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Taken together, current evidence supports the recommendations for the use of plant sterols as LDL cholesterol-lowering agents. Nevertheless, a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded, intervention trial conclusively showing that plant sterol supplementation will prevent hard cardiovascular endpoints is not available to date.
The study included a total of 32 patients. The mean age at the start of ezetimibe was 9.5 years (range: 2 to 15.5). The mean total time of Ezetimibe was 2.45 years (r: 0.4 - 5.9).The decrease in mean LDL levels was -25.7% ± 12.3 or 59.5 ± 34 mg% (P<.0001; 95% CI: 47.3-71.5, t test). There were no side effects with ezetimibe monotherapy. At the end of the study, 11 patients required added statins due to failing to achieve the treatment goal.
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Current preventive and treatment guidelines for type 2 diabetes have failed to decrease the incidence of comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia and ultimately heart disease. The goal of this review is to describe the physiological and metabolic lipid alterations that develop in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Questions addressed include the differences in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism that characterize the dyslipidemia of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relevance of the new AHA/ADA treatment guidelines to dyslipidemic individuals.
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Not all cardiovascular protection provided by statins is explained by their beneficial effects on lipoproteins. Old (e.g., clofibrate) and new (e.g., torcetrapib and ezetimibe) agents, with similar or more intense beneficial effect over lipoproteins, do not reproduce the beneficial effects of statins. Besides their anti-inflammatory and other pleiotropic effects, a blood pressure-lowering effect could be an additional mechanism of cardiovascular protection of statins. Large trials of statins in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease did not report an effect on blood pressure, but the use of blood pressure-lowering agents was left to the discretion of physicians during the trial. Post hoc analyses of small trials and a meta-analysis of some of them have suggested that statins could lower systolic blood pressure by approximately 4 mmHg, particularly in patients with high blood pressure. Most studies, however, had small samples and were not blinded. Others had a cross-over or observational design. The overall view of these studies rules out a substantial blood pressure-lowering effect of statins. An effect restricted to subjects with high blood pressure could ultimately derive from the anti-inflammatory effect of statins, since higher levels of C-reactive protein are associated with higher blood pressure. An unequivocal demonstration of an antihypertensive effect of statins, however, is still lacking, and a randomized trial with enough power to evaluate blood pressure variation in a large range of blood pressure values is required to demonstrate whether statins definitely have an antihypertensive effect.
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Aryl boronic acids can be monofluoromethylated under nickel catalysis. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the monofluoromethylation of a borylated and acyl-protected derivative of the statin drug ezetimibe. Mechanistic investigations indicate that a fluoromethyl radical is involved in the Ni(I)/Ni(III) catalytic cycle.
Eighty-six people were prescribed a low-fat low-calorie diet and were randomly allocated to receive orlistat 120 mg, three times daily (O group), ezetimibe 10 mg/day (E group) or both (OE group) for 6 months. HDL subfractions were determined using a polyacrylamide gel-tube electrophoresis method.
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AD was present in 81 (22.8%) of the 356 patients; these were more frequently men and presented higher total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. AD remission rate was 74.1% at 3 months, 90.1% at 6 months and 96.3% at 12 months, respectively, after BS. In this group of patients, HDL cholesterol levels rose progressively (1.0 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l, p < 0.001) and triglycerides decreased (2.5 ± 0.9 to 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/l, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Regarding previous lipid-lowering therapy, fibrates and ezetimibe were withdrawn in all patients and statins in 69.4% 1 year after surgery.
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A total of 15 clinical trials examining the effects of statin therapy on plasma PCSK9 levels were included. Meta-analysis of data from single-arm statin treatment arms [weighted mean difference (WMD) 40.72 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 34.79, 46.65; p < 0.001] and randomized placebo-controlled trials (WMD 22.98 ng/ml, 95% CI 17.95, 28.01; p < 0.001) showed a significant increase in plasma PCSK9 concentrations after statin therapy, irrespective of the type of statin administered in either of the analyses (single-arm or randomized placebo-controlled trial). There was no significant elevation of plasma PCSK9 levels with statin/ezetimibe combination therapy compared with statin monotherapy (WMD 23.14 ng/ml, 95% CI -1.97, 48.25; p = 0.071); however, removal of one study in the meta-analysis yielded a significant result in the sensitivity analysis (WMD 31.41 ng/ml, 95% CI 7.86, 54.97; p = 0.009).
