16 years). The dose of amoxycillin was as currently used by the participating general practitioners: 62.5 mg tds (six months to one year), 125 mg tds (one to seven years) and 250 mg tds (seven to 16 years). Both were in the form of an oral suspension. The two groups (160 patients on cefixime and 165 on amoxycillin) were comparable at study entry with respect to all parameters assessed. Overall there was a 95 per cent favourable clinical response seen in both groups (95 per cent confidence limits: 92 and 98 per cent respectively). Adverse events were comparable in both groups, except that there were more gastrointestinal side effects seen with cefixime (13 per cent) compared with amoxycillin (4 per cent), but only three patients in each group had to be withdrawn because of side effects. These results demonstrate that cefixime given once daily is a safe and effective alternative to amoxycillin in the treatment of acute otitis media in children, and also has the advantage of less frequent dosing.
Nontypeable strains of Haemophilus influenzae may spread contiguously from the upper respiratory tract and cause sinusitis, otitis media and pneumonia. Unlike H. influenzae type b these strains rarely invade the bloodstream to cause widespread infections. These strains are primary pathogens of acute otitis media, sinusitis and the conjunctivitis-otitis syndrome. In developing countries these strains are also responsible for many cases of pediatric pneumonia. Currently approximately 30% of nontypeable H. influenzae strains are beta-lactamase-positive and can inactivate susceptible penicillins, including penicillins G and V, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Most second generation oral cephalosporins are active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae. Some third generation oral cephalosporins, e.g. cefixime, however, have particularly good efficacy against H. influenzae. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol are generally effective as well.
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Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae poses on-going problems for individual case management and disease control for gonorrhoea. Considerable reliance is now placed on third-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of gonorrhoea following the loss of efficacy of penicillins and quinolones. Current clinical and laboratory perspectives on N. gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins are provided.
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Approximately 1 million people are infected per day worldwide by one or more sexually transmitted infections (STI) as estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Gonorrhoea represents an almost exclusively sexually transmitted infection, which predominantly affects mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital localization of infections is also possible, e. g. in the anorectal region. Currently, only syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are notifiable diseases according to the Infection Protection Act in Germany. In Saxony, an extended registration ordinance according to the German Infection Protection Act is in force, which means that besides syphilis the laboratory detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and genital mycoplasms are also notifiable infections. In particular, beginning in 2009 in Saxony a spectacular increase of registered infections due to N. gonorrhoeae was observed and in 2015 altogether 824 infections due to N. gonorrhoeae were reported. Alarming is the increase in resistance of N. gonorrhoeae against penicillin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and recently also against azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins. The so-called superbug of N. gonorrhoeae, which originated in Japan with multidrug resistance against most of the currently available oral antibiotics, has now arrived in Europe. Intramuscular or intravenous injection of ceftriaxone plus oral azithromycin, each given as single dose is the standard therapy for gonorrhoea.
Adjuvants (for example, aluminum salts) are frequently incorporated in licensed vaccines to enhance the host immune response. Such vaccines include the pneumococcal conjugate, combinations of diphtheria-tetanus/acellular pertussis, tetanus- diphtheria/acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, some Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis A, and human papillomavirus. These preparations have been associated with complicated local adverse events, especially if administered subcutaneously or intradermally in comparison to deep intramuscular injection. We describe a severe inflammatory reaction at the site of an injection of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates.
To evaluate adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of antimicrobials over 3-year period.
Random-effects estimates of pooled absolute rate differences of outcomes were derived, and heterogeneity of both the rates and rate differences was assessed. Children with AOM not treated with antibiotics experienced a 1- to 7-day clinical failure rate of 19% (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.28) and few suppurative complications. When patients were treated with amoxicillin, the 2- to 7-day clinical failure rate was reduced to 7%, a 12% (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.20) reduction. Adverse effects, primarily gastrointestinal, were more common among children on cefixime than among those on ampicillin or amoxicillin. They were also more common among children on amoxicillin-clavulanate than among those on azithromycin.
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Vaginal candidiasis is a common infection in women. The microflora of the vagina are influenced by a number of factors, including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, menses and diabetes mellitus. Previous antibiotic use is generally accepted to be a risk factor for vaginal candidiasis but the published evidence to support this is limited.
