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One hundred pharyngeal and 100 rectal gonorrhea infections in 190 men were included. For pharyngeal gonorrhea, positivity of N. gonorrhoeae DNA on both PCR assays was present at days 7 or 14 in 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.4%-19.6%) and 8% (95% CI, 2.7%-13.3%), respectively. For rectal gonorrhea, DNA positivity was present in 6% (95% CI, 1.4%-10.7%) and 8% (95% CI, 2.7%-13.3%), respectively. Among 200 baseline pharyngeal and rectal isolates, there were 10 with ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥0.06 mg/L and azithromycin MIC ≥0.5 mg/L, of which 3 (30%) had DNA detected at day 14; among the 190 isolates with lower ceftriaxone and azithromycin MICs, only 13 (7%) had persistent DNA (odds ratio, 5.8 [95% CI, 1.3-25.4]; P = .019). One man initially infected with N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence type 2400 had type 4244 infection at day 14, indicating reinfection.
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There are increasing concerns about treatment failure following treatment for rectal chlamydia with 1 g of azithromycin. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy of 1 g of azithromycin as a single dose or 100 mg of doxycycline twice daily for 7 days for the treatment of rectal chlamydia.
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Fifteen trials were analysed. The pooled analysis of all trials showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of clinical failure on about day 10 to 14 between the two groups (relative risk (RR), random-effects 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 1.85). Sensitivity analysis showed a reduction of clinical failure in azithromycin-treated participants (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.21) in three adequately concealed studies, compared to RR 1.32; 95% CI 0.70 to 2.49 in 12 studies with inadequate concealment. Twelve trials reported the incidence of microbial eradication and there was no significant difference between the two groups (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.03). The reduction of adverse events in the azithromycin group was RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.00).
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The purpose of this double-blind study was to assess the effect of azithromycin and clarithromycin on oral and fecal microflora. Bacterial species from fecal samples and throat washes from healthy volunteers were identified and quantified before, during and after receipt of either placebo ( n=6), azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 3 days; n=6) or clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily for 7 days; n=6). In both antibiotic groups, the changes in oropharyngeal aerobic microflora following antibiotic administration were minor. Antibiotics neither changed the bacterial load of Streptococcus spp. compared with placebo, nor did macrolide-resistant streptococci emerge. In the fecal aerobic microflora, the number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae decreased slightly after antibiotic administration in both the clarithromycin and the azithromycin groups, but levels normalized by day 21 after therapy. No colonization with nonfermenters or Clostridium difficile was seen, and the total number of anaerobic bacteria was not affected in any study group. In conclusion, there were no significant differences between azithromycin and clarithromycin in their effect on human oropharyngeal and intestinal microflora, nor was the use of these antibiotics associated with colonization by resistant, gram-positive organisms or overgrowth of opportunistic microorganisms.
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The purpose of this study was to systematically design pure antibiotic drug dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for targeted antibiotic pulmonary delivery in the treatment of pulmonary infections and comprehensively correlate the physicochemical properties in the solid-state and spray-drying conditions effects on aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers (DPIs). The two rationally chosen model antibiotic drugs, tobramycin (TOB) and azithromycin (AZI), represent two different antibiotic drug classes of aminoglycosides and macrolides, respectively. The particle size distributions were narrow, unimodal, and in the microparticulate/nanoparticulate size range. The SD particles possessed relatively spherical particle morphology, smooth surface morphology, low residual water content, and the absence of long-range molecular order. The emitted dose (ED%), fine particle fraction (FPF%) and respirable fraction (RF%) were all excellent. The MMAD values were in the inhalable range (<10 μm) with smaller MMAD values for SD AZI powders in contrast to SD TOB powders. Positive linear correlations were observed between the aerosol dispersion performance parameter of FPF with increasing spray-drying pump rates and also with the difference between thermal parameters expressed as Tg-To (i.e. the difference between the glass transition temperature and outlet temperature) for SD AZI powders. The aerosol dispersion performance for SD TOB appeared to be influenced by its high water vapor sorption behavior (hygroscopicity) and pump rates or To. Aerosol dispersion performance of SD powders were distinct for both antibiotic drug aerosol systems and also between different pump rates for each system.