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Ezetimibe added to statin therapy lowered LDL-C level further and improved the goal attainment in patients with CHD and DM.
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Fatty liver (FL) rats demonstrated severe hepatic fatty infiltration (> 91% fat), with an increase in hepatic TG (+ 1263%, P < 0.001), hepatic cholesterol (+ 245%, P < 0.03), hepatic MDA levels (+ 225%, P < 0.001), serum TNF-alpha (17.8 +/- 10 vs 7.8 +/- 0.0, P < 0.001), but a decrease in hepatic alpha tocopherol (-74%, P<0.001) as compared to the control rats. Combination therapy with all drugs produced a significant decrease in liver steatosis (-54%), hepatic TG (-64%), hepatic cholesterol (-31%) and hepatic MDA (-70%), but increased hepatic alpha tocopherol (+ 443%) as compared to FL rats. Combination therapy with ISA alone produced a smaller decrease in liver steatosis (-32% vs -54%, P < 0.001) and in hepatic MDA levels (-55% vs -70%, P < 0.01), but a similar decrease in hepatic lipids when compared with the all drugs combination. TNF-alpha levels decreased significantly in all treatment groups except in ISA group.
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EZE reduced (p < 0.05) total sterols (-12.5 ± 4.1%) and LDL-sterol (-22.7 ± 5.7%) and its sterol mass of large VLDL (-24.4 ± 4.5%), VLDL remnants (-21.1 ± 7.9%) and large IDL (-22.4 ± 7.2%) compared to OFF EZE. EZE did not affect large LDL subclasses or mean LDL particle size (273.8 ± 0.6 vs. 274.6 ± 0.3 Å). EZE increased HDL-sterol (25.5 ± 8.0%, p = 0.008) including intermediate (34 ± 14%, p = 0.02) and large (33 ± 16%, p = 0.06) HDL. EZE reduced non-HDL-sterol (-21.8± 5.0%), total sterols/HDL (-28.2 ± 5.5%) and TG/HDL (-27.4 ± 6.5%, all p < 0.01).
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During the 34-month follow-up period, the risk of recurrent IS in the SIM group was higher than that of the ATOR (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.82) and EZ-SIM (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.14-2.50) groups. The risk of recurrent IS was not significantly lower in the EZ-SIM compared with the ATOR group (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.85-1.69). The incidence of composite endpoint was highest in the SIM group (28.2%), followed by the ATOR (16.1%) and EZ-SIM (15.4%) groups. The multivariate adjusted survival curve showed lower trends of recurrent IS in the EZ-SIM and ATOR groups compared with the SIM group.
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beta-Lactams have recently been identified as potent, highly efficacious cholesterol absorption inhibitors (CAIs). The discovery, SAR, and asymmetric synthesis of this class of hypolipidemic agents are described. Metabolism studies of the first clinical candidate, Sch 48461, led to the identification of a more potent second generation clinical candidate, Sch 58235 (ezetimibe) incorporating key structural elements of the active metabolites. A summary of preclinical and early clinical studies of ezetimibe as monotherapy and in combination with statins is also presented. Efforts to identify a pharmacophore model has led to the development of conformationally constrained analogs and analogs with conformational biases based on intramolecular hydrogen bonding possibilities. Finally, mechanism of action studies have led to the development of many biochemical tools for the investigation and identification of novel proteins involved in cholesterol uptake.
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Adding EZE to ATV monotherapy represents an attractive and well-tolerated treatment option to bring patients at high risk of CHD to the aggressive LDL-C goals recommended by recent treatment guidelines.
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Five years of statin therapy lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol substantially and, over a 5-year period, results in reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular events. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00092677) has raised the hypothesis that adding ezetimibe to statin therapy for larger LDL cholesterol reductions might increase the incidence of cancer.
