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A new triterpenoid saponin, named justicisaponin-I, has been isolated from Justicia simplex D. Don. (Acanthaceae). It has been assigned oleanolic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4'-O-ferulate structure (1) on the basis of chemical transformation and comprehensive spectral evidence. Justicisaponin-I has produced significant sperm acrosomal membrane stabilizing action and may prove to be a potent antifertility agent.
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Carbon monoxide is a well-known toxic component in fire atmospheres. However, the importance of hydrogen cyanide as a toxic agent in fire causalities is under discussion. A tragic polyurethane mattress fire provoked death of 35 convicts in a prison (Unit I, Olmos, Penitenciary Service of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), in 1990. There is no report of any investigation carried out with such a large amount of victims in Argentina. Carboxihemoglobin (COHb) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were quantified in victims blood to elucidate the cause of the death. Saturation of COHb ranged between 4 and 18%, and HCN 2.0-7.2mg/l. These latter values were higher than the lethal levels reported in literature. Other toxic components routinely measured (ethanol, methanol, aldehydes and other volatile compounds) gave negative results on the 35 cases. Neither drugs of abuse nor psychotropics were detected. Statistical chi(2) analysis was applied to find differences between HCN and COHb concentrations. Saturation of COHb and HCN in blood were not independent variables (chi(2)=8.25). Moreover, the ratio COHb/HCN was constant (0.47+/-0.04). In order to evaluate the contribution of each toxic to the diagnosis, a lethal index was defined for each toxic (LI(CO) and LI(HCN)). The most probable cause of death could be inferred by a suitable plot of both indexes. The results indicated that death in the 35 fire victims was probably caused by HCN, generated during the extensive polyurethane decomposition provoked by a rapid increase of temperature.
Although much research has examined the impact of question generation on students' reading comprehension and learning from lectures, far less research has analysed its influence on how students learn and study science. The present study aims to bridge this knowledge gap.
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Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. (Family-Acanthaceae) occupies a key role in traditional system of medicine. Since an extensive literature survey did not provide any information about studies on its standardization. Therefore, we designed the current study to establish the quality control parameters of G. pictum aerial parts.
Five patients had to modify ultra-rush regimen because of mild local adverse reactions. In total, 32 adverse reactions were reported in 27 patients during the ultra-rush regimen. Seven of these events were local gastrointestinal reactions, and the remaining 17 were local reactions, mainly labial or mouth itching and burning. Eight events were systemic reactions [rhinitis (n = 3), general malaise (n = 1), general malaise and vomiting (n = 1), dizziness (n = 1), asthma (n = 1), dyspnea (n = 1)]. All adverse reactions were mild or moderate. Serious adverse events or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions were not reported.
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The final multiple linear regression models explained between 3-32% of the variance in BNT scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women for Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Guatemala, and Bolivia on the BNT, none of the six countries had an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated.
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Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia and is closely associated with functional outcome. The importance of cognitive assessment is broadly accepted today, and an easy-to-use, internationality validated cognitive assessment tool is needed by researchers and in daily clinical practice. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) has been validated in English, French, Japanese and Italian. It is as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of requiring less than 35minutes to complete. In our study, we tested the psychometric characteristics of a Spanish version of the BACS in 117 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 36 healthy controls. All BACS cognitive subtests discriminated between patients and controls (P<.001), and the concurrent validity between the BACS and a traditional neuropsychological test battery was similar to that reported in other languages. We conclude that the BACS can facilitate the comparison of the cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia in many different countries.
