Despite the importance of CAR and integrin expression for successful adenovirus internalization, other cell surface receptors might be involved in this process. It is too early to decide whether expressions of CAR and integrin alphavbeta3/alphavbeta5 on tumor cells are appropriate additional inclusion criteria for the enrollment of patients in GT trials. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effect of GT plus chemotherapy on CAR and integrin expression.
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than HIV-uninfected individuals. We assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2. During 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those assigned placebo (rates, 1.00 and 2.68/100 person-years, respectively), a relative decrease of 62% (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, .24-.67; P < .001). Daily acyclovir prophylaxis significantly reduced herpes zoster incidence among HIV-infected persons.
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Polymer casting solutions were prepared by homogeneously dissolving EVA copolymer and the drugs in the ratio (40:1) in dichloromethane. The drugs ACY and CDA were used individually as well as in three different weight ratios maintaining the total drug concentration in the polymer at 2.5%. Different concentrations of vinyl acetate (VA) 28, 32 and 40% in the EVA matrix were used to study the release of either ACY or CDA alone while 40% VA was used for the release study of the individual drug as well as their mixtures. Thin square films of 3cmx3cm with a thickness of 0.7mm were cut from the dry sheet obtained by solvent evaporation. Coated films were prepared by dipping ACY and CDA drug-loaded EVA films (VA 40%) into EVA copolymer of VA 32% and then dried. All of the drug-loaded samples were extracted at 37 degrees C in 10ml distilled water that was replaced daily. The rate of individual drug release was measured by UV-spectrophotometer while the mixtures of drugs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
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Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) in combination with ganciclovir (GCV) has emerged as a potential new method for treating cancer. We hypothesize that the efficacy of HSV-TK/GCV therapy is at least partially dependent on p53 status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Using recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAdV), TK, p53, and ASPP2 were overexpressed individually and in combination in Hep3B (p53 null) and HepG2 (p53 wild-type) cell lines and in primary HCC tumor cells. p53 overexpression induced death in Hep3B cells, but not HepG2 cells. ASPP2 overexpression increased rAdV-TK/GCV-induced HepG2 cell death by interacting with endogenous p53. Similarly, ASPP2 reduced survival in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated primary HCC cells expressing p53 wild-type but not a p53 R249S mutant. Mutated p53 was unable to bind to ASPP2, suggesting that the increase in rAdV-TK/GCV-induced cell death resulting from ASPP2 overexpression was dependent on its interaction with p53. Additionally, γ-H2AX foci, ATM phosphorylation, Bax, and p21 expression increased in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated HepG2 cells as compared to Hep3B cells. This suggests that the combined use of HSV-TK, GCV, rAdV-p53 and rAdV-ASPP2 may improve therapeutic efficacy in HCC patients lacking functional p53.
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In 24 cases 16 (66.7%) were males in age 38-75 years old. Eight (33.3%) of the 24 cases were females in age 12-78 years old. Visual acuity improvement after corneal graft was observed in 23 patients. There was no visual acuity improvement in one case with considerable degree of optic nerve lesion.
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Mean incidence of CMV infection in corneal graft rejection buttons was 6.3% per year. 3/48 graft buttons were CMV antibody positive. Histological features of CMV graft infection include: (1) stromal keratocytes with cytopathic changes; (2) lack of inflammation, only occasional macrophages present and (3) absence of vascularisation. None of the patients had a history of active CMV infection.
Copolymers (I-IV) of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and hexyl methacrylate (HMA) were synthesized by free radical solution polymerization with a yield of 76-82%. The copolymer composition was determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight of the copolymers was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Copolymers I and II were of higher molecular weight while copolymers III and IV were of lower molecular weight. The copolymers were impregnated with 2.5 wt.% of ACY and CDA individually and the release rate of these drugs in water at 37 degrees C was examined. Drug loading was studied with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt.% of ACY and CDA incorporated into a separate polymer.
