Most breast-feeding infants whose mothers were taking sertraline had very low serum levels of both sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline, consistent with published reports. The authors discuss in detail the one infant with unusually high levels.
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This is a report of a woman with a major depressive disorder who complained of diffuse scalp hair loss during treatment with sertraline. This case is unique because before taking sertraline and after the discontinuation of sertraline, the patient had taken fluoxetine. There was no report of hair loss during the fluoxetine therapy.
We report two cases of serotonin syndrome in elderly patients during treatment of psychotic depression with atypical antipsychotics and antidepressants. The first case is a 69-year-old man who was admitted for depression with psychosis and treated with trazodone, risperidone, and sertraline. Subsequently, he developed myoclonus, tremor, cogwheel rigidity, and diaphoresis. The second case is a 72-year-old female initially admitted to a medical inpatient unit for a change in mental status that presented as increased confusion, lethargy, slurred speech, and a fever of 101.5 degrees. She had been on phenelzine and quetiapine. In both cases, all symptoms resolved within 24 hours of the psychotropics being stopped. In both cases, we believe that serotonin syndrome was produced by a combination of an antidepressant and an atypical antipsychotic. There have been several case reports of serotonin syndrome from similar combinations of antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic treatment. Clinicians treating elderly patients with a combination of serotonergic antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics for psychotic depression should be aware of the potential for serotonin syndrome.
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The presence of human pharmaceuticals in sewage-impacted ecosystems is a growing concern that poses health risks to aquatic wildlife. Despite this, few studies have investigated the uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic organisms. In this study, the uptake of 9 APIs from human drugs was examined and compared in neonate bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) residing in pristine (Myakka River) and wastewater-impacted (Caloosahatchee River) tributaries of Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary. The synthetic estrogen used in human contraceptives (17α-ethynylestradiol) and 6 of the selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) used in human antidepressants were observed at detectable and, in some cases, quantifiable levels in plasma of Caloosahatchee River sharks. Comparatively, only venlafaxine was detected in the plasma of a single Myakka River shark at a level below the limit of quantitation. These results suggest that sharks residing in wastewater-impacted habitats accumulate APIs, a factor that may pose special risks to C. leucas since it is one of few shark species to regularly occupy freshwater systems. Further research is needed to determine if the low levels of API uptake observed in Caloosahatchee River bull sharks pose health risks to these animals.
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These results confirm low serum BDNF levels in un-medicated depressed subjects and confirm antidepressant-induced increases in BDNF levels, but they suggest that antidepressants do not work simply by correcting BDNF insufficiency. Rather, these findings are consistent with a permissive or facilitatory role of BDNF in the mechanism of action of antidepressants.
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We describe the case of a patient who developed depression following bilateral orchidectomy for cryptorchidism. He was treated with a conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, but continued to take St John's wort (hypericum) against medical advice. He subsequently developed a manic episode. We discuss postulated modes of action of St John's wort and the possible aetiological importance of testosterone replacement and abnormal gonadotrophin levels in this case.
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Forty-four patients with probable AD and major depression were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of sertraline. Cognitive testing was done at baseline and at 3-week intervals throughout the 12-week study. At the 12th week, subjects were categorized by treatment response (full, partial, or no response). Cognitive data from 41 participants who completed three or more testing sessions and 36 who completed all five study visits were included in the analyses.
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Citalopram together with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline belong to the group of SSRIs, so named because of their pharmacological action as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in rat brain synaptosomes-their potency of inhibiting noradrenaline uptake is low and, from a clinical point of view, irrelevant. In contrast to classical tricyclic antidepressants and some antipsychotics, the SSRIs have little affinity for the dopamine D2 receptors, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, alpha 1-receptors, beta-receptors, muscarinic receptors and histamine H1 receptors. Several authors have examined whether SSRIs are ligands of other receptors, including the 5-HT3-5-HT7 receptors and their subtypes, and the NMDA receptor, and whether chronic treatment with SSRIs modifies the affinity and binding capacity of these receptors. The SSRIs differ by their pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of metabolism and by their cytochrome P450 isozyme inhibition properties. Some situations are presented in which plasma level monitoring of SSRIs is recommended, despite the lack of clearly defined "therapeutic windows'.
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Discontinuation of donepezil and sertraline therapy with subsequent improvement evidenced by liver biopsy and liver function tests.
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Case reports and pharmacologic theory suggest that some antidepressants can interfere with the hepatic metabolism of metoprolol by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), potentially increasing the risk of bradycardia. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical consequences of this potential drug interaction at the population level. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study of Ontario residents 66 years of age or older receiving metoprolol. Cases hospitalized for bradycardia were compared with matched controls (4:1) to explore the odds ratio for initiation of antidepressants that inhibit CYP2D6 (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and those that do not inhibit CYP2D6 (fluvoxamine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) 30 days before hospitalization. From April 1997 to March 2009, we identified 332,254 older patients continuously receiving metoprolol, of whom 8232 (2.5%) were treated in hospital for bradycardia. The adjusted odds ratio for exposure to fluoxetine or paroxetine compared with other antidepressants 30 days prior to hospitalization for bradycardia was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.42-1.37). Among older patients receiving metoprolol, the initiation of antidepressants that inhibit CYP2D6 was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of bradycardia compared with antidepressants that do not inhibit CYP2D6.