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Dogs and coyotes are the most frequently reported canids responsible for scavenging human remains. We present the case of a 90-year-old woman whose mummified body was found in her home showing partial destruction of the thorax and extremities and absence of the cranium. The victim lived with a beagle dog whose dead body was also found, along with abundant scats throughout the house. Scavenging by the decedent's pet was the proposed hypothesis for the partial dismemberment and consumption of her body. Forensic analysis revealed that the victim died as a result of an accidental fracture of the proximal femoral epiphysis. Bone exam showed signs of canine scavenging on certain bones. Macroscopic and histological analyses of the dog feces revealed the presence of small bone fragments within scats. All the collected data supported the hypothesis that the decedent's pet fed on the victim following her death. The current case illustrates that forensic anthropology has much more to offer than personal identification and determining the manner of death. Systematic search and examination of scat deposits recovered from the scene may be very useful in the medicolegal investigation, identifying the origin of body mutilation and particularly the animal responsible for any scavenging.
Adhatoda vasica leaf showed significant hepatoprotective effect at doses of 50-100 mg/kg, p.o., on liver damage induced by D-galactosamine in rats.
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Although the rate of brain injury remains stable, due to medical advances, many patients who have suffered serious brain injury survive the accident, but remain with very important consequences. The role of the forensic doctor is increasingly more relevant in establishing curing periods, injury stabilization, treatments received and accident consequences so that the courts can dictate the corresponding compensations, incapacity levels and penal grades.
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Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the leading cause of consultation at the allergy specialist's office, but detailed, reliable, and validated clinical data on this condition are limited. This study was designed to define the clinical features, diagnostic methods, and therapeutic approaches of patients with AR induced by grass pollen in Spain. Two hundred twelve specialists participated in a multicenter, observational, epidemiologic, questionnaire-based study. Each investigator had to recruit at least two patients consulting for the first time and with a diagnosis of AR induced by grass pollen. Five hundred twenty-four patients (52% men; mean age, 29.3 years) with grass pollen-induced rhinitis (mean disease duration, 8.7 years) were recruited. Just 18.4% of patients reported that their symptom status had improved since the beginning of the condition, 89.4% had moderate-severe rhinitis (Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma classification) and 35.1% had concomitant bronchial asthma. For 52.1% of patients, control of symptoms with previous drug treatment was poor. Most of the patients were polysensitized to other pollens (sensitization to olive tree pollen, 57.1%). Oral antihistamines (97.3%) and nasal corticosteroids (82.3%) were the most frequently prescribed drugs and 43.1% of patients received specific immunotherapy. The clinical profile for the majority of Spanish patients consulting an allergy specialist for AR induced by grass pollen corresponds to a young adult with a lengthy moderate-severe rhinitis, often accompanied by bronchial asthma. Their symptoms progressively worsen and rhinitis is poorly controlled by symptomatic treatment. Oral antihistamines and nasal corticosteroids are the most frequently used therapeutic approaches and less than one-half receive specific immunotherapy.
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Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 microg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 microg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 microg/ml) were used as positive controls.
The flowers of Justicia aurea, morphologically characteristic of ornithophily, attracted a diverse array of foragers where they occurred as a dense stand in the tropical forests at La Selva, Costa Rica, and so provided an arena for this study of competition and coexistence. Two hummingbird species (Phaethornis superciliosus and Campylopterus hemileucurus) visited the flowers legally early in the morning, and defended the nectar resource; a third smaller bird (P. longuemareus) foraged for nectar throughout the day but collected it illegally by piercing the corollas. In addition, nectar was harvested illegally by four species of stingless bee (Trigona) and by ants, creating a further drain on the limited floral resources.Consideration of the diurnal patterns of foraging activities in combination with a spatial axis (defined here in terms of microclimate and insolation) nevertheless showed a good separation of flower visits for the different nectarivores. Hummingbirds visited flowers in zones where the reward was highest, while insects foraged to minimise their energetic costs; each of these factors could in turn be related to microclimatic considerations. A comprehensive scheme of resource utilisation could therefore be extracted from the field observations and interpreted in these terms. The limited area of niche overlap thus revealed corresponded closely with the situations where direct interference competition was observed, between hummingbird species or between bees and aggressive ants.
To examine diabetes-related factors in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive people with non-affective psychosis.
The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8 g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 microg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 microg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 microg/ml).