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Azithromycin is effective against Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro and as a single dose for the treatment of chlamydia infection of the genital tract. A randomized single-blind study was conducted in 2 Gambian villages (Jali with a population of 900 and Berending with 500) in order to assess the effectiveness and safety of a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg azithromycin compared with conventional treatment in ocular C. trachomatis infection. In May 1992 an ocular survey was done in both villages, and 199 subjects with active trachoma were identified (128 in Jali and 71 in Berending). Of these, 194 patients were randomly assigned to conventional or azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin was administered in a single dose of 20 mg/kg. Subjects receiving conventional treatment were given 1% tetracycline eye ointment to each eye twice daily for 6 weeks. Severe cases were given oral erythromycin stearate based on an adult dose of 250 mg 4 times daily for 2 weeks. Subjects were examined 4, 8, 16, and 26 weeks after treatment. In 20% of the subjects diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain occurred. Clinical signs had resolved by 6 months' follow-up in 146 patients: 70 (72%) in the conventional treatment group, and 76 (78%) in the azithromycin group. At 6 months the symptoms of 9 subjects with severe disease, and 21 with moderate disease had resolved. However, during follow-up, 11 of those with severe disease, 30 of those with moderate disease, and 129 of those with mild disease had resolution at some point, which reflects the scale of re-emergent disease. To allow for the effect of recrudescent disease on point prevalences at follow-up, a survival analysis of time to loss of clinical signs as outcome was done. There was no difference between treatments (p 0.9). 21 of the 194 subjects were antigen positive in their nasal secretions at baseline. Of these, 18 still had clinical signs at 4 weeks compared with 87 of the 173 with antigen-negative nasal secretions ( p = 0.004; odds ratio 5.93).
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The long-term use of pregabalin and the initiation azithromycin therapy followed by a rapid onset of rhabdomyolysis is indicative of a drug interaction between pregabalin and azithromycin.
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We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin (15/mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 7 days) with those of azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day in 1 dose for 3 days) in the treatment of children with Mediterranean spotted fever. Until now, there has not been a gold-standard therapy for this rickettsial disease in children. Eighty-seven children were randomized to receive 1 of the 2 drugs. The mean time to defervescence (+/- standard deviation) was 46.2+/-36.4 h in the clarithromycin group and 39.3+/-31.3 h in the azithromycin group. These differences were not statistically significant and both drugs were equally well-tolerated. Clarithromycin and azithromycin could be acceptable therapeutic alternatives to chloramphenicol and tetracyclines for children aged < or =8 years with Mediterranean spotted fever. Azithromycin, because it has a long half-life, offers the advantages of administration in a single daily dose and a shorter duration of therapy, which could increase compliance in children.
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Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood. We additionally investigated the impact of changing bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility on outcome.
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Overall antibiotic use has declined in children; however, there is increased use of macrolides which may have ramifications on macrolide-resistant streptococci, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A streptococci. A large proportion of antibiotic use in children is for upper respiratory tract infections and bronchitis, indications where there is a high likelihood that the aetiology is viral rather than bacterial.
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Erythromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial chemically comprised of a 14-membered lactone ring substituted with a neutral (cladinose) and an amino (desosamine) sugar. Recently, a number of new macrolide molecules have been identified containing either 14-, 15- or 16-membered substituted lactone rings. In this study the authors have determined the in vitro activity of roxithromycin and clarithromycin (both 14-membered macrolides), azithromycin (a 15-membered macrolide or azalide) and midecamycin acetate (a 16-membered macrolide) against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp., (including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Legionella spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the macrolides for the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. examined were widely distributed. However, midecamycin acetate retained activity against those isolates of Staphylococcus spp. exhibiting inducible resistance to erythromycin and the other macrolides tested. Isolates characterised by constitutive resistance to erythromycin were also resistant to midecamycin acetate. All of the macrolides were very active against Legionella spp., with clarithromycin demonstrating the greatest potency (MIC range: less than or equal to 0.03-0.06 mg/l). Isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum were susceptible to all of the macrolides tested. However, erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin were poorly active against isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. By contrast, the same isolates were susceptible (MIC range: 0.008-0.12 mg/l) to midecamycin acetate.
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The optimal antibiotic regimen is unclear in management of pulmonary infections due to pseudomonas and staphylococcus in cystic fibrosis (CF). We systematically searched all the published literature that has considered the evidence for antimicrobial therapies in CF till June 2013. The key findings were as follows: inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotic improves lung function, and probably the safest/most effective therapy; antistaphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis increases the risk of acquiring P. aeruginosa; azithromycin significantly improves respiratory function after 6 months of treatment; a 28-day treatment with aztreonam or tobramycin significantly improves respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function; aztreonam lysine might be superior to tobramycin inhaled solution in chronic P. aeruginosa infection; oral ciprofloxacin does not produce additional benefit in those with chronic persistent pseudomonas infection but may have a role in early or first infection. As it is difficult to establish a firm recommendation based on the available evidence, the following factors must be considered for the choice of treatment for each patient: antibiotic related (e.g., safety and efficacy and ease of administration/delivery) and patient related (e.g., age, clinical status, prior use of antibiotics, coinfection by other organisms, and associated comorbidities ones).
The results indicate that the microsphere formulation can be a promising drug carrier for masking the bitter taste of azithromycin.
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Among older patients hospitalized with pneumonia, treatment that included azithromycin compared with other antibiotics was associated with a lower risk of 90-day mortality and a smaller increased risk of myocardial infarction. These findings are consistent with a net benefit associated with azithromycin use.