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Although acute liver failure due to the varicella-zoster virus is rare, it is frequently fatal. Immunologic impairment is a significant predisposing factor. Classic symptoms at presentation are rash, abdominal pain, and fever. After some days patients go on to develop full-blown liver failure. The diagnosis can be confirmed by histological examination and electron microscopy with fluorescent staining, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization of the liver. In cases of high suspicion, acyclovir therapy should not be delayed.
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Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is usually associated with neuromyelitis optica and other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders but this is the first report linking it with dengue fever. Dengue infection can cause a variety of neurological complications which may result in poor recovery and long-term disability. The authors report here a patient who developed LETM in the para-infectious stage of dengue fever. The patient had a complicated clinical course resulting in severe paraparesis and urinary retention. Treatment with immunoglobulins and antiviral agents supported by a spell of early intensive rehabilitation programme produced excellent results in terms of recovery.
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We enrolled neonates with HSV disease in two parallel, identical, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Neonates with central nervous system (CNS) involvement were enrolled in one study, and neonates with skin, eye, and mouth involvement only were enrolled in the other. After completing a regimen of 14 to 21 days of parenteral acyclovir, the infants were randomly assigned to immediate acyclovir suppression (300 mg per square meter of body-surface area per dose orally, three times daily for 6 months) or placebo. Cutaneous recurrences were treated with open-label episodic therapy.
We have characterized the susceptibility and genetic stability of varicella-zoster viruses (VZV) isolated from skin lesions of three patients with herpes zoster and six patients with varicella treated with conventional short-term acyclovir (ACV) administration. The susceptibilities to ACV of the serial isolates from the patients were examined, and there was no significant difference in the susceptibility to ACV among the isolates before and during the ACV treatment, indicating that conventional short-term ACV treatment did not generate ACV-resistant VZV infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of these as well as seven thymidine kinase-deficient VZV strains derived from in vitro ACV treatment were carried out to examine their genomic stability. Five regions containing tandem direct reiterations (R1-R5) were amplified by PCR and compared, and the region containing the Pst I-site was also examined. PCR analyses demonstrated that the R1, R5 and the Pst I-sites were stable and useful in epidemiological studies even after ACV treatment. The R2, R3 and R4 sites were far less stable in these experimental conditions. In this paper we discuss the results of the PCR analyses with regard to the dynamics of VZV population in patients with VZV infection treated with conventional short-term ACV administration.
A 78-year-old woman presented a severe meningo-encephalitis with visual disorders (agnosia, alexia) progressing towards coma. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed large areas of hypersignal T2 in the white matter of the lower, parieto-occipital lobes and left temporal lobe. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained 16 then 293 white corpuscles/mm3 of lympho-monocytes, increased protein level from 2.67 to 5.83 g/l and an increase in IgG index with oligoclonal distribution of IgG. Serological Elisa analysis for Lyme disease was slightly positive in blood (confirmed by western blot) but clearly in the CSF (IgG and IgM). Treatment with ceftriaxone followed by methylprednisolone provided clinical improvement 3 months later.
We prospectively compared the hybrid capture system (HCS) assay with conventional cell culture and shell vial assay for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in the lung transplant population.
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We report a 45-year-old woman admitted to our hospital due to fever, consciousness disturbance, and severe seizures. Based on her signs and symptoms and clinical course, a diagnosis of non-herpetic acute encephalitis was made. She received antibiotic drugs, acyclovir, gamma-globulin, and steroid pulse therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g/day, 3 days). The patient's signs, symptoms and severe seizure showed marked improvement, but she still showed monthly seizure attacks and both anterograde and retrograde amnesia Viral infection and autoimmune response after viral infection may have been involved in non-herpetic acute encephalitis in our patient. Recently, autoantibodies to GluRepsilon2 and VGKC were reported in cases of non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE). In our patient, we detected IgM type autoantibody to GluRdelta2 and epsilon2 in both the CSF and serum, and these antibodies normalized in the CSF with the clinical course. Autoantibodies to GluRdelta2 and epsilon2 may be involved in the clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of non herpetic acute limbic encephalitis. This is the first report of MRI-positive non-herpetic acute encephalitis with autoantibodies to GluRdelta2 and epsilon2.
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We report here a case of post-HSE anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated encephalitis in an adult and perform a systematic search on PubMed to identify other cases in adults.
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No significant differences were found among the groups in their demographic characteristics, immunosuppressive protocols, D/R CMV serology, or CMV risk factors. The 12-month incidence of CMV disease was 89% in the C group compared with 9% in the GAN group and 6% in the VAL group (p < 0.001, GAN or VAL vs. C; p = 0.713, GAN vs. VAL). Treatment failure (death, graft loss, CMV disease or withdrawal from study) occurred in 17, 6, and 89% in the GAN, VAL, and C groups, respectively (p < 0.001, GAN or VAL vs. C; p = 0.285, GAN vs. VAL). The average CMV-associated costs per patient were EUR 3,161, 3,757, and 7,247 in the GAN, VAL, and C groups, respectively (p = 0.027).
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Pancreas transplantation is currently the only known therapy to restore glycemic metabolism in type 1 diabetic patients. Its most prevalent indication is in association with kidney transplantation (simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation SPK) for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and nephropathy, who are under dialysis treatment. Surgical reinterventions, especially those resulting from complications of bladder exocrine pancreatic drainage, are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a clinical case of a 31-year-old Caucasian man with DM1 from 12 years of age and hemodialysis for 2 years before undergoing SPK 2 years prior. He then developed massive hematuria owing to a bleeding duodenal graft ulcer. The use of a segmental pancreatic technique with pancreaticocystostomy for exocrine pancreatic drainage allowed the maintenance of the graft and an euglycemic state in the patient, free of exogenous insulin.
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Studies were initiated to determine whether rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV)-infected macaques could serve as an animal model for evaluating anti-CMV compounds, as macaques have a naturally occurring CMV that is similar to human CMV (HCMV). Utilizing plaque reduction assays, RhCMV was tested to anti-viral susceptibility. By these assays. RhCMV displayed anti-viral susceptibility to ganciclovir at a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 0.8 microM, acyclovir at an ED50 of 15 microM, and foscarnet at an ED50 of 250 microM. By Southern blot analysis with HCMV-UL97 (phosphotransferase) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes as probes, we isolated viral DNA fragments that strongly hybridized. DNA sequence analysis of these DNA fragments revealed two open reading frames with homology to HCMV UL97 and DNA polymerase. Steady-state RNA analysis revealed that the RhCMV UL97 homologue and pol genes are transcribed as early late and early genes, respectively. Comparison against HCMV showed the RhCMV UL97 homologue exhibits 54.4% amino acid (aa) sequence identity to HCMV UL97 and the RhCMV DNA polymerase 59.2% aa sequence identity to HCMV DNA polymerase. Results from anti-viral assays and molecular characterization of these two viral genes suggest that RhCMV-infected rhesus macaques should serve as an excellent animal model for evaluating future anti-CMV compounds.
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Two authors independently reviewed the studies for eligibility. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality of the relevant studies using the Jadad scale and allocation concealment. Differences were resolved by consensus. Data were extracted by one author using a structured form and checked by a second. Continuous data were converted to the weighted mean difference (WMD). Weighted mean differences were combined into an overall estimate using random effects. There were too few studies to consider exploring statistical heterogeneity between studies (i.e., differences in reported effects), formally, or to assess for publication bias.
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Eighty-two strains presented an ID 50% lower than 5 microM, 24 from 5 to 10 microM and in the 17 remaining strains, corresponding to 12 patients, the ID 50% was greater than 10 microM. The evolution of these latter 12 patients with strains considered to be resistant to ganciclovir was of death in 8. All were immunodepressed and with a history of having previously received ganciclovir. Another currently has a chronic evolution and the three remaining patients, who presented better immunity, became cured. All patients has a chronic evolution and the three remaining patients, who presented better immunity, became cured. All patients had undergone previous treatment with ganciclovir except two: one patient with Wegener disease treated with acyclovir 15 days before, and the other was an infant of an HIV positive mother who had received the drug.