The pharmacokinetics of oral ranitidine were studied in 24 Mexican male healthy volunteers. Subjects received a tablet containing 150 mg of ranitidine (Azantac, Glaxo de México, Mexico City) after an overnight fast and blood samples were drawn at several times for a period of 24 h. Ranitidine concentration in plasma was measured by high performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Ranitidine plasma concentration increased with time, reaching a maximum of (mean +/- SEM) 484 +/- 34 ng/ml in 2.7 +/- 0.2 h. Plasma levels then decayed with a terminal half-life of 4.8 +/- 0.3 h. The area under the plasma concentration against time curve was 2440 +/- 126 ngh/ml. Oral ranitidine pharmacokinetic parameters in Mexicans appeared to be similar to those previously reported for Caucasians.
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Esophagitis is common in children with cerebral palsy. Because histamine2-receptor antagonists such as ranitidine have not been uniformly effective, we treated disabled children with esophagitis with greater than usual doses. Endoscopy and pH monitoring were used to monitor dose and response to treatment. A dose of 9.3 +/- 0.9 mg/kg/day did not improve visual or microscopic esophagitis after 3 months. A dose of 14.8 +/- 3.9 mg/kg/day resulted in only slight microscopic improvement, but symptoms were improved. There was no correlation between esophageal reflux index at enrollment and either severity of esophagitis or response to treatment. Elevation of gastric pH by ranitidine was infrequent. These results affirm that pH monitoring does not reliably identify disabled children with reflux esophagitis nor does ranitidine reliably heal this disorder.
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The surgical wards of a university-affiliated, 700-bed, tertiary hospital.
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To assess the knowledge of staff and the effect of formal training on house officers we conducted telephone questionnaires of 40 house officers and 18 nurses. The following points were assessed: knowledge of dilution of drugs; knowledge of the rate at which drugs should be given; and the rate at which drugs were given. Appropriately trained nurses had greater knowledge than 'untrained' house officers. In all, 17/18 (94%) nurses compared with 9/18 (50%) house officers knew the correct rate at which to give ampicillin (P = 0.0036, Fisher's exact test); 14/18 (78%) nurses and 1/18 (6%) house officers said they gave ampicillin at the correct rate (P < 0.001); 13/18 (72%) nurses and 7/18 (39%) house officers said they gave ranitidine at the correct rate (P = 0.037). Only 1 of the 10 house officers who knew how rapidly to administer ampicillin said they took the correct length of time; 6 of the 10 who knew how rapidly to give ranitidine said they gave it at the correct rate. Training improves the knowledge of house officers, but other factors besides lack of knowledge (possibly lack of time) adversely affect delivery of intravenous drugs.
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To analyze the degree of utilization of generic drugs in Spain and Catalonia. To determine real savings and scope for further savings due to the use of generic drugs.
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An assessment was made of the change and the effect of a histamine H(2)-receptor blocker (H(2)-blocker) or omeprazole on gastric pH after surgery.
As 95% of all prescriptions are for orally administered drugs, the issue of oral absorption is central to the development of pharmaceuticals. Oral absorption is limited by a high molecular weight (>500 Da), a high log P value (>2.0) and low gastrointestinal permeability. We have designed a triple action nanomedicine from a chitosan amphiphile: quaternary ammonium palmitoyl glycol chitosan (GCPQ), which significantly enhances the oral absorption of hydrophobic drugs (e.g., griseofulvin and cyclosporin A) and, to a lesser extent, the absorption of hydrophilic drugs (e.g., ranitidine). The griseofulvin and cyclosporin A C(max) was increased 6- and 5-fold respectively with this new nanomedicine. Hydrophobic drug absorption is facilitated by the nanomedicine: (a) increasing the dissolution rate of hydrophobic molecules, (b) adhering to and penetrating the mucus layer and thus enabling intimate contact between the drug and the gastrointestinal epithelium absorptive cells, and (c) enhancing the transcellular transport of hydrophobic compounds. Although the C(max) of ranitidine was enhanced by 80% with the nanomedicine, there was no appreciable opening of tight junctions by the polymer particles.
According to previous observations, basal gastric acid secretion is downregulated by phosphoinositol-3-(PI3)-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), and protein kinase B (PKBβ/Akt2) signaling. PKB/Akt phosphorylates glycogen synthase kinase GSK3. The present study explored whether PKB/Akt-dependent GSK3-phosphorylation modifies gastric acid secretion.
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210 children with CD were identified; 27 of those children had ECD. Nine children presented with specific upper GI symptoms; dysphagia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and odynophagia. Esophagoscopy in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms revealed deep ulcers (n = 2), aphthous ulcers (n = l), erosions (n = l), edematous nodules, (n = l) and normal mucosa (n = 4). In asymptomatic children aphthous ulcers (n = 5), erosions (n = 3), deep ulcers (n = 3), and normal looking mucosa (n = 7) were seen. Twenty children also had gastric lesions, 3 children had duodenal lesions, and 3 children had both duodenal and gastric involvement. All 27 children had evidence of ileo-colonic or colonic disease. Acid suppressive medications were given only to children with upper GI symptoms and endoscopic esophageal lesions. The mean duration of follow-up from diagnosis of CD was 3.02 years (range 2 months-11.7 years). At last follow-up review, 7 children were receiving acid suppression and no children were receiving steroids. There were no complications related to ECD.