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High-dose sublingual immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides allergen extracts can be safely administered in an ultra-rush regimen, although its usefulness and benefit for perennial allergens (e.g. house dust mites) must be evaluated.
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To evaluate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of J. spicigera.
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Four experiments examined the role of meaning frequency (dominance) and associative strength (measured by associative norms) in the processing of ambiguous words in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to targets words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph prime. The first two experiments investigated the role of associative strength at long SOAs (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) (750 ms.), showing that meaning is facilitated by the targets' associative strength and not by their dominance. The last two experiments traced the role associative strength at short SOAs (250 ms), showing that the manipulation of the associative strength has no effect in the semantic priming. The conclusions are: on the one hand, semantic priming for homographs is due to associative strength manipulations at long SOAs. On the other hand, the manipulation of the associative strength has no effect when automatic processes (short SOAs) are engaged for homographs.
The results from this study will have a large impact on the practice of neuropsychology in Latin America, as this is the first normative multicenter study to create norms for the TOMM in this global region.
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In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by the method of Weinrich and Undem (1987). The effect of water on the wheals was assessed in the control group, n = 4. The effect of 3.3 mg of the crude extract was noted in histamine-induced wheals over a period of three hours. The extract was injected via intraperitoneal injections. In in vitro experiments, 3.3 mg of crude sample was tested for its effectiveness against histamine-induced tracheal contraction caused by cumulative dosing of histamine.
The greatly diversified locomotor behaviors in the Hominoidea impose different mechanical requirements in the upper limb of each species. As forearm rotation has a major role in locomotion, the skeletal structures involved in this movement may display differences among taxa that reflect functional adaptations. To test this, we use a biomechanical model that quantifies the rotatory capacity of pronator teres (rotational efficiency) from skeletal measurements. Using a large sample of hominoids, we aim to identify the morphological adaptations that confer differences in the mechanics of forearm motion and to assess the functional advantage of these adaptations. Forearm positions along the pronation-supination range where rotational efficiency is maximal depend on the orientation of the humeral medial epicondyle and differ among taxa. Our results indicate that these are related to locomotor mode. Knuckle-walkers exhibit a medial epicondyle more posteriorly directed, which, in elbow angles close to extension, causes rotational efficiency to be maximal in pronated positions of the forearm. Species with a significant amount of arboreal locomotion, such as vertical climbing, i.e., Pongo spp., Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla, display more proximally oriented epicondyles, which, in elbow flexion, leads to maximum rotational efficiencies in supinated positions of the forearm. Hylobatidae, with the less posteriorly and proximally oriented epicondyle, show their maximum rotational efficiencies closer to the forearm neutral position throughout most of the flexion-extension range, which may be linked to brachiation in this taxon. In humans, the epicondylar orientation and thus the positions of the maximum rotational efficiencies fall between arboreal and terrestrial hominoids. This may be related to the enhanced manipulative skills of the upper limb. In conclusion, the current analysis indicates that the orientation of the humeral medial epicondyle is linked to the locomotor habits of extant hominoids and therefore can be used for locomotor inferences in fossil taxa.
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The in vitro screen of the extracts prepared from J secunda, yielded no antimicrobial activity against the three strains of bacteria tested and therefore does not support the folklore claims by this mechanism of action.
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatography ultra-high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-UHR-QTOF-MS) metabolite profiling ofxs Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. leaves was performed. PCA and HCA analyses were applied to observe the clustering patterns and inter-sample relationships. It seemed that the concentrations of Ca, P, and Cu in the soil could affect the metabolite profiles of Justicia gendarussa. Six significant metabolites were proposed.
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We look at the expression of CD13, CD34 and c-Kit surface markers by flow cytometry. We have measured cell proliferation in response to GM-CSF and cell survival after GM-CSF withdrawal by the MTT assay on the same cell lines. Apoptosis was evaluated by the apoptotic membrane blebbing set up at different times after serum and survival factor removal or tolerance to cytotoxic compounds from Justicia spicigera.