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Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like particle with an additional apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein (a), [apo(a)] attached to apolipoprotein B. Recent epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies have provided evidence that Lp(a) is causally related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk association between Lp(a) concentrations and CVD is still controversial but seems to be continuous and without an obvious threshold Lp(a) level. Circulating concentrations of Lp(a) are genetically determined; desirable levels are amplt; 50 mg/dl. A plasma concentration of 60 mg/dl is associated with an odds ratio for coronary heart disease of about 1.5 after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Extended-release niacin is an option for decreasing elevated Lp(a) levels (by ~20-30%) but it is often poorly tolerated. Dietary measures, exercise and lipid-lowering drugs such as statins and ezetimibe are without significant effect. In patients with severe progressive CVD and very high Lp(a) levels, lipoprotein apheresis can decrease Lp(a) concentrations. The method is expensive and impractical for most patients and its feasibility depends mainly on the healthcare reimbursement system. Since no established treatment reduces Lp(a) without influencing other lipoproteins, there has been no trial that evaluated whether decreasing Lp(a) concentrations translates to clinical benefits. Recently, an antisense oligonucleotide against apo(a), IONIS-APO(a)Rx, has been shown to selectively decrease Lp(a) by almost 80%. A phase 2 study with this drug has been completed in late 2015 and results are expected to be published soon.
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Efforts to lower plasma lipid levels sometimes require multiple agents with different mechanisms of action to achieve results specified by national treatment guidelines.
The discovery of ezetimibe has opened a new door for the management of hyper-cholesterolemia in combination with statins. There are newer analogues that are under clinical trials, among which darapladib, FM-VP4 and A-002 are promising compounds.
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The small intestine is a unique organ providing dietary and reabsorbed biliary cholesterol to the body. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby cholesterol is absorbed have not yet been fully understood. Recent research suggests that the newly identified Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1) is expressed at the apical surface of enterocytes and plays a critical role in the absorption of intestinal cholesterol. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 represent apical sterol export pumps that promote active efflux of cholesterol and plant sterols from enterocytes back into the intestinal lumen for excretion. This provides an explanation why cholesterol absorption is a selective process, with plant sterols and other noncholesterol sterols being absorbed poorly or not at all. These findings strongly support the concept that cholesterol absorption is a multistep process, which is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level. The absorption efficiency of cholesterol is most likely determined by the net effect between influx and efflux of intraluminal cholesterol molecules across the brush border of the enterocyte. Combination therapy using a novel, specific, and potent cholesterol absorption (NPC1L1) inhibitor (ezetimibe) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) offers an efficacious new approach to the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
To outward appearances, the publication of the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) trial has led to a monolithic backlash against the use of ezetimibe by cardiologists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Rather than be swayed by popular opinion, we should each put the results of ENHANCE into context and ask the questions: should I put my trust in an imaging surrogate or in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C), and how do the safety and efficacy of ezetimibe compare with other nonstatin lipid-lowering agents?
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Ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Sphingomyelin has strong interactions with cholesterol. We investigated the effects of ezetimibe on Sphingomyelinase (SMase) expression in intestine and liver. After feeding rats with ezetimibe (5 mg/kg per day) for 14 days, acid SMase activities in the liver and in the proximal part of small intestine were reduced by 34 and 25%, respectively. Alkaline SMase (alk-SMase) was increased in the proximal part of the small intestine. Administration of lower doses of ezetimibe reduced acid SMase only in the liver by 14% (P < 0.05). In cell culture studies, ezetimibe decreased acid SMase activity in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells dose-dependently. The reductions were more rapid for Hep G2 cells than for Caco-2 cells. Western blot showed that acid SMase protein was decreased in both Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells by 100 microM ezetimibe. The SM content was increased in Hep G2 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and total cholesterol content was increased in both cell lines 24 h after stimulation with 100 microM ezetimibe. Mevastatin, the inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, induced a mild increase in acid SMase activity in Hep G2 cells but not Caco-2 cells. Following the reduction of acid SMase, ezetimibe at high dose slightly increased alk-SMase activity. In conclusion, the study demonstrates an inhibitory effect of ezetimibe on acid SMase activity and expression in both liver and intestine.