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Telithromycin was the first ketolide to be approved in Europe and is in the approval process in the United States. It is structurally related to the macrolides; it has a keto group in the C3 position rather than cladinose. A carbamate group is also present at C11-C12. As a result, it has a reduced induction of the MLSB resistance mechanism (erm gene), it is not affected by the flux mechanism (mef gene), it has higher stability at low pH and has increased intrinsic activity compared with clarithromycin and azithromycin. Phase III studies have shown telithromycin to be effective in the treatment of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Its long half-life allows for oral once-daily dosing. From a pharmacokinetic point of view, its activity has been shown to be AUC(24h)/MIC dependent. It is active against bacteria involved in atypical pneumonia. The aim of our study was to determine the activity of telithromycin in isolates with defined resistance phenotypes obtained from community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Twelve centers in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay participated in the study. Each center collected three strains of the following species and resistance patterns: S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae with resistance or intermediate resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae, clindamycin-resistant S. pneumoniae, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus, erythromycin-resistant S. aureus, ampicillin-susceptible and -resistant M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. Agar diffusion susceptibility tests with NeoSensitabs tablets (Rosco, Denmark) were carried out at each center. Isolates were sent to the coordinating center, where MICs were determined using agar microdilution and the Seppala test was used to determine the resistance mechanism to macrolides. The 327 isolates received were susceptible to telithromycin. Eighty percent of the erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates were likely resistant due to a flux mechanism, and all those resistant to clindamycin were resistant due to the erm inducible mechanism. Only 20 out of 36 strains of clindamycin-resistant S. pneumoniae and 25 of the 36 ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains could be collected, thereby showing that these resistance patterns are less common in the participating South American countries than in other areas. The in vitro activity of telithromycin suggests that it is a promising antibacterial drug for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
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Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common illness during childhood, for which antibiotics are frequently prescribed.
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A systematic literature review was conducted using keyword searches of the MEDLINE database and selected conference abstracts. The review covered studies published between January 1990 and May 2007.
Reported preferences of doctors and nurses for partner testing/treatment strategies and willingness of pharmacists to offer new services.
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Infections in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) are a serious complication that is associated with high mortality. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical in the management of these infections in order to achieve improved outcomes. This review focuses on studies published in the last 2 years related to the evaluation and management of infections following lung transplantation.
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The indices of the pulmonary function and the symptom scores of TCM were all improved remarkably right after acupuncture in the acupuncture group and 5 min after spraying in the inhalation group (all P < 0.05), and the results in the inhalation group were superior to those in the acupuncture group (all P < 0.05). There were no remarkably differences between the results in 5 min of the needle retaining in the acupuncture group and those immediately after acupuncture. The indices were improved remarkably after the needle retaining for over 30 min in the acupuncture group as compared with those at the moment of acupuncture (all P < 0.05), which was similar to the effect of the inhalation group (all P > 0.05). The differences in the above indices were not significant statistically in 60 min of the needle retaining in the acupuncture group as compared with those in the needle remaining for 30 min (all P > 0.05).
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96 participants who in the preceding 30 days had been exposed to partners with infectious syphilis through sexual intercourse.
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Microdilution MIC assays were performed using CLSI-approved methods. S. pneumoniae 19A strains were identified by quellung reaction.
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Seventy-eight patients with bronchiectasis confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography were included in this study. Subjects received oral azithromycin or placebo in a randomized manner for 12 weeks followed by placebo for another 12 weeks. Sputum volume, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score and spirometry were recorded at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks, respectively. End-point measurements were compared from baseline to the end of each study phase.
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Minimal luminal diameter (1.76 +/- 0.56 mm Vs. 1.70 +/- 0.86 mm; P = 0.7), restenosis rate, diameter stenosis, late loss, and binary restenosis rates were comparable in placebo and azithromycin group in the 6 months follow-up. Serum levels of C-reactive protein presented a three fold significant increase in the control group one day after stenting but did not change in the azithromycin group (8.5 [3.0;16.4] Vs. 2.9 [1.7;6.6]-median [25;75 percentile] P < 0.01).
Knowledge of antimicrobial use during the 3 months before infection is crucial for determining appropriate therapy for a patient presenting to the hospital with an illness for which S. pneumoniae is a possible cause. Nosocomial acquisition and nursing home acquisition are significant risk factors for infection with fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci.
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Throat samples were collected before and after treatment and plated as a lawn on Columbia blood agar with an erythromycin E test strip. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin were determined against isolates of distinct morphology with erythromycin E test MIC results equal to or greater than 2 mg/L. Polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to determine the genetic mechanisms of resistance.
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Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of biofilms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.
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Chronic inflammation of the airways is a central component in lung diseases and is frequently associated with bacterial infections. Monitoring the pro-inflammatory capability of bacterial virulence factors in vivo is challenging and usually requires invasive methods.