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This pilot study fails to establish whether the early use of sertraline may improve alertness, decrease agitation or improve cognitive recall of material. This may be due to the small size of the study group, the brief duration of treatment or by a skewed placebo group. Larger studies will be required to prove any efficacy. There were no complications with its use and sertraline did not demonstrate a detrimental effect on recovery. This indicates that sertraline may be safe to use in the treatment of psychiatric or behavioural complications attributable to TBI.
The acute efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established; however their role in longer-term prevention of recurrence remains unconfirmed. This study aims at examining: the prophylactic efficacy of four commonly used SSRIs in MDD in a naturalistic setting with long-term follow-up, the effect of concomitant cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and the predictors of outcome. In a prospective cohort study, 387 patients who either remitted or responded following treatment with four different SSRIs-fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and paroxetine-were followed up over several years. During an average follow-up period of 34.5 months, 76.5% of patients experienced MDD recurrence. Escitalopram and fluoxetine showed a numerically higher prophylactic efficacy than paroxetine and sertraline but the difference was statistically insignificant. The prophylactic efficacy for SSRI-only treatment was limited, with a recurrence rate of 82.0%, compared to 59.0% of patient recurrence rate in concomitant Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The relatively small size of the CBT group and the lack of randomization may undermine the extrapolation of its findings to clinical practice. Nevertheless, the study preliminary data may help in defining the clinical utility of antidepressants and CBT in the prophylaxis from MDD recurrence.
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Higher rates of full remission achievement, which is the main target of MDD treatment, in the reboxetine group compared with the sertraline group may be due to the suppression of anxiety symptoms by the noradrenergic feature of the drug. In order to understand the role of the noradrenergic system in treating MDD, larger patient samples are needed. Both reboxetine and sertraline were well tolerated and effective in treating MDD.
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In a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 416 patients with a diagnosis of early-onset primary dysthymia (DSM-III-R) of at least 5 years' duration without concurrent major depression were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of acute-phase therapy with sertraline, imipramine, or placebo. The psychosocial outcome measures used in the study were the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the Social Adjustment Scale, the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation psychosocial ratings, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire.
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Recent studies have found decreased serotonin (5-HT) transmission within the nucleus accumbens following withdrawal from chronic cocaine.
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Serotonin is a key regulatory neurotransmitter in the CNS which plays an important role in seizure through different receptors, especially the 5HT1A subtype. The role of sertraline through the 5HT1A receptor and nitric oxide interaction on the PTZ-induced seizure threshold was investigated in this study.
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Due to the widespread use of psychotropic medications, clinicians should be reminded of the rare, yet life-threatening, occurrence of MC when treating patients, especially with combination therapies such as sertraline and aripiprazole.
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Adult outpatients with DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and a total score of 18 or higher on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were eligible. After a 1-week single-blind placebo lead-in, patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo (N=188, mean baseline anxiety score=25) or flexible doses (50-150 mg/day) of sertraline (N=182, mean anxiety score=25). The primary outcome measure was baseline-to-endpoint change in the Hamilton anxiety scale total score. A secondary efficacy measure was the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement score; response was defined as a score of 2 or less.
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A lack of dose proportional properties was shown in the 5 mg dose relative to the 25 mg and 50 mg doses of sertraline. This shows that the PK parameters for low-dose sertraline could be different from those in clinical concentrations.
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Twelve patients completed all phases of the study. Sertraline therapy increased nadir intradialysis diastolic and systolic blood pressure by 3.8 mm Hg and 4.9 mm Hg at the end of the intervention, respectively. Sertraline therapy also significantly increased postdialysis diastolic and systolic blood pressure by 6.0 mm Hg and 8.7 mm Hg. Sertraline therapy significantly reduced the risk of hypotension episodes by 43%. The improvement of intradialysis and postdialysis diastolic and systolic blood pressure were only significant in nondiabetic patients.
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The patient had a positive clinical response with initial mental confusion due to methylphenidate. An initial dose of 2.5 mg/day allowed antidepressant response and improvement of respiratory function permitting the removal of mechanical ventilation.
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Movement disorders or extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported. Although akathisia was found to be the most common EPS, and fluoxetine was implicated in the majority of the adverse reactions, there were also cases with EPS due to sertraline treatment. We present a child and an adolescent who developed torticollis (cervical dystonia) after using sertraline. To our knowledge, the child case is the first such report of sertraline-induced torticollis, and the adolescent case is the third in the literature.