Rabeprazole was superior to ranitidine in esophageal healing and symptom relief in patients with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease, and was equally well tolerated.
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Seventy percent methanolic extract of the plant was prepared and fed to 36-h fasted rats. Ulcer was induced in these rats by single oral administration of aspirin (400 mg/kg) 1 h after the administration of the plant extract. After 4 h, the rats were sacrificed, ulcer index was calculated, and antioxidant activity of the extract in gastric mucosa was evaluated by determining the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and tissue lipid peroxidation.
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Ranitidine treatment improves vaccination-induced T-cell dependent antibody responses in patients with CLL but has no beneficial effect on the response to vaccination with unconjugated polysaccharide antigens.
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1. The application of high-voltage paper electrophoresis (h.v.p.e.) to the identification of drug metabolites in urine and bile has been investigated. 2. The major urinary metabolite of [3H]salbutamol in man had an electrophoretic mobility indicative of a sulphate ester. 3. A metabolite of [14C]ranitidine present in rat bile was shown to contain an ionized group with a pKa corresponding to a carboxylic acid. 4. The electrophoretic mobility-pH profile of a metabolite of radiolabelled N"-cyano-N-[2-[5-(dimethylaminomethyl)-2-furanylmethylthio]ethyl]-N-methylguanidine (14C-AH 18801) excreted in dog urine suggested that oxidation of the tertiary amine group of the compound had occurred. 5. H.v.p.e. provided valuable information on the structure of both phases I and phase II metabolites at a stage when the material was insufficiently pure for identification by other techniques.
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Experiments were conducted to study the transport of the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, in luminal membrane vesicles prepared from rabbit renal cortex. Cimetidine accumulated in the vesicles with time. Cimetidine uptake was sensitive to changes in vesicle size, suggesting that the compound is transported into an osmotically reactive intravesicular space. Its rate of uptake could be described by both a saturable and a nonsaturable process. The Km was 4.6 +/- 4.0 microM and the Vmax was 6.8 +/- 2.3 pmol X s-1 X mg protein-1 (mean +/- SD, n = 4). N1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), cimetidine, cimetidine sulfoxide, and ranitidine inhibited the uptake of cimetidine. Cimetidine uptake in the presence of an outwardly directed proton gradient was enhanced in vesicles preloaded with a higher concentration of unlabeled cimetidine (2.4 X 10(-4) M). An outwardly directed proton gradient enhanced the uptake of cimetidine to values exceeding its equilibrium accumulation. Uptake stimulated in this way could be inhibited by the cation, NMN, the bases, ranitidine, and cimetidine sulfoxide, and interestingly, by the anion, probenecid. The effect of probenecid did not appear to be due to nonspecific effects on membrane binding, membrane potential, or vesicle size. These data are consistent with data obtained in isolated perfused proximal tubules, demonstrating that probenecid inhibits cimetidine transport. The data in this study suggest that the effect of probenecid on cimetidine transport specifically involves the transporter in the luminal membrane.
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This was a retrospective historical cohort study assessing the rates of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving paclitaxel for ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma at the Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre from 1996 to 2000. Until 1998, all patients received the conventional prophylactic regimen consisting of two doses of oral dexamethasone (20 mg), 12 and 6 h prior to paclitaxel. From 1998 to the present, patients received a single dose of intravenous dexamethasone (20 mg), 30 min prior to paclitaxel. All patients also received an H(1) and H(2) blocker intravenously prior to paclitaxel administration. The analysis was corrected for potential covariates such as dose of paclitaxel and rate of infusion. The primary outcome measure was the rate of hypersensitivity reactions as defined by the National Cancer Institute of Canada-Clinical Trials Group. The Yates-corrected chi(2) test was used to compare the rates of these reactions, and a logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether any of the covariates were significant factors in these reactions.
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The informal (and/or illegal) e-commerce of pharmaceutical formulations causes problems that governmental health agencies find hard to control, one of which concerns formulas sold as natural products. The purpose of this work was to explore the advantages and limitations of DOSY and HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR. These techniques were used to identify the components of a formula illegally marketed in Brazil as an herbal medicine possessing anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. DOSY was able to detect the major components present at higher concentrations. Complete characterization was achieved using HPLC-UV-SPE-NMR, and 1D and 2D NMR analyses enabled the identification of known synthetic drugs. These were ranitidine and a mixture of orphenadrine citrate, piroxicam, and dexamethasone, which are co-formulated in a remedy called Rheumazim that is used to relieve severe pain, but it is prohibited in Brazil because of a lack of sufficient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information.