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The activity of gemifloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared to those of 11 other agents. All quinolones were very active (MICs, =0.125 microgram/ml) against 248 quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolates (40.7% of which were beta-lactamase positive); cefixime (MICs, =0.125 microgram/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (MICs =4.0 microgram/ml) were active, followed by cefuroxime (MICs, =16.0 microgram/ml); azithromycin MICs were =4.0 microg/ml. For nine H. influenzae isolates with reduced quinolone susceptibilities, the MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)s) were 0.25 microgram/ml for gemifloxacin and 1.0 microgram/ml for the other quinolones tested. All strains had mutations in GyrA (Ser84, Asp88); most also had mutations in ParC (Asp83, Ser84, Glu88) and ParE (Asp420, Ser458), and only one had a mutation in GyrB (Gln468). All quinolones tested were equally active (MICs, =0.06 microgram/ml) against 50 M. catarrhalis strains; amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime, cefuroxime, and azithromycin were very active. Against 10 H. influenzae strains gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin at 2x the MIC and ciprofloxacin at 4x the MIC were uniformly bactericidal after 24 h, and against 9 of 10 strains grepafloxacin at 2x the MIC was bactericidal after 24 h. After 24 h bactericidal activity was seen with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2x the MIC for all strains, cefixime at 2x the MIC for 9 of 10 strains, cefuroxime at 4x the MIC for all strains, and azithromycin at 2x the MIC for all strains. All quinolones except grepafloxacin (which was bactericidal against four of five strains) and all ss-lactams at 2x to 4x the MIC were bactericidal against five M. catarrhalis strains after 24 h; azithromycin at the MIC was bactericidal against all strains after 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) against four quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae strains were as follows: gemifloxacin, 0.3 to 2.3 h; ciprofloxacin, 1.3 to 4.2 h; levofloxacin, 2.8 to 6.2 h; sparfloxacin, 0.6 to 3.0 h; grepafloxacin, 0 to 2.1 h; trovafloxacin, 0.8 to 2.8 h. At 10x the MIC, no quinolone PAEs were found against the strain for which quinolone MICs were increased. Azithromycin PAEs were 3.7 to 7.3 h.
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The objective of the study was to conduct bacteriological analysis of water with special reference to Salmonella spp from natural sources of rural habitations of East Sikkim. A total of 28 Salmonella serovars isolated were biotyped, phage typed and tested for their anti-microbial susceptibility. All the isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi belonged to Biotype I. Four isolates of S. typhi belonged to phage type A. All S. paratyphi A isolates belong to phage 2. All the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefixime and amikacin. Untreated natural water sources are unsafe for human consumption.
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The emergence of a clonal group of gonococci showing decreased susceptibility to cefixime in England and Wales highlights the need for continued surveillance.
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Prospective cohort study of patients with CB and COPD monitored in PC in Spain. The first 10 adult patients who attended at random each researcher's clinic and who were diagnosed as suffering an exacerbation of their chronic bronchial pathology were included. Scheduled follow-up visits for a year evaluated the cohort's consumption of health resources. Direct health costs were analysed.
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The increasing prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae strains exhibiting decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and the recent isolation of two distinct strains with high-level resistance to cefixime or ceftriaxone heralds the possible demise of β-lactam antibiotics as effective treatments for gonorrhea. To identify new compounds that inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are proven targets for β-lactam antibiotics, we developed a high-throughput assay that uses fluorescence polarization (FP) to distinguish the fluorescent penicillin, Bocillin-FL, in free or PBP-bound form. This assay was used to screen a 50,000 compound library for potential inhibitors of N. gonorrhoeae PBP 2, and 32 compounds were identified that exhibited >50% inhibition of Bocillin-FL binding to PBP 2. These included a cephalosporin that provided validation of the assay. After elimination of compounds that failed to exhibit concentration-dependent inhibition, the antimicrobial activity of the remaining 24 was tested. Of these, 7 showed antimicrobial activity against susceptible and penicillin- or cephalosporin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae. In molecular docking simulations using the crystal structure of PBP 2, two of these inhibitors docked into the active site of the enzyme and each mediate interactions with the active site serine nucleophile. This study demonstrates the validity of a FP-based assay to find novel inhibitors of PBPs and paves the way for more comprehensive high-throughput screening against highly resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae. It also provides a set of lead compounds for optimization of anti-gonococcal agents.