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In a platelet/endothelial biomarker substudy of the Sertraline AntiDepressant Heart Attack Randomized Trial (SADHART), the authors sought to determine whether plasma levels of sertraline and its primary metabolite N-desmethylsertraline affect the release of platelet/endothelial biomarkers.
A 6-week treatment period, a 75 mg daily dose, age over 40 years, and female gender appear to be predictors of response to sertraline in major depression. These factors should guide clinicians in determining the choice of antidepressant.
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Pharmacy claims data from a commercial managed care health plan covering 19,000 lives and national drug data were used to compile a list of frequently prescribed medications. Excluding medications in which packaging, formulation, and potential adverse pharmacologic outcomes prohibited splitting, we performed a cost analysis of medications amenable to splitting.
Data from placebo-controlled trials are used to elucidate the potential risks and benefits of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in children and adolescent with major depression. This analysis forms the basis of clinical recommendations.
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Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with high risk of suicide and persistent functional impairment. While psychological treatments are used as a first line treatment in mild and moderately severe depression in this age group, the number of prescriptions for antidepressant medication (SSRI) has grown in recent years. Recently, FDA and MHRA advised that most of SSRI should not be used to treat MDD under the age of 18 years. They may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and self harm. We reviewed the recent literature on efficacy and suicide risks of SSRI in depressed young people. Conflicting findings of SSRI efficacy have been reported in clinical studies. The discrepancies could be related to the heterogeneous samples and the absence of a standard definition of treatment effectiveness. In randomised placebo-controlled antidepressant clinical trials (RCT), the assessment of treatment effectiveness is commonly made with the CDRS-R (improvement of 20% or 30% or 40%) and CGI. SSRI demonstrated significantly, but modest, improvement compared with placebo in CGI score of 1 or 2: 10% more for sertraline, 16.8% more for paroxetine and between 16 to 24% more for fluoxetine. In adults, RCT studies have shown placebo response rates of 30% to 50%, drug response rates of 45% to 50% and drug-placebo differences of 18% to 25%. The highest placebo response rates, in young people, may be related to the highly selected group not representative of the general population of depressed patients and/or to the high youths' sensibility of psychotherapy. Patients participating in antidepressant clinical trials have a low BDI and CDI in Emslie's study for example (2002). In adults, previous reports suggest that SSRI use is associated with increased suicidal risk. But the analyse of 48 277 depressed patients participating in RCT for nine FDA approved antidepressants fail to support an overall difference in suicide risk between antidepressants (SSRI) and placebo treated subjects. An inverse relationship between regional change in use of antidepressants (increased) and suicide (decreased) is found in young -people in United States from 1990 and 2000. We can not draw a conclusion from few studies with few -participants. None suicide have been reported in pharmacological studies. And the link between "suicidality" and MDD can not be excluded. The instruments of assessment in depressed young patients are based on extensions of adult procedures. Whereas clinical picture of MDD in children, adolescents and adults have some differences. Depressed youngsters have more pronounced mood lability. Depressed adolescents have more anhedonia than depressed children. Future investigations into the efficacy and safety of treatments for children and adolescents depression should use specific instruments directly built on phenomenological and clinical picture of depressed children and adolescents. Comparison studies of pharmacotherapy, specific psychotherapies (not only CBT) and combined therapies are necessary to identify the adolescents who will benefit the most from specific or combined therapies. Further studies into the factors that influence treatment outcome including clinical picture (clinical dimensions, severity, duration, co morbidity), genetic factor, age, and i-llness course may help identify appropriate treatments for children and adolescents with MDD. Studies should include patients more severely ill, with associated psychiatric troubles, treatment resistance, history of relapses... In clinical studies, the link between "suicidality" and some clinical dimensions (which take part in clinical picture or not) must be analysed by assessing anhedonia, hopelessness feel, impulsive trait, borderline personality, familial inter-action, biological indices. New treatment should be expand and their efficacy and safety must be study: St John's worth, Bright light therapy, Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation.
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Microglia are intrinsic immune cells that release factors, including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and neurotrophins, following activation after disturbance in the brain. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is important for microglial functions, such as the release of cytokines and NO from activated microglia. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin well known for its roles in the activation of microglia as well as in pathophysiology and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently reported that BDNF induces a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i through binding with the truncated TrkB receptor, resulting in activation of the PLC pathway and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in rodent microglial cells. Sustained activation of SOCE, possibly mediated by TRP channels, occurred after brief BDNF application and contributed to the maintenance of sustained [Ca(2+)]i elevation. Pretreatment with BDNF significantly suppressed the release of NO from activated microglia. Additionally, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including paroxetine or sertraline, potentiated the BDNF-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in rodent microglial cells This article provides a review of recent findings on the role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially by focusing on its effect on intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in microglial cells.