The median observation period of the 740 patients included was 6.8 (range 5.4-7.9) years. A univariate analysis of all 740 patients and of the subgroup of 560 who underwent curative resection showed no significant effect of ranitidine on survival. Furthermore, ranitidine had no survival benefit in curatively resected patients who received a perioperative blood transfusion (n = 358), but it improved the survival of non-transfused patients (n = 202; hazard ratio (HR) 0.6 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.02) and of non-transfused patients who did not develop postoperative infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had an independent, beneficial effect on survival (HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 1.0), P = 0.04) within the subgroup of patients who did not receive perioperative blood transfusion and did not develop postoperative infectious complications.
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Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into DCQD group and DCQD plus ranitidine group, and were orally administered with DCQD at a dose of 10 g/kg or DCQD (10 g/kg) combined with ranitidine (150 mg/kg), respectively. Blood samples were gathered after a series of time intervals. Metabolism of rhein was determined with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with internal standard of 1, 8-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the data were analyzed with DAS 2.1 program. The pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the two groups.
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While dyspeptic patients in primary care often receive empirical treatment with antisecretory drugs, a substantial number suffer from motility disturbances which may be associated with their complaints. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of treatment with antisecretory treatment with a prokinetic agent in uninvestigated dyspepsia.
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The pharmacokinetic parameters of rhein in the DCQD group, including peak concentration (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), distribution phase half-life (t(1/2alpha)), elimination rate constant (K(10)) and central to peripheral transfer rate constant (K(12)), were significantly different to those in the DCQD plus ranitidine group (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the other parameters between the two groups.
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Inflammatory reactions play an important role in peritoneal sclerosis in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Since histamine affects inflammatory reactions and immune responses, we investigated effects of intraperitoneal administration of histamine on peritonitis induced by mechanical scraping in mice.
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The effects of the anti-acid secretory agents, cimetidine (N-cyano-N'-methyl-N"-(2-([(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]thio)ethyl) guanidine), ranitidine (N-(2-(((-5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanyl)methyl)thio)ethyl)-N'-meth yl- 2-nitro-1,1-ethene-diamine), roxatidine (2-acetoxy-N-(3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]-propyl) acetamide hydrochloride), FRG-8813 (2-(furfurylsulfinyl)-N-(4-[4-(piperidinomethyl)-2-pyridyl]o xy-(z)-2- butenyl)acetamide), omeprazole (5-methoxy-2-([(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridinyl)methyl]sulfinyl)- 1H-benzimidazole), and NC-1300-O-3 (2-([2-(isobutylmethylamino)benzyl]sulfinyl)-1H- benzimidazole), on mucin biosynthesis were studied in rat gastric mucosa by using an organ culture technique. [3H]Glucosamine incorporation was stimulated in the corpus region by the histamine H2 receptor antagonists which have a six-membered aromatic ring, roxatidine and FRG-8813, and the new H+,K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, NC-1300-O-3. Thus, these drugs not only inhibit acid secretion but may also promote gastric mucosal protective actions. The present observations also demonstrate that the determination of mucin biosynthesis may be a useful tool for evaluation of mucosal protective activity.
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Pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux was seen in 3 of the 13 responders and 4 of the 18 no-responders (NS). The responders had frequent short reflux episodes (< 1 min in duration). When 4 patients with > or = 5 reflux episodes longer than 5 min were excluded, the number of short reflux episodes (median) in responders and non-responders was 32 and 14, respectively. The difference is statistically significant (p = 0.025). There were no other differences between the groups.
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The capsule released the ranitidine solution when activated in the jejunum, ileum and colon (visualized by the gamma camera). There was no difference in the extent of ranitidine absorption or ranitidine pharmacokinetics when the capsule was activated in the jejunum or ileum.
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The antiulcer effect of melatonin on gastric lesions caused by restraint-cold stress was studied with the intent of determining the mechanism of action of this agent. Melatonin dose-dependently prevented restraint-cold stress-induced gastric damage with around 90% inhibition at a dose of 60 mg/kg BW. When compared with already marketed antiulcer drugs such as ranitidine and omeprazole, melatonin was found to be more effective than ranitidine but less effective than omeprazole in preventing stress ulcer. As stress-induced gastric lesions are mainly caused by oxidative damage because of hydroxyl radicals (*OH), the effect of melatonin in scavenging the.OH generated during stress conditions in vivo as well as in an in vitro model system were studied. The results indicate that melatonin caused an 88% reduction of endogenous *OH during stress in vivo, an observation confirmed in an established in vitro system. Furthermore, a decrease in the activity of gastric peroxidase (GPO) and an increase in the gastric mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity because of restraint-cold stress was attenuated by melatonin pretreatment indicating that the indole possibly exerts its gastroprotective effects through its direct as well as indirect antioxidant activities. Moreover, in separate experiments, cotreatment of rats with melatonin and ranitidine or omeprazole was found to protect against stress ulceration in doses at which either of these alone could not protect the stomach. The findings raise the possibility of melatonin being considered as an effective gastroprotective agent individually or as a cotreatment with either ranitidine and omeprazole.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptomatic condition and may be associated with erosive esophagitis (EE). Considerable data on the long-term maintenance of healing of EE are available, but data on long-term GERD symptom prevention and patient quality of life (QOL) are limited.