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Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are essential features of metabolic syndrome. Statins decrease fasting lipid levels but fail to reduce fat load induced hypertriglyceridemia. We established whether ezetimibe combined with simvastatin differently influences post fat load lipid levels and lipoprotein composition as compared to simvastatin 80mg monotherapy in obese male metabolic syndrome patients.
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We analyzed pooled data from 3 previously published, similarly designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. After a 6- to 8-week washout, a 4-week dietary stabilization period, and a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 145 to 250 mg/dL were randomized to EZE/SIMVA 10/10, 10/20, 10/40, or 10/80 mg; SIMVA 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg; EZE 10 mg; or placebo for 12 weeks. In this post hoc analysis, the percent change from baseline to week 12 in LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B (apo B), triglycerides (TG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) for EZE/SIMVA (pooled across doses) versus SIMVA alone (pooled across doses) was compared between older and younger patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Tolerability was assessed by adverse event reports and laboratory and vital signs assessments throughout the study.
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Serum samples of 445 CAD subjects participating in a long-term follow-up of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study were analyzed. In addition, samples obtained from a separate randomized parallel three-group study of subjects treated with simvastatin (n=24), ezetimibe (n=24), or their combination (n=24) were studied. Furthermore, samples from the LURIC participants with a loss-of-function mutation (R46L) in the PCSK9 gene (n=19) were analyzed and compared with major allele carriers (n=868).
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Even in a specialist setting of a University Hospital, a high proportion of the elderly remain at suboptimal LDL-C, BP and HbA1c levels. The use of drug combinations could improve multifactorial treatment target attainment, while less strict targets could be more easily achieved in this population.
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The incidence of adverse events was similar between ezetimibe-statin combination therapy and statin monotherapy; thus, we recommend combination therapy for patients with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
To evaluate the magnitude of the effect of statin therapy on plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) levels through a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.
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Inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Monocytes/macrophages are involved in the inflammatory process during atherogenesis. Here, we performed daily gavage of ezetimibe in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed with a high-fat diet and found that ezetimibe administration decreased the level of C-reactive protein significantly. To investigate the potential molecular mechanism, we employed microarray analysis on the cultured macrophages treated with Chol:MβCD in the presence or absence of ezetimibe. We found that ezetimibe dramatically down-regulated the expression of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene. Consistent with the microarray results, TNF-α protein levels were inhibited by ezetimibe. Moreover, ezetimibe suppressed the promoter activity of TNF-α but not TNF-α lacking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding domain in THP-1 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and Chol:MβCD. Furthermore, treatment of THP-1 macrophages with ezetimibe resulted in the degradation of IκB and subsequently inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its transcriptional activity. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway using PD98059 attenuated the reduction effect of ezetimibe on the expression of NF-κB. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory properties of ezetimibe in THP-1 macrophages are, at least in part, through suppression of NF-κB activation via the MAPK pathway. These data provide direct evidence for the potential application of ezetimibe in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Compared to the reference group (n = 52), CV disease burden was significantly greater in patients with AAV (n = 53). Hypercholesterolemia was also more common in the AAV patients (71.7% vs 46.2% for the HTN; P = .008). Lipoprotein(a) levels were elevated in both groups, with 11.3% and 17.3% of the AAV and HTN groups, respectively, displaying a level above 0.6 g/l (P = .083). Guideline-recommended targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure levels were rarely met. According to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, 72.5% of the patients with AAV should have been taking statins and/or ezetimibe for treatment of hyperlipidemia; however, only 24.3% of them were receiving such treatment. Blood pressure below ≤140/90 mmHg was reached in 78.6% of the patients with chronic kidney disease. However, for patients with chronic kidney disease and an albumin excretion rate of >30 mg/day, the recommended blood pressure is ≤130/80 mmHg, a value that was not reached in 65% of the AAV patients.