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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia increases the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and cytokines which are known to stimulate granulocytes and endothelial cells to produce ROS. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is an inhibitor of cytokines and PAF and would reduce the generation of ROS by granulocytes and endothelial cells. PTX therefore would be expected to reduce the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. New Zealand white female rabbits were assigned to four groups: Group I (n=12), control; Group II (n=5), PTX control (40 mg/kg body weight daily orally); Group III (n=13), 0.5% cholesterol; Group IV (n=9), 0.5% cholesterol+PTX (40 mg/kg body weight daily orally). Blood samples were collected before (0 time) and after 1 and 2 months on experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C and serum malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product. At the end of 2 months the aorta was removed for measurement of atherosclerotic plaques, MDA, and aortic tissue chemiluminescence (Ao-CL), a marker for antioxidant reserve. Rabbits in Group III developed atherosclerosis (56.61+/-6.90% of the intimal surface of aorta was covered with atherosclerotic plaques) which was associated with an increase in the serum TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, MDA and aortic MDA and antioxidant reserve. PTX reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 38.1% and this was associated with decreases in serum MDA by 32%, aortic MDA by 37%, and antioxidant reserve by 17.3% without changes in the serum lipids. These results suggest that ROS generated during hypercholesterolemia via cytokines and PAF may in part contribute to the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and that suppression of production and activity of cytokines and PAF may reduce the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis.
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We have developed a model for head trauma in infant rats in an attempt to study mechanisms of neurodegeneration in the developing brain and were able to morphologically characterize two distinct types of brain damage. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hrs after trauma and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hrs and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampal dentate gyrus and striatum. Histological evidence of delayed cell death was preceded by decrease of bcl-2- in conjunction with increase of c-jun-mRNA-levels, already evident at 1 hr after trauma. Increase of CPP32-like activity and elevated concentrations of oligonucleosomes in affected brain regions represented additional findings to indicate that this secondary disseminated degenerative reaction is apoptotic in nature. At the age of 7 days, secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage, but its severity declined with increasing age. In 7-days-old rats, NMDA antagonists protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage whereas the free radical scavenger SPBN, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor pentoxifylline and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein mitigated apoptotic damage. These findings demonstrate that in the developing rat brain apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determines neuropathologic outcome following head trauma. Whereas radical scavengers and TNF-inhibitors may prove useful in treatment of pediatric head trauma, great caution should be applied in regards to the use of NMDA antagonists because of the inherent risk of apoptosis promotion.
The addition of pentoxifylline to Sb(v) in mucosal leishmaniasis reduces the healing time significantly and prevents the need for further courses of Sb(v).
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Astrocyte activation is an important feature in many disorders of the central nervous system, including chronic pain conditions. Activation of astrocytes is characterized by a change in morphology, including hypertrophy and increased size of processes, proliferation, and an increased production of proinflammatory mediators. The xanthine derivatives pentoxifylline and propentofylline are commonly used experimentally as glial inhibitors. These compounds are generally believed to attenuate glial activity by raising cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and inhibiting glial tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. In the present study, we show that these substances inhibit TNF and serum-induced astrocyte proliferation and signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), commonly used as a marker of mTOR complex (mTORC) activation. Furthermore, we show that pentoxifylline and propentofylline also inhibit JNK and p38, but not ERK, activation induced by TNF. In addition, the JNK antagonist SP600125, but not the p38 inhibitor SB203580, prevents TNF-induced activation of S6 kinase, suggesting that pentoxifylline and propentofylline may regulate mTORC activity in spinal astrocytes partially through inhibition of the JNK pathway. Our results suggest that pentoxifylline and propentofylline inhibit astrocyte activity in a broad fashion by attenuating flux through specific pathways.
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cGMP serves as the main second messenger of nitric oxide (NO). Antifibrotic effects of enhancing renal cGMP levels have recently been documented in experimental acute anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis. The present study compares the effects of the cGMP production-increasing soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator BAY 41-2272 with those of the cGMP degradation-limiting phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) in a progressive model of renal fibrosis. At 1 wk after induction of anti-Thy-1-induced chronic glomerulosclerosis (cGS), rats were randomly assigned to groups as follows: cGS, cGS + BAY 41-2272 (10 mg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1)), or cGS + PTX (50 mg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1)). BAY 41-2272 and PTX reduced systolic blood pressure significantly. At 16 wk, tubulointerstitial expressions of sGC mRNA and NO-induced cGMP synthesis were increased in untreated cGS animals, whereas their glomerular activity was depressed compared with normal controls. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cGMP production in response to NO were significantly enhanced in animals treated with BAY 41-2272, but not in those treated with PTX. BAY 41-2272 administration resulted in marked reductions of glomerular and tubulointerstitial histological matrix accumulation, expression of TGF-beta1 and fibronectin, macrophage infiltration, and cell proliferation as well as improved renal function. In contrast, only moderate and nonsignificant renoprotective changes were observed in the cGS + PTX group. In conclusion, increasing renal cGMP production through BAY 41-2272 significantly improved renal NO-cGMP signaling and limited progression in anti-Thy-1-induced chronic renal fibrosis, whereas inhibition of cGMP degradation by PTX was only moderately effective. The findings indicate that pharmacological enhancement of renal cGMP levels by sGC stimulation represents a novel and effective antifibrotic approach in progressive kidney disorders.
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These data suggest that pentoxifylline prevented reperfusion injury by decreasing neutrophil lung sequestration.
Granuloma annulare (GA) is classified as localized, generalized/disseminated, subcutaneous, and perforating types. The studies show connection with diabetes mellitus, lipidic metabolic disorders, malignant diseases, thyroid disorders, infections (HBV, HCV, HIV). We performed a retrospective study between 2010-2011, regarding disseminated GA (GAD), and the relationship between GAD and other comorbidities. We clinically and histologically diagnosed eight cases of GAD. The patients were also investigated for the diagnosis of associated diseases. The treatment included topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, Calcipotriol/Betamethasone, Tacrolimus 0.03%, Pentoxifylline, Hydroxychloroquine. Therapeutic response was assessed one month and three months after hospitalization. Our patients were five women and three men, aged 46-68 years, mean age 57.25 years, with a disease history of one year and a half (between three months and four years). The lesions occurred in the upper extremities (eight cases), distal extremities (three cases), cervical area (two cases), and trunk (five cases). In seven cases, we found annular appearance and one patient had disseminated small papules eruption. Associated pathology was diabetes mellitus type II (five cases), overweight and obesity (five cases), dyslipidemia (three cases), hypothyroidism (one case), rheumatoid arthritis (one case), external ear canal basal carcinoma (one case). Although there is controversy regarding the relationship between GAD and associated diseases, it is accepted that it is significantly associated with diabetes mellitus, also found in our study in five out of eight cases. We noticed obvious improvements after local and general treatment. It is confirmed that GAD is prevalent in women, over 40-year-old. GAD is often associated with diabetes and dyslipidemia, therefore it is necessary to investigate patients in this direction. The histopathological exam is essential for an accurate confirmation of GA.
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Identification of factors that improve muscle function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) could lead to an improved quality of life. To establish a functional in vitro assay for muscle strength, mdx murine myoblasts, the genetic homologue of DMD, were tissue engineered in 96-microwell plates into 3-dimensional muscle constructs with parallel arrays of striated muscle fibers. When electrically stimulated, they generated tetanic forces measured with an automated motion tracking system. Thirty-one compounds of interest as potential treatments for patients with DMD were tested at 3 to 6 concentrations. Eleven of the compounds (insulin-like growth factor-1, creatine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, trichostatin A, lisinopril, and 6 from the glucocorticoid family) significantly increased tetanic force relative to placebo-treated controls. The glucocorticoids methylprednisolone, deflazacort, and prednisone increased tetanic forces at low doses (EC(50) of 6, 19, and 56 nM, respectively), indicating a direct muscle mechanism by which they may be benefitting DMD patients. The tetanic force assay also identified beneficial compound interactions (arginine plus deflazacort and prednisone plus creatine) as well as deleterious interactions (prednisone plus creatine inhibited by pentoxifylline) of combinatorial therapies taken by some DMD patients. Since mdx muscle in vivo and DMD patients respond in a similar manner to many of these compounds, the in vitro assay will be a useful tool for the rapid identification of new potential treatments for muscle weakness in DMD and other muscle disorders.
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. Intrinsic glomerular cells as well as extraglomerular cells have been found as a source of TNF-alpha. Rat glomerular mesangial cells produce TNF-alpha after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ml) over different times (4, 8, 16 and 24 h). We show that lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in rat mesangial cell cultures is inhibited by pentoxifylline (50 mg/ml), cyclosporine A (0.1 microg/ml) and taurolidine (100 mg/ml). Inhibition of this production seems to be a promising treatment option for renal disease. Already pentoxifylline and cyclosporine A have been shown to improve different glomerular pathologies. Their in vitro effect on TNF-alpha production shown here might influence this.
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Determine the safety and tolerance of mesotherapy as a technique for the treatment of musculoskeletal complaints in musicians.
Dexamethasone (sodium phosphate), pentoxifylline, fusidic acid (sodium salt), pentamidine (isethionate) and R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) were tested for their anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activities in an endotoxin-induced shock rat model. All the drugs reduced serum TNF concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, whereas their effects on serum interleukin-6 levels differed. Doses that reduced TNF levels by 50% were 0.012 mg/kg for dexamethasone, 0.06 mg/kg for R-PIA, 0.24 mg/kg for pentamidine, 6.5 mg/kg for fusidic acid and 15 mg/kg for pentoxifylline. Administration of the drugs to rats before intraplantar injection of carrageenan reduced paw edema by 50-70%. Injection of a monoclonal anti-TNF antibody reproduced the inhibitory effect. Moreover, the time course of tissue-associated TNF following carrageenan injection was compatible with mediation of edema by TNF. Results obtained for this acute, non-immunological inflammatory reaction strongly suggest that the model is TNF-dependent. Our results reinforce the idea that TNF is a crucial target in the therapeutics of inflammatory reactions. These drugs, which are able to cross cell barriers, might have clinical applications in localized and/or chronic diseases in which TNF is involved.
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Intermittent claudication is a common condition of the elderly, occurring in 3 to 20% of individuals over the age of 65 years. Although local disease is usually benign, life expectancy in patients with intermittent claudication is reduced by approximately 10 years due to associated cardiovascular mortality. Several classes of drugs have been used in intermittent claudication, but clinical studies evaluating their efficacy leave much to be desired. Pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline), a rheological agent, and naftidrofuryl, an enhancer of aerobic metabolism, are the 2 most widely investigated and utilised drugs. The combined results of 10 placebo-controlled studies with pentoxifylline and 4 with naftidrofuryl estimate increases in claudication distances of 51 and 42%, respectively. However, due to publication bias, these figures are probably overestimates of the true benefit from treatment with these drugs. It is likely that any benefit from pentoxifylline or naftidrofuryl is small and of little clinical importance. The suggestion that naftidrofuryl has greater efficacy in older patients remains unproven. Other classes of drugs including vasodilators, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants and prostaglandins have not been shown to be effective. Only 2 approaches to the management of intermittent claudication have been shown convincingly to be of benefit: stopping smoking and exercising regularly.
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Adult respiratory distress syndrome is an inflammatory disorder of the lung parenchyma that results in severe respiratory failure. It is associated with sepsis syndrome and multiple organ failure and may be mediated by a variety of substances, several of which have been discussed in this article. Because sepsis syndrome, ARDS, and multiple organ failure are associated with a high mortality rate that has not been reduced significantly by supportive treatment, a rationale exists for therapeutic intervention with agents that affect the inflammatory cascade. Several of these agents, notably corticosteroids and prostaglandin E1, have been shown to be of no benefit in humans despite laboratory and animal studies suggesting their utility. Other agents, including surfactant, antiendotoxin antibodies, and NSAIDs, are undergoing clinical trials and may prove to be effective. A third group, including anti-TNF antibodies and pentoxifylline, are of theoretical benefit but await clinical trials.
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This study aims to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on fracture healing in an experimental animal model.
Melatonin in contrast to pentoxiphylline significantly improved biochemical and histopathological abnormalities due to its powerful antioxidant and free oxygen scavenger properties in acute pancreatitis, and it can be used for patients with pancreatitis.
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Cryopreservation of human hepatocytes is important for the treatment of liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation and also for the use of hepatocytes as an in vitro model of the liver. One factor in the success of cryopreservation is the quality of cells before freezing. Preincubation of hepatocytes with cytoprotective compounds to allow recovery from the isolation process prior to cryopreservation, such as those that will boost cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content or antioxidants, may improve the viability and function of cells upon thawing. Rat hepatocytes were used to investigate the effects of preincubation with 10 compounds: precursors (glucose, fructose, glutathione, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine), antioxidants (ascorbic acid and alpha-lipoic acid), and compounds with multiple effects (N-acetylcysteine, pentoxifylline, prostaglandin E1, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid). Human hepatocytes were then used to investigate 5 of the original 10 compounds (glucose, fructose, alpha-lipoic acid, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and pentoxifylline). Glucose preincubation (100 - 300 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of rat hepatocytes and improved the viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage of human hepatocytes. Fructose preincubation (100 - 300 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of rat hepatocytes and improved the attachment efficiency of human hepatocytes. alpha-lipoic acid preincubation (0.5 - 5 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of both rat and human hepatocytes. At a concentration of 2.5 mM alpha-lipoic acid also improved the albumin production of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, preincubation of hepatocytes prior to cryopreservation can improve the viability and function of thawed cells and may provide a method of obtaining better-quality cryopreserved hepatocytes for transplantation.
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Pentoxifylline has been used to improve sperm motility in Assisted Reproductive Technology mainly by initiating sperm motility in immotile spermatozoa samples obtained surgically. Indeed, as Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection leads to very poor results when using immotile gametes, pentoxifylline gives better results by easing the selection of viable sperm mobilized after incubation. In 2011, the French Haute Autorité de santé decided that pentoxifylline used for in vivo purpose proposed Insufficient Medical Service and pentoxifylline was thus withdrawn from the French materia medica. We here assessed the efficacy on spermatozoa motility and the safety of papaverine, another phosphodiesterase inhibitor, for the replacement of pentoxifylline.
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Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic disease of the oral cavity which is more commonly found in patients in the Asian subcontinent and the Far East. It is characterised by the progressive build up of constricting bands of collagen in the cheeks and adjacent structures of the mouth which can severely restrict mouth opening and tongue movement and cause problems with speech and swallowing.
The renal expression of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 is increased in DN, which is significantly associated with UAE. EN and PTF administration prevented this enhanced expression, leading to a decrease in urinary cytokine excretion and a reduction in albuminuria. These findings provide novel insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of DN, supporting the hypothesis that inflammatory mechanisms play a role in the renal injury secondary to diabetes mellitus.
This sub-study included 13 patients in the pentoxifylline arm (400 mg daily) and 13 in the matched placebo arm. Hepcidin-25 was measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry following isolation from patient serum. Serum hepcidin-25, serum iron biomarkers, haemoglobin and ESA dosage were compared within and between the two groups.
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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for ENL in people with leprosy.
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This study investigates the role of the transcription factor NFkappaB in thrombin- and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP, SFLLRNPNDKYEPYF)-induced mitogenesis of cultured bovine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC). Stimulation of resting cells by thrombin (10 nM) or TRAP (10-100 microM) resulted in a comparable time-dependent activation of NFkappaB as detected by Western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) of nuclear extracts. The NFkappaB activation was antagonized by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (20 mM) and pentoxifylline (0.5 mM). Thrombin caused a 3-4-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation within 24 h which was prevented by inhibitors of NFkappaB activation. In contrast, TRAP did not cause any mitogenic response. These results demonstrate that activation of NFkappaB is an essential but not a sufficient signal for SMC mitogenesis.
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Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe, cholestatic liver disease occurring in patients with alcohol abuse. Mortality is substantial; however, therapies may improve clinical outcomes.
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The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC.
In this study, we investigated the effects of erythropoietin (Epo), and pentoxifylline (Ptx) on the oxidant and antioxidant systems in the experimental short bowel syndrome. Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and all animals underwent 75% small bowel resection. Group E was treated with 500 IU kg(- 1) Epo subcutaneously (s.c.), group P with 50 mg kg(- 1) day(- 1) s.c. Ptx and group E+P with 500 IU kg(- 1) s.c. Epo plus 50 mg kg(- 1) day(- 1) s.c. Ptx for a period of 28 days. In group C, which is the control group, no drug treatment was given. At the end of 28 days the experimented rats were killed and ileum samples excised for biochemical and histopathological testing. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were determined in ileum homogenates. When compared to group C, the MDA and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), but SOD activity was not changed (p > 0.05) in groups P and E+P, whereas both MDA and SOD and also GSH-Px activities were not changed significantly in group E (p > 0.05). The average villous length, crypt depth, muscular thickness and mucosal length were measured in all groups. The average crypt depth and mucosal length were statistically higher in the group P than group C (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, the crypt depth was statistically higher in both E and E+P groups as compared to group C (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively). Therefore, our study indicates that Ptx may be more effective than Epo in reducing lipid peroxidation. Moreover, we considered that Ptx may give this protective effect by inhibiting the free oxygen radicals to a greater extent than developing the antioxidant capacity.
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Infusion of anti-TNF-antibody before E coli infusion will decrease the formation of IL-8. Infusion of HWA 138 before the E coli infusion will also inhibit the formation of TNF